Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Sabita Subedi

15 Assessment of Major Feed Resources and Its Utilization in Manaslu Conservation Area Nepal

Authors: Sabita Subedi, Bhojan Dhakal, Shankar Raj Pant, Naba Raj Devkota


An assessment was made about the available feed resources, its utilization pattern, specifically, roughage and concentrate, produced from the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal to formulate the appropriate strategies in satisfying the annual dietary requirements of the livestock covering its present production and management scenarios. A comparative study was done by employing a purposively conducted survey to deduct the distribution of forage sources in the area. Findings revealed that natural vegetation, seasonally available crop residues, and dried grasses were major feed resources, whereas their contribution to the total supply varied significantly (p < 0.01). The amount of feed obtained from various sources was calculated by standard conversion and using primary household data. Findings revealed that farmers practice significantly higher (p < 0.01) number of grazing days and hours per day for large ruminants such as Yak and Chauries as compared to small ruminants such as goats and sheep. The findings also indicated seasonal variations of feed supply, whereas January to March is the period of short supply (p < 0.01). It was relatively in good supply from June to September though average roughage and crude protein supplement for the animals was far below than optimum requirements. These scenarios suggest the need for immediate attention to improve the range productivity in the MCA as the deteriorating situations of the rangelands may raise questions on the sustainability of livestock herders.

Keywords: altitude, carrying capacity, dietary requirement, feed resources, rangeland, ruminant

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14 Impact of Marketing Orientation on Environment and Firm’s Performance

Authors: Sabita Mahapatra


‘Going green’ has been an emerging issue worldwide driving companies to continuously enhance their green capabilities and implement innovative green practices to protect the environment and improve business performance. Green has become a contemporary business environmental issue. The resource advantage theory is adopted in the present study to observe the impact of marketing orientation and green innovation practices on environmental and firm’s performance. The small and medium firms compared to large firms have different approach towards market orientation as a strategic tool. The present study proposes a conceptual framework regarding the impact of market orientation on environmental and firm’s performance through green innovation practices in the context of small and medium scale industries (SMEs). The propositions developed in the present paper would provide scope for future research study to validate the conceptual framework in the emerging economy like India.

Keywords: market orientation, green innovation practices, environment performance, corporate performance, emerging market

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13 Analyzing Current Transformer’s Transient and Steady State Behavior for Different Burden’s Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, D. Sharma


Current transformers (CTs) are used to transform large primary currents to a small secondary current. Since most standard equipment’s are not designed to handle large primary currents the CTs have an important part in any electrical system for the purpose of Metering and Protection both of which are integral in Power system. Now a days due to advancement in solid state technology, the operation times of the protective relays have come to a few cycles from few seconds. Thus, in such a scenario it becomes important to study the transient response of the current transformers as it will play a vital role in the operating of the protective devices. This paper shows the steady state and transient behavior of current transformers and how it changes with change in connected burden. The transient and steady state response will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy, accuracy limiting factor, burden, current transformer, instrument security factor

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12 Analyzing Current Transformers Saturation Characteristics for Different Connected Burden Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, S. Pradhan


Current transformers are an integral part of power system because it provides a proportional safe amount of current for protection and measurement applications. However when the power system experiences an abnormal situation leading to huge current flow, then this huge current is proportionally injected to the protection and metering circuit. Since the protection and metering equipment’s are designed to withstand only certain amount of current with respect to time, these high currents pose a risk to man and equipment. Therefore during such instances, the CT saturation characteristics have a huge influence on the safety of both man and equipment and also on the reliability of the protection and metering system. This paper shows the effect of burden on the Accuracy Limiting factor/ Instrument security factor of current transformers and also the change in saturation characteristics of the CT’s. The response of the CT to varying levels of overcurrent at different connected burden will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer saturation characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy limiting factor, burden, current transformer, instrument security factor, saturation characteristics

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11 Knowledge and Preventive Practice of Occupational Health Hazards among Nurses Working in Various Hospitals in Kathmandu

