Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: C. Annapurna

15 Determination of Iodine and Heavy Metals in Two Brands of Iodised Salt

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin

Abstract:

A study was conducted to investigate the storage stability of Mr Chef and Annapurna salts. The salts were bought from Mile 12 market in Lagos State and were stored for a period of six months. The stability of the iodine content was then investigated by storing some at ambient temperature (24-30oC) and some at atmospheric temperature (21-35 oC), and from each storage condition, a sample each was taken every month to analyze for the iodine and moisture contents. The result shows that there was a significant difference between Mr Chef and the standard and Annapurna and the standard. The iodine content of Mr Chef stored at ambient and atmospheric temperature decreases progressively from 48.70±0.00-37.00±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-11.60±0.00 respectively. And that of Annapurna at both ambient and atmospheric temperature also decreases progressively from 47.60±0.00-36.60±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-10.60±0.00 respectively. Also, the moisture content of both salts at the zero month to the sixth month both at room temperature and atmospheric temperature increases from 1.11±0.00-1.70±0.00 and 1.11±0.00-2.40±0.00 respectively. The results of the heavy metals shows that only Copper, Zinc and Cobalt were detected at the first and the sixth month in both Mr Chef and Annapurna which ranges from 0.15±0.00-0.38±0.00 and 0.18±0.00 - 3.50±0.00 respectively. Hence, the stability of iodine in salt is influenced by the storage conditions it is subjected to and the length of time it is been stored.

Keywords: Stability, Salt, iodine, ambient, atmospheric temperature

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14 Response of Briquettes Application with Different Coating Materials on Yield and Quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]

Authors: V. N. Palsande, H. B. Torane, M. C. Kasture, S. S. Prabhudesai, P. B. Sanap, J. J. Palkar

Abstract:

The present investigation entitled “Response of briquettes application with different coating materials on yield and quality of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)]” was conducted at Central Experiment Center, Wakawali during kharif season 2013. The field experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replicate. The four coating materials viz., Co – Non coating, C1 – Wax coating, C2 – Jaggary coating, and C3 – Tar coating was applied to Konkan Annapurna Briquette along with three sub treatments of application time i.e B1 – ½ at sowing, B2 - ½ at sowing and ½ at 30 days after sowing and B3 - 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 at 60 days after sowing. It was observed that the application of tar coated Konkan Annapurna Briquettes (KAB) in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing was found promising to enhancing the cucumber fruit yield, higher vine length, number of fruits vine-1, girth of fruit, length of fruit. It was also observed that the quality of the cucumber fruit increased in terms of ascorbic acid. UB-Godavari forms of briquettes .i.e. are promising source of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers as compared to straight fertilizers for enhancing green cucumber fruit yield of Sheetal variety of cucumber in lateritic soil. Amongst the three types of coated briquettes, the tar coated briquettes application was found to be superior for increasing cucumber fruit yield applied in three times @1/3 quantity of briquettes at sowing time, 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 30 days after sowing and 1/3 quantity of briquettes at 60 days after sowing @ 5 briquettes per plant at an interval of 30 days after sowing.

Keywords: Coating, Yield, Tar, briquettes, wax and quality

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13 Impact of Climate Change on Flow Regime in Himalayan Basins, Nepal

Authors: Tirtha Raj Adhikari, Lochan Prasad Devkota

Abstract:

This research studied the hydrological regime of three glacierized river basins in Khumbu, Langtang and Annapurna regions of Nepal using the Hydraologiska Byrans Vattenbalansavde (HBV), HVB-light 3.0 model. Future scenario of discharge is also studied using downscaled climate data derived from statistical downscaling method. General Circulation Models (GCMs) successfully simulate future climate variability and climate change on a global scale; however, poor spatial resolution constrains their application for impact studies at a regional or a local level. The dynamically downscaled precipitation and temperature data from Coupled Global Circulation Model 3 (CGCM3) was used for the climate projection, under A2 and A1B SRES scenarios. In addition, the observed historical temperature, precipitation and discharge data were collected from 14 different hydro-metrological locations for the implementation of this study, which include watershed and hydro-meteorological characteristics, trends analysis and water balance computation. The simulated precipitation and temperature were corrected for bias before implementing in the HVB-light 3.0 conceptual rainfall-runoff model to predict the flow regime, in which Groups Algorithms Programming (GAP) optimization approach and then calibration were used to obtain several parameter sets which were finally reproduced as observed stream flow. Except in summer, the analysis showed that the increasing trends in annual as well as seasonal precipitations during the period 2001 - 2060 for both A2 and A1B scenarios over three basins under investigation. In these river basins, the model projected warmer days in every seasons of entire period from 2001 to 2060 for both A1B and A2 scenarios. These warming trends are higher in maximum than in minimum temperatures throughout the year, indicating increasing trend of daily temperature range due to recent global warming phenomenon. Furthermore, there are decreasing trends in summer discharge in Langtang Khola (Langtang region) which is increasing in Modi Khola (Annapurna region) as well as Dudh Koshi (Khumbu region) river basin. The flow regime is more pronounced during later parts of the future decades than during earlier parts in all basins. The annual water surplus of 1419 mm, 177 mm and 49 mm are observed in Annapurna, Langtang and Khumbu region, respectively.

Keywords: Global Warming, Precipitation, temperature, water discharge, water balance

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12 Sustainability of Small Tourism Enterprises: A Comparison of Homestays and Independent Businesses from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

Authors: Baikuntha Prasad Acharya, Elizabeth Halpenny

Abstract:

Small tourism enterprises (STEs) are primary providers of services and attractions in many destinations of less developed countries; they are considered the lifeblood of tourism sector. Furthermore, in rural community destinations of such countries including Nepal, STEs are regarded as alternative tools for advancing economic and sociocultural transformations. Many families in rural Nepali destinations are venturing into small tourism entrepreneurship so that their poverty can be reduced and they can live a sustained life. Most these communities are utilizing their lifestyles and natural and cultural heritages as tourism attractions. This study aimed to understand the sustainability of the STEs in rural destinations by synthesizing observations from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area in western Nepal. Ghalegaon has community-based homestays and Ghandruk has independently owned and operated small tourism businesses such as cafes, tea houses, lodges, guest houses, and hotels, etc. The community-based homestays of Ghalegaon are compared with the independently owned and operated STEs of Ghandruk. The data were collected through multiple sources: 1) survey of tourists (n=112) and households (n=191); 2) interviews (n=14) with the locals, 3) group discussions (n=10) with different local groups including that of regional tourism players, experts and policy makers, 4) observations, and 5) document analysis. The STEs of both communities were first analyzed by understanding their level of sustainability as businesses, and then were explored how they were impacting on respective communities’ sustainability. The survey indicators and guidelines for interviews and group discussions were adapted to the Nepalese context based on four pillars of sustainability: economic, social, cultural and environmental; an additional dimension of management was also included, particularly for the STEs. The findings have shown a weaker economic and management dimensions of Ghalegaon’s Homestay than that of Ghandruk’s STEs. Some interesting social complexities of rural tourism and entrepreneurship were also revealed. This study’s findings do not much resonate to what Nepal government’s current rural tourism strategies that have been envisioned and prioritized for, particularly that the rural homestay tourism opportunities enhance inclusiveness of women and other deprived communities by spreading the benefits to the grassroots level. The study has highlighted several important applied implications to the local tourism management committees, tourism operators and associations, and regional and national tourism authorities. Further studies are advisable in other similar contexts in Nepal and in other countries to see whether there are variances in the findings.

Keywords: Sustainability, Nepal, rural tourism communities, small tourism enterprises

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11 Meiobenthic Diversity off Pudimadaka, Bay of Bengal, East Coast of India with Special Reference to Free-Living Marine Nematodes

Authors: C. Annapurna, Rao M. Srinivasa, Bhanu C. H. Vijaya, M. Sivalakshmi, Rao P. V. Surya

Abstract:

A study on the community structure of meiobenthic fauna was undertaken during three cruises (June 2008, October 2008 and March 2009). Ten stations at depth between 10 and 40 m off Pudimadaka in Visakhapatnam (Lat.17º29′12″N and Long. 83º00′09″), East coast of India were investigated. Ninety species representing 3 major (meiofaunal) taxa namely foraminifera (2), copepoda (9), nematoda (58) and polychaeta (21) were encountered. Overall, meiofaunal (mean) abundance ranged from 2 individuals to 63 ind. 10cm-² with an average of 24.3 ind.10cm-2. The meiobenthic biomass varied between 0.135 to 0.48 mg.10cm-2 with an average 0.27 ± 0.12. On the whole, nematodes constituted 73.62% of the meiofauna in terms of numerical abundance. Shannon –Wiener index values were 2.053 ± 0.64 (June, 2008), 2.477 ± 0.177 (October 2008) and 2.2815±0.24 (March 2009). Multivariate analyses were used to define the most important taxon in nematode assemblages. Three nematode associations could be recognized off Pudimadaka coast, namely Laimella longicaudata, Euchromodora vulgaris and Sabatieria elongata assemblage (June, 2008); Catanema sp. and Leptosomatum sp. assemblage (October 2008) assemblage; Sabatieria sp. and Setosabatieria sp. assemblage (March 2009). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature, organic matter, silt and mean particle diameter were important in controlling nematode community structure.

Keywords: Biodiversity, India, Community Structure, meiofauna, marine nematode

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10 Prevalence of Extended Spectrum of Beta Lactamase Producers among Gram Negative Uropathogens

Authors: Y. V. S. Annapurna, V. V. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level with a high rate of morbidity . This is further augmented by increase in the number of resistant and multi resistant strains of bacteria particularly by those producing Extended spectrum of beta lactamases. The present study was aimed at analysis of antibiograms of E.coli and Klebsiella sp causing urinary tract infections. Between November 2011 and April 2013, a total of 1120 urine samples were analyzed,. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done with 542(48%) isolates of E.coli and 446(39%) of Klebsiella sp using the standard disc diffusion method against eleven commonly used antibiotics .Organisms showed high susceptibility to Amikacin and Netilimicin and low susceptibility to Cephalosporins. MAR index was calculated for the multidrug resistant strains. Maximum MAR index detected among the isolates was 0.9. Phenotypic identification for ESBL production was confirmed by double disk synergy test (DDST) according to CLSI guidelines. Plasmid profile of the isolates was carried out using alkaline hydrolysis method. Agarose-gel electrophoresis showed presence of high-molecular weight plasmid DNA among the ESBL strains. This study emphasizes the importance of indiscriminate use of antibiotics which if discontinued, in turn would prevent further development of bacterial drug resistance. For this, a proper knowledge of susceptibility pattern of uropathogens is necessary before prescribing empirical antibiotic therapy and it should be made mandatory.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, extended spectrum of beta lactamase, Klebsiella spp, Uropathogens

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9 Virulence Phenotypes Among Multi-Drug Resistant Uropathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Y. V. S. Annapurna, V. V. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in the community. Susceptible individuals experience multiple episodes, and progress to acute pyelonephritis or uro-sepsis or develop asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Ability to cause extraintestinal infections depends on several virulence factors required for survival at extraintestinal sites. Presence of virulence phenotypes enhances the pathogenicity of these otherwise commensal organisms and thus augments its ability to cause extraintestinal infections, the most frequent in urinary tract infections(UTI). The present study focuses on detection of the virulence characters exhibited by the uropathogenic organism and most common factors exhibited in the local pathogens. A total of 700 isolates of E.coli and Klebsiella spp were included in the study. These were isolated from patients from local hospitals reported to be suffering with UTI over a period of three years. Isolation and identification was done based on Gram character and IMVIC reactions. Antibiotic sensitivity profile was carried out by disc diffusion method and multi drug resistant strains with MAR index of 0.7 were further selected.. Virulence features examined included their ability to produce exopolysaccharides, protease- gelatinase production, hemolysin production, haemagglutination and hydrophobicity test. Exopolysaccharide production was most predominant virulence feature among the isolates when checked by congo red method. The biofilms production examined by microtitre plates using ELISA reader confirmed that this is the major factor contributing to virulencity of the pathogens followed by hemolysin production

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Uropathogens, virulence features, Klebsiella sp

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8 Virulence Phenotypes among Multi Drug Resistant Uropathogenic E. Coli and Klebsiella SPP