Authors: Sabita Karki


Occupational health hazards are recognized as global problems for health care workers, it is quiet high in developing countries. It is increasing day by day due to change in science and technology. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of occupational health hazards among the nurses. A descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out among 339 nurses working in three different teaching hospitals of the Kathmandu from February 28, 2016 to March 28, 2016. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The study findings revealed that out of 339 samples of all 80.5% were below 30 years; 51.6% were married; 57.5% were graduates and above; 91.4% respondents were working as staff nurse; 56.9% were working in general ward; 56.9% have work experience of 1 to 5 years; 79.1% respondents were immunized against HBV; only 8.6% have received training/ in-service education related to OHH and 35.4% respondents have experienced health hazards. The mean knowledge score was 26.7 (SD=7.3). The level of knowledge of occupational health hazards among the nurses was 68.1% (adequate knowledge). The knowledge was statistically significant with education OR = 0.288, CI: 0.17-0.46 and p value 0.00 and immunization against HBV OR= 1.762, CI: 0.97-0.17 and p value 0.05. The mean practice score was 7.6 (SD= 3.1). The level of practice on prevention of OHH was 74.6% (poor practice). The practice was statistically significant with age having OR=0.47, CI: 0.26-0.83 and p value 0.01; designation OR= 0.32, CI: 0.14-0.70 and p value 0.004; working department OR=0.61, CI: 0.36-1.02 and p value 0.05; work experience OR=0.562, CI: 0.33-0.94 and p value 0.02; previous in-service education/ training OR=2.25; CI: 1.02-4.92 and p value 0.04. There was no association between knowledge and practice on prevention of occupational health hazards which is not statistically significant. Overall, nurses working in various teaching hospitals of Kathmandu had adequate knowledge and poor practice of occupational health hazards. Training and in-service education and availability of adequate personal protective equipments for nurses are needed to encourage them adhere to practice.

Keywords: occupational health hazard, nurses, knowledge, preventive practice

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10 Generation and Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon/Air

Authors: R. Shrestha, D. P. Subedi, R. B. Tyata, C. S. Wong,


In this paper, a technique for the determination of electron temperatures and electron densities in atmospheric pressure Argon/air discharge by the analysis of optical emission spectra (OES) is reported. The discharge was produced using a high voltage (0-20) kV power supply operating at a frequency of 27 kHz in parallel electrode system, with glass as dielectric. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. Optical emission spectra in the range of (300nm-850nm) were recorded for the discharge with different inter electrode gap keeping electric field constant. Electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) are estimated from electrical and optical methods. Electron density was calculated using power balance method. The optical methods are related with line intensity ratio from the relative intensities of Ar-I and Ar-II lines in Argon plasma. The electron density calculated by using line intensity ratio method was compared with the electron density calculated by stark broadening method. The effect of dielectric thickness on plasma parameters (Te and ne) have also been studied and found that Te and ne increases as thickness of dielectric decrease for same inter electrode distance and applied voltage.

Keywords: electron density, electron temperature, optical emission spectra,

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9 Analyzing the Effectiveness of a Bank of Parallel Resistors, as a Burden Compensation Technique for Current Transformer's Burden, Using LabVIEW™ Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: Dilson Subedi


Current transformers are an integral part of power system because it provides a proportional safe amount of current for protection and measurement applications. However, due to upgradation of electromechanical relays to numerical relays and electromechanical energy meters to digital meters, the connected burden, which defines some of the CT characteristics, has drastically reduced. This has led to the system experiencing high currents damaging the connected relays and meters. Since the protection and metering equipment's are designed to withstand only certain amount of current with respect to time, these high currents pose a risk to man and equipment. Therefore, during such instances, the CT saturation characteristics have a huge influence on the safety of both man and equipment and on the reliability of the protection and metering system. This paper shows the effectiveness of a bank of parallel connected resistors, as a burden compensation technique, in compensating the burden of under-burdened CT’s. The response of the CT in the case of failure of one or more resistors at different levels of overcurrent will be captured using the LabVIEWTM data acquisition hardware (DAQ). The analysis is done on the real-time data gathered using LabVIEWTM. Variation of current transformer saturation characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy limiting factor, burden, burden compensation, current transformer

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8 Association of Preoperative Pain Catastrophizing with Postoperative Pain after Lower Limb Trauma Surgery

Authors: Asish Subedi, Krishna Pokharel, Birendra Prasad Sah, Pashupati Chaudhary