Authors: Y. V. S. Annapurna, V. V. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in the community. Susceptible individuals experience multiple episodes, and progress to acute pyelonephritis or uro-sepsis or develop asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Ability to cause extraintestinal infections depends on several virulence factors required for survival at extraintestinal sites. Presence of virulence phenotypes enhances the pathogenicity of these otherwise commensal organisms and thus augments its ability to cause extraintestinal infections, the most frequent in urinary tract infections(UTI). The present study focuses on detection of the virulence characters exhibited by the uropathogenic organism and most common factors exhibited in the local pathogens. A total of 700 isolates of E.coli and Klebsiella spp were included in the study.These were isolated from patients from local hospitals reported to be suffering with UTI over a period of three years. Isolation and identification was done based on Gram character and IMVIC reactions. Antibiotic sensitivity profile was carried out by disc diffusion method and multi drug resistant strains with MAR index of 0.7 were further selected. Virulence features examined included their ability to produce exopolysaccharides, protease- gelatinase production, hemolysin production, haemagglutination and hydrophobicity test. Exopolysaccharide production was most predominant virulence feature among the isolates when checked by congo red method. The biofilms production examined by microtitre plates using ELISA reader confirmed that this is the major factor contributing to virulencity of the pathogens followed by hemolysin production.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Uropathogens, virulence features

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7 Improvement in Drought Stress Tolerance in Wheat by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: Seema Sangwan, Ekta Narwal, Kannepalli Annapurna

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on drought stress tolerance in 3 genotypes of wheat subjected to moderate water stress, i.e. HD 3043 (drought tolerant), HD 2987 (drought tolerant), and HD 2967 (drought sensitive). Various growth parameters were studied, e.g. total dry weight, total shoot and root length, root volume, root surface area, grain weight and number, leaf area, chlorophyll content in leaves, relative water content, number of spores and percent colonisation of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Total dry weight, root surface area and chlorophyll content were found to be significantly high in AMF inoculated plants as compared to the non-mycorrhizal ones and also higher in drought-tolerant varieties of wheat as compared to the sensitive variety HD 2967, in moderate water stress treatments. Leakage of electrolytes was lower in case of AMF inoculated stressed plants. Under continuous water stress, leaf water content and leaf area were significantly increased in AMF inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated stressed plants. Overall, the increased colonisation of roots of wheat by AMF in inoculated plants weather drought tolerant or sensitive could have a beneficial effect in alleviating the harmful effects of water stress in wheat and delaying its senescence.

Keywords: Wheat, stress, Drought, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

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6 Composition Dependent Spectroscopic Studies of Sm3+-Doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: K. Swapna, Sk. Mahamuda, Annapurna, A. Srinivasa Rao, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

Samarium ions doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite (AFTT) Glasses have been prepared by using the melt quenching technique and characterized through various spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and decay spectral studies. From the measured absorption spectra of Sm3+ ions in AFTT glasses, the optical band gap and Urbach energies have been evaluated. The spectroscopic parameters such as oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ωλ), spontaneous emission probability (AR), branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) of various excited levels have been determined from the absorption spectrum by using J-O analysis. A strong luminescence in the reddish-orange spectral region has been observed for all the Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses. It consisting four emission transitions occurring from the 4G5/2metastable state to the lower lying states 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 upon exciting the sample with a 478 nm line of an argon ion laser. The stimulated emission cross-sections (σe) and branching ratios (βmeas) were estimated from the emission spectra for all emission transitions. Correlation of the radiative lifetime with the experimental lifetime measured from the day curves allows us to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared glasses. In order to know the colour emission of the prepared glasses under near UV excitation, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 colour chromaticity diagram. The aforementioned spectral studies carried out on Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses allowed us to conclude that, these glasses are best suited for orange-red visible lasers.