Objectives: To evaluate an association between preoperative Nepali pain catastrophizing scale (N-PCS) scores and postoperative pain intensity and total opioid consumption. Methods: In this prospective cohort study we enrolled 135 patients with an American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged between 18 and 65 years, and scheduled for surgery for lower-extremity fracture under spinal anaesthesia. Maximum postoperative pain reported during the 24 h was classified into two groups, no-mild pain group (Numeric rating scale [NRS] scores 1 to 3) and a moderate-severe pain group (NRS 4-10). The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to compare the association between the baseline N-PCS scores and outcome variables, i.e., the maximum NRS pain score and the total tramadol consumption within the first 24 h after surgery. Logistic regression models were used to identify the predictors for the intensity of postoperative pain. Results: As four patients violated the protocol, the data of 131 patients were analysed. Mean N-PCS scores reported by the moderate-severe pain group was 27.39 ±9.50 compared to 18.64 ±10 mean N-PCS scores by the no-mild pain group (p<0.001). Preoperative PCS scores correlated positively with postoperative pain intensity (r =0.39, [95% CI 0.23-0.52], p<0.001) and total tramadol consumption (r =0.32, [95% CI 0.16-0.47], p<0.001). An increase in catastrophizing scores was associated with postoperative moderate-severe pain (odds ratio, 1.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.15], p=0.006) after adjusting for gender, ethnicity and preoperative anxiety. Conclusion: Patients who reported higher pain catastrophizing preoperatively were at increased risk of experiencing moderate-severe postoperative pain.

Keywords: nepali, pain catastrophizing, postoperative pain, trauma

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7 Pattern of Biopsy Proven Renal Disease and Association between the Clinical Findings with Renal Pathology in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Manish Subedi, Bijay Bartaula, Ashok R. Pant, Purbesh Adhikari, Sanjib K. Sharma


Background: The pattern of glomerular disease varies worldwide. In absence of kidney disease/Kidney biopsy registry in Nepal, the exact etiology of different forms of glomerular disease is primarily unknown in our country. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 175 cases of renal biopsies performed from dated September 2014 to August 2016 at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Results: The commonest indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (34.9%), followed by Systemic lupus erythematosus with suspected renal involvement (22.3%). Majority of patients were in the 30-60 year bracket (57.2%), with the mean age of the patients being 35.37 years. The average number of glomeruli per core was 13, with inadequate sampling in 5.1%. IgA nephropathy (17%) was found to be the most common primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy (14.6%) and FSGS (14.6%). The commonest secondary glomerular disease was lupus nephritis. Complications associated with renal biopsy were pain at biopsy site in 18% of cases, hematuria in 6% and perinephric hematoma in 4% cases. Conclusion: The commonest primary and secondary glomerular disease was IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis respectively. The high prevalence of Systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis among Nepalese in comparison with other developing countries warrants further evaluation. As an initial attempt towards documentation of glomerular diseases in the national context, this study should serve as a stepping stone towards the eventual establishment of a full-fledged national registry of glomerular diseases in Nepal.

Keywords: glomerular, Nepal, renal biopsy, systemic lupus erythematoses

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6 Crop Production and Food Sufficiency Level of Family Farmers

Authors: Prakash Chandra Subedi


Family farming is the family based farming activities, where the farmers cultivate their farm themselves and all the members of the family are engaged in farming as per their skill, age, and physical strength. This study was conducted to examine the food sufficiency level of family farmers and, was carried in the four VDCs of Kavrepalanchowk district -Jaisithok Mandan, Mahadevsthan Mandan and Gairi Bisouna Deupur. A total of 115 households determined as the sample size from each of the four VDCs were randomly visited for interview in the study. The size of land holding was found to be very small and fragmented. The quality of soil was fertile and could yield high production if irrigation existed. The labour used patterns were significant number of family labour but due to high youth migration there were labour shortage. The rate of adoption of agri-technology was low but the households adopting insectides/pesticides and chemical fertilizers were found to be high without any knowledge regarding its using techniques. In conclusion, the study highpoint that the crop production and food sufficiency level of the family farmers of the Kavrepalanchowk district is decreasing. Many farmers were leaving their farming and started seeking opportunity to go for foreign employment or engaged in non-agricultural activities in urban areas. If no action is taken timely, there may come situation that we will have to depend on imports for all the food requirements. Thus, the study reveals that the family farming could act as an agent for ensuring food sufficiency for all, if proper policies is promoted to family farmers with legal titles to their land or promoted with sustainable agriculture methods or provided with proper agri-technology or given their share of respect and responsibilities that farming as honorable profession.

Keywords: family farming, technology transfer, crop production, food sufficiency

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5 Neuroprotective Effect of Germinated Dolichos lablab on 6-Hydroxy Dopamine (6-OHDA) Induced Toxicity in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cell

Authors: Taek Hwan Lee, Moon Ho Do, Lalita Subedi, Young Un Park, Sun Yeou Kim


Natural and artificial toxic substances namely neurotoxins induce the bitter effect in the nervous system termed as neurotoxicity. It can modulate the normal functioning of the nervous system either hyperactivate it or damage homeostasis of neuronal system. Neurotoxins induced toxicity ultimately kills the neuron. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of germinated Dolichos lablab on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Germination is a process of plant growth from a seed. Sprouting of a seedling from a seed induced many molecular changes in the seed in order to prepare it for further growth. Because of these molecular and chemical changes, the neuroprotective effect of Dolichos lablab is higher in the germinated form than in the normal condition. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with Dolichos lablab extract (50, 100 g/ml) followed by 6-OHDA (25M) induced toxicity. Cell Viability was measured to check the cell survival against 6-OHDA induced toxicity using MTT assay. Dolichos lablab showed a neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA induced neuronal cell death in neuroblastoma cell at a higher concentration of 100g/ml however the effect is much better even at the lower concentration after germination 50g/ml. Cell survival was increased dramatically after 15 h of germination and increased with time of germination in concentration dependent manner. Trigonelline as a representative compound was validated in germinated Dolichos lablab by HPLC analysis that might enhance the neuroprotective effect of Dolichos lablab. This result suggests that Dolichos lablab possess neuroprotective effect in neuroblastoma cells against 6-OHDA however its activity was more potent in the germinated form.

Keywords: dolichos lablab, germination, neuroprotection, trigonelline

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4 An Analysis of Socio-Demographics, Living Conditions, and Physical and Emotional Child Abuse Patterns in the Context of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

Authors: Sony Subedi, Colleen Davison, Susan Bartels


Objective: The aim of this study is to i) investigate the socio-demographics and living conditions of households in Haiti pre- and post 2010 earthquake, ii) determine the household prevalence of emotional and physical abuse in children (aged 2-14) after the earthquake, and iii) explore the association between earthquake-related loss and experience of emotional and physical child abuse in the household while considering potential confounding variables and the interactive effects of a number of social, economic, and demographic factors. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Haitian households from the 2005/6 and 2012 phases of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) was used. Descriptive analysis was summarized using frequencies and measures of central tendency. Chi-squared and independent t-tests were used to compare data that was available pre-earthquake and post-earthquake. The association between experiences of earthquake-related loss and emotional and physical child abuse was assessed using log-binomial regression models. Results: Comparing pre-post-earthquake, noteworthy improvements were observed in the educational attainment of the household head (9.1% decrease in “no education” category) and in possession of the following household items: electricity, television, mobile-phone, and radio post-earthquake. Approximately 77.0% of children aged 2-14 experienced at least one form of physical abuse and 78.5% of children experienced at least one form of emotional abuse one month prior to the 2012 survey period. Analysis regarding the third objective (association between experiences of earthquake-related loss and emotional and physical child abuse) is in progress. Conclusions: The extremely high prevalence of emotional and physical child abuse in Haiti indicates an immediate need for improvements in the enforcement of existing policies and interventions aimed at decreasing child abuse in the household.

Keywords: Haiti earthquake, physical abuse, emotional abuse, natural disasters, children

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3 Real-Time Kinetic Analysis of Labor-Intensive Repetitive Tasks Using Depth-Sensing Camera

Authors: Sudip Subedi, Nipesh Pradhananga


The musculoskeletal disorders, also known as MSDs, are common in construction workers. MSDs include lower back injuries, knee injuries, spinal injuries, and joint injuries, among others. Since most construction tasks are still manual, construction workers often need to perform repetitive, labor-intensive tasks. And they need to stay in the same or an awkward posture for an extended time while performing such tasks. It induces significant stress to the joints and spines, increasing the risk of getting into MSDs. Manual monitoring of such tasks is virtually impossible with the handful of safety managers in a construction site. This paper proposes a methodology for performing kinetic analysis of the working postures while performing such tasks in real-time. Skeletal of different workers will be tracked using a depth-sensing camera while performing the task to create training data for identifying the best posture. For this, the kinetic analysis will be performed using a human musculoskeletal model in an open-source software system (OpenSim) to visualize the stress induced by essential joints. The “safe posture” inducing lowest stress on essential joints will be computed for different actions involved in the task. The identified “safe posture” will serve as a basis for real-time monitoring and identification of awkward and unsafe postural behaviors of construction workers. Besides, the temporal simulation will be carried out to find the associated long-term effect of repetitive exposure to such observed postures. This will help to create awareness in workers about potential future health hazards and encourage them to work safely. Furthermore, the collected individual data can then be used to provide need-based personalized training to the construction workers.