Keywords: Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, lifetime, fluoro tungsten tellurite glasses, stimulated emission cross-section

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5 Design of Low-Emission Catalytically Stabilized Combustion Chamber Concept

Authors: Annapurna Basavaraju, Andreas Marn, Franz Heitmeir

Abstract:

The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is cognizant for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Moreover small turbo engines have higher fuel specific emissions compared to large engines due to their limited combustion chamber size. In order to fulfill these requirements, novel combustion concepts are essential. This motivates to carry out the research on the current state of art, catalytic stabilized combustion chamber using hydrogen in small jet engines which are designed and investigated both numerically and experimentally during this project. Catalytic combustion concepts can also be adopted for low caloric fuels and are therefore not constrained to only hydrogen. However, hydrogen has high heating value and has the major advantage of producing only the nitrogen oxides as pollutants during the combustion, thus eliminating the interest on other emissions such as Carbon monoxides etc. In the present work, the combustion chamber is designed based on the ‘Rich catalytic Lean burn’ concept. The experiments are conducted for the characteristic operating range of an existing engine. This engine has been tested successfully at Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics (ITTM), Technical University Graz. One of the facts that the efficient combustion is a result of proper mixing of fuel-air mixture, considerable significance is given to the selection of appropriate mixer. This led to the design of three diverse configurations of mixers and is investigated experimentally and numerically. Subsequently the best mixer would be equipped in the main combustion chamber and used throughout the experimentation. Furthermore, temperatures and pressures would be recorded at various locations inside the combustion chamber and the exhaust emissions will also be analyzed. The instrumented combustion chamber would be inspected at the engine relevant inlet conditions for nine different sets of catalysts at the Hot Flow Test Facility (HFTF) of the institute.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Gas Turbine, mixer, catalytic combustion, NOx emissions

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4 Impact of Different Fuel Inlet Diameters onto the NOx Emissions in a Hydrogen Combustor

Authors: Annapurna Basavaraju, Franz Heitmeir, Arianna Mastrodonato

Abstract:

The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is creating awareness for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Hence this promotes the researchers to work on novel technologies, one such technology is the use of alternative fuels. Among these fuels hydrogen is of interest due to its one and only significant pollutant NOx. The influence of NOx formation due to hydrogen combustion depends on various parameters such as air pressure, inlet air temperature, air to fuel jet momentum ratio etc. Appropriately, this research is motivated to investigate the impact of the air to fuel jet momentum ratio onto the NOx formation in a hydrogen combustion chamber for aircraft engines. The air to jet fuel momentum is defined as the ratio of impulse/momentum of air with respect to the momentum of fuel. The experiments were performed in an existing combustion chamber that has been previously tested for methane. Premix of the reactants has not been considered due to the high reactivity of the hydrogen and high risk of a flashback. In order to create a less rich zone of reaction at the burner and to decrease the emissions, a forced internal recirculation flow has been achieved by integrating a plate similar to honeycomb structure, suitable to the geometry of the liner. The liner has been provided with an external cooling system to avoid the increase of local temperatures and in turn the reaction rate of the NOx formation. The injected air has been preheated to aim at so called flameless combustion. The air to fuel jet momentum ratio has been inspected by changing the area of fuel inlets and keeping the number of fuel inlets constant in order to alter the fuel jet momentum, thus maintaining the homogeneity of the flow. Within this analysis, promising results for a flameless combustion have been achieved. For a constant number of fuel inlets, it was seen that the reduction of the fuel inlet diameter resulted in decrease of air to fuel jet momentum ratio in turn lowering the NOx emissions.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Combustion Chamber, Nox emission, jet momentum

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3 Accessible Tourism: A Novel Idea for Promoting Tourism in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj Pradhananga

Abstract:

Inclusive Tourism is a relatively new topic in Nepal. Though the effort of creating accessible and inclusive tourism has already begun, it is still in its infancy. A major concern for Destination Nepal is the lack of awareness and absence of mandatory law in place to encourage Tourism operating sectors for coming up with accessible Tourism products. Given the number economic and social benefits to may be derived from inclusive tourism, it is a critical time for the tourism industry to understand and develop measures towards inclusivity in the gateway to Himalaya. Nepal was struck with a devastating earthquake on April 25th, 2015 which concurrently left more than 4,000 Nepalese with physical disabilities. Nepal has had to rebuild and is continuing to rebuild a lot of infrastructure and the process of rebuilding should be barrier free and use universal design measures. With universal design in place, this would allow access for minority groups such as people with disabilities and the elderly to the historic monuments in Kathmandu valley. Four Seasons Travel ( 4ST) has been a key player in not only creating accessible tourism experiences in Nepal, but also promoting accessible tourism to other tourism operators. Dr. Scott Rains had worked closely with 4ST on accessible tourism. Additionally, it organised an accessible trek which was field tested with a traveler with vision impairment in August 2015. Another accessible trekking experience, in partnership with Washington DC based International Development Institute, was coined as ‘Wounded Heroes Trek to Nepal’, where a group of Veterans that are amputees went trekking in the Annapurna Region. The event made it to the list of UNWTO World Tourism Day celebrations. Such initiatives led by private sector in partnership with various organizations have worked to create a ‘Destination Nepal for all’. However, there is still a lot of work that needs to be done to make Nepal a truly inclusive destination. Partnerships between the private sector and DPOs ( Disabled People’s Organizations) as well as the government are also a sound opportunity for employment creation for people with disabilities. Further, partnerships between the state, tourism service providers and DPOs need to be fostered to create job opportunities for people with disabilities. This can be exemplified through the social Entrepreneurship model with the help of accessible Tourism.