Keywords: construction workers’ safety, depth sensing camera, human body kinetics, musculoskeletal disorders, real time monitoring, repetitive labor-intensive tasks

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2 Anti-Neuroinflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Efficacy of Equol, against Lipopolysaccharide Activated Microglia and Its Neurotoxicity

Authors: Lalita Subedi, Jae Kyoung Chae, Yong Un Park, Cho Kyo Hee, Lee Jae Hyuk, Kang Min Cheol, Sun Yeou Kim


Neuroinflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and neurodegenerative disease. Estrogens are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in neurodegenerative disease models. Due to the long term side effects of estrogens, researches have been focused on finding an effective phytoestrogens for biological activities. Daidzein present in soybeans and its active metabolite equol (7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman) bears strong antioxidant and anticancer showed more potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role in neuroinflammatory model confirmed its in vitro activity with molecular mechanism through NF-κB pathway. Three major CNS cells Microglia (BV-2), Astrocyte (C6), Neuron (N2a) were used to find the effect of equol in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), MAPKs signaling proteins, apoptosis related proteins by western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by the Gries method and ELISA, respectively. Cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were also measured in the conditioned medium of LPS activated cells with or without equol. Equol inhibited the NO production, PGE-2 production and expression of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated microglial cells at a dose dependent without any cellular toxicity. At the same time Equol also showed promising effect in modulation of MAPK’s and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression with significant inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokine like interleukin -6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α). Additionally, it inhibited the LPS activated microglia-induced neuronal cell death by downregulating the apoptotic phenomenon in neuronal cells. Furthermore, equol increases the production of neurotrophins like NGF and increase the neurite outgrowth as well. In conclusion the natural daidzein metabolite equol are more active than daidzein, which showed a promising effectiveness as an anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective agent via downregulating the LPS stimulated microglial activation and neuronal apoptosis. This work was supported by Brain Korea 21 Plus project and High Value-added Food Technology Development Program 114006-4, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Keywords: apoptosis, equol, neuroinflammation, phytoestrogen

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1 Liquefaction Phenomenon in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 Earthquake of Nepal

Authors: Kalpana Adhikari, Mandip Subedi, Keshab Sharma, Indra P. Acharya


The Gorkha Nepal earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 struck the central region of Nepal on April 25, 2015 with the epicenter about 77 km northwest of Kathmandu Valley . Peak ground acceleration observed during the earthquake was 0.18g. This motion induced several geotechnical effects such as landslides, foundation failures liquefaction, lateral spreading and settlement, and local amplification. An aftershock of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.3 hit northeast of Kathmandu on May 12 after 17 days of main shock caused additional damages. Kathmandu is the largest city in Nepal, have a population over four million. As the Kathmandu Valley deposits are composed mainly of sand, silt and clay layers with a shallow ground water table, liquefaction is highly anticipated. Extensive liquefaction was also observed in Kathmandu Valley during the 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake. Field investigations were carried out in Kathmandu Valley immediately after Mw 7.8, April 25 main shock and Mw 7.3, May 12 aftershock. Geotechnical investigation of both liquefied and non-liquefied sites were conducted after the earthquake. This paper presents observations of liquefaction and liquefaction induced damage, and the liquefaction potential assessment based on Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) for liquefied and non-liquefied sites. SPT based semi-empirical approach has been used for evaluating liquefaction potential of the soil and Liquefaction Potential Index (LPI) has been used to determine liquefaction probability. Recorded ground motions from the event are presented. Geological aspect of Kathmandu Valley and local site effect on the occurrence of liquefaction is described briefly. Observed liquefaction case studies are described briefly. Typically, these are sand boils formed by freshly ejected sand forced out of over-pressurized sub-strata. At most site, sand was ejected to agricultural fields forming deposits that varied from millimetres to a few centimeters thick. Liquefaction-induced damage to structures in these areas was not significant except buildings on some places tilted slightly. Boiled soils at liquefied sites were collected and the particle size distributions of ejected soils were analyzed. SPT blow counts and the soil profiles at ten liquefied and non-liquefied sites were obtained. The factors of safety against liquefaction with depth and liquefaction potential index of the ten sites were estimated and compared with observed liquefaction after 2015 Gorkha earthquake. The liquefaction potential indices obtained from the analysis were found to be consistent with the field observation. The field observations along with results from liquefaction assessment were compared with the existing liquefaction hazard map. It was found that the existing hazard maps are unrepresentative and underestimate the liquefaction susceptibility in Kathmandu Valley. The lessons learned from the liquefaction during this earthquake are also summarized in this paper. Some recommendations are also made to the seismic liquefaction mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley.

Keywords: factor of safety, geotechnical investigation, liquefaction, Nepal earthquake

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