Keywords: Earthquake, Disability, Inclusion, Accessible Tourism

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2 ROCK Signaling and Radio Resistance: The Association and the Effect

Authors: P. Annapurna, Cecil Ross, Sudhir Krishna, Sweta Srivastava

Abstract:

Irradiation plays a pivotal role in cervical cancer treatment, however some tumors exhibit resistance to therapy while some exhibit relapse, due to better repair and enhanced resistance mechanisms operational in their cells. The present study aims to understand the signaling mechanism operational in resistance phenotype and in the present study we report the role of Rho GTPase associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling in cervical carcinoma radio-resistance. ROCK signaling has been implicated in several tumor progressions and is important for DNA repair. Irradiation of spheroid cultures of SiHa cervical carcinoma derived cell line at 6Gy resulted in generation of resistant cells in vitro which had better clonogenic abilities and formed larger and more colonies, in soft agar colony formation assay, as compared to the non-irradiated cells. These cells also exhibited an enhanced motility phenotype. Cell cycle profiling showed the cells to be blocked in G2M phase with enhanced pCDC2 levels indicating onset of possible DNA repair mechanism. Notably, 3 days post-irradiation, irradiated cells showed increased ROCK2 translocation to the nucleus with enhanced protein expression as compared to the non-irradiated cells. Radio-sensitization of the resistant cells was enhanced using Y27632, an inhibitor to ROCK signaling. The treatment of resistant cells with Y27632 resulted in increased cell death upon further irradiation. This observation has been confirmed using inhibitory antibodies to ROCK1/2. Result show that both ROCK1/2 have a functional contribution in radiation resistance of cervical cancer cells derived from cell lines. Interestingly enrichment of stem like cells (Hoechst negative cells) was also observed upon irradiation and these cells were markedly sensitive to Y27632 treatment. Our results thus suggest the role of ROCK signaling in radio-resistance in cervical carcinoma. Further studies with human biopsies, mice models and mechanistic of ROCK signaling in the context of radio-resistance will clarify the role of this molecule further and allow for therapeutics development.

Keywords: Cancer Treatment, cervical carcinoma, radio-resistance, ROCK signaling

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1 Dy3+ Ions Doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungstunate Tellurite Glasses for Laser and White LED Applications

Authors: G. Vijaya Prakash, Allam Srinivasa Rao, Ch. Annapurna Devi

Abstract:

A new-fangled series of white light emitting 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped Single-Alklai and Mixed-Alkai fluoro tungstunate tellurite glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by studying XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dy-O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined which are used to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy–ligand field environment. The evaluated J-O parameters (Ω_4>Ω_2>Ω_6) for all the glasses are following the same trend. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and Yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2→6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2→6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of fluoro tungstunate tellurite glass (TeWK: 1Dy). The J-O intensity parameters have been used to determine the various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By using the experimental lifetimes (τ_exp) measured from the decay spectral features and radiative lifetimes (τ_R), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated. Among all the glasses, the potassium combined fluoro tungstunate tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass has the highest quantum efficiency (94.6%). The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The (x, y) and (u, v) chromaticity colour coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, we are suggesting that the 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and White-LED applications.

Keywords: Judd-Ofelt parameters, dysprosium, photo luminescence, tellurite glasses

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