Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 191

Search results for: pathogenesis

191 The Involvement of Viruses and Fungi in the Pathogenesis of Dental Infections

Authors: Wael Khalil, Elias Rahal, Ghassan Matar

Abstract:

Tooth related infections or commonly named dental infections have been described as the most common causes of tooth loss in adults. These pathologies were mostly periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. The involvement of various bacteria in the pathogenesis of these pathologies has been thoroughly mentioned and approved in the literature. However, the variability in the severity and prognosis of these lesions among patients suggests the association of other pathogens, like viruses and fungi, in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Several studies in the literature investigated the association of multiple viruses and fungi with the above-mentioned lesions, yet, a vast controversy was reached concerning this subject.Aim: Our study aims to fill the gap in the literature concerning the contribution of adenovirus, HPV-16, EBV, fungi, and candida in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, pericoronitis, and periapical infection. For this purpose, we utilized the quantitative PCR for pathogen detection in saliva, gingival, and lesions samples of involved subjects. Results: Some of these pathogens appeared to have an association with the investigated dental pathologies, while others showed no contribution to the pathogenesis of these lesions. Further investigation is required in order to identify the subtype of the involved pathogens in these tooth related oral pathology.

Keywords: periodontitis, pericoronitis, dental abscess, PCR, microbiology

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190 Role of Pro-Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines in Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease in Association with Autoantibody Thyroid and Regulatory FoxP3 T-Cells

Authors: Dwitya Elvira, Eryati Darwin

Abstract:

Background: Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease. Imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells and T-regulatory (Treg)/Th17 cells was thought to play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of GD. Treg FoxP3 produced TGF-β to maintain regulatory function, and Th17 cells produced IL-17 as cytokines that were thought in mediating several autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the role of IL-17 and TGF-β in the pathogenesis of GD and to investigate its correlation with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody (TRAb) and Treg FoxP3 expression. Method: 30 GD patients and 27 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of GD was based on clinical and biochemical of GD. Serum IL-17, TGF-β, TRAb, and FoxP3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 (SPSS Inc.). Spearman rank correlation test was used for assessment of correlation. The statistical significance was accepted as P<0.05. Result: There was no significant correlation between IL-17 and TGF-β serum with expression of FoxP3 level in GD, but there was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb serum level (P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-17 and TGF-β were found to be elevated in patient group compared to control, where mean values of IL-17 were 14.43±2.15 pg/mL and TGF-β were 10.44±3.19 pg/mL in patients group; and in control group, level of IL-17 were 7.1±1.45 pg/mL and TGF-β were 4.95±1.35 pg/mL. Conclusion: Serum Il-17 and TGF-β were elevated in GD patients that reflect the role of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines activation in pathogenesis of GD. There was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb, revealing that Treg cytokines may play a role in pathogenesis of GD.

Keywords: IL-17, TGF-B, FoxP3, TRAb, Graves’ disease

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189 Network Based Molecular Profiling of Intracranial Ependymoma over Spinal Ependymoma

Authors: Hyeon Su Kim, Sungjin Park, Hae Ryung Chang, Hae Rim Jung, Young Zoo Ahn, Yon Hui Kim, Seungyoon Nam

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Ependymoma, one of the most common parenchymal spinal cord tumor, represents 3-6% of all CNS tumor. Especially intracranial ependymomas, which are more frequent in childhood, have a more poor prognosis and more malignant than spinal ependymomas. Although there are growing needs to understand pathogenesis, detailed molecular understanding of pathogenesis remains to be explored. A cancer cell is composed of complex signaling pathway networks, and identifying interaction between genes and/or proteins are crucial for understanding these pathways. Therefore, we explored each ependymoma in terms of differential expressed genes and signaling networks. We used Microsoft Excel™ to manipulate microarray data gathered from NCBI’s GEO Database. To analyze and visualize signaling network, we used web-based PATHOME algorithm and Cytoscape. We show HOX family and NEFL are down-regulated but SCL family is up-regulated in cerebrum and posterior fossa cancers over a spinal cancer, and JAK/STAT signaling pathway and Chemokine signaling pathway are significantly different in the both intracranial ependymoma comparing to spinal ependymoma. We are considering there may be an age-dependent mechanism under different histological pathogenesis. We annotated mutation data of each gene subsequently in order to find potential target genes.

Keywords: systems biology, ependymoma, deg, network analysis

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188 Analysis of OPG Gene Polymorphism T245G (rs3134069) in Slovak Postmenopausal Women

Authors: I. Boroňová, J. Bernasovská, J. Kľoc, Z. Tomková, E. Petrejčíková, S. Mačeková, J. Poráčová, M. M. Blaščáková

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a common multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component characterized by reduced bone mass and increased risk of fractures. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to identify the genotype and allele distribution of T245G polymorphism in OPG gene in Slovak postmenopausal women. A total of 200 unrelated Slovak postmenopausal women with diagnosed osteoporosis and 200 normal controls were genotyped for T245G (rs3134069) polymorphism of OPG gene. Genotyping was performed using the Custom Taqman®SNP Genotyping assays. Genotypes and alleles frequencies showed no significant differences (p=0.5551; p=0.6022). The results of the present study confirm the importance of T245G polymorphism in OPG gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

Keywords: OPG gene, T245G polymorphism, osteoporosis, T245G polymorphism, real-time PCR

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187 Detection and Dissemination of Putative Virulence Genes from Brucella Species Isolated from Livestock in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Authors: Rudzani Manafe, Ezekiel Green

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Brucella, has many different virulence factors that act as a causative agent of brucellosis, depending on the environment and other factors, some factors may play a role more than others during infection and as a result, play a role in becoming a causative agent for pathogenesis. Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus are considered to be pathogenic to humans. The genetic regularity of nine potential causes of virulence of two Brucella species in Eastern Cape livestock have been examined. A hundred and twenty isolates obtained from Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group (MPMERG) were used for this study. All isolates were grown on Brucella agar medium. Nine primer pairs were used for the detection of virB2, virB5, vceC, btpA, btpB, prpA, betB, bpe275, and bspB virulence factors using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Approximately 100% was observed for genes BecC and BetB from B. arbotus. While the lowest gene observed was PrpA at 4.6% from B. arbotus. BetB was detected in 34.7%, while virB2 and prpA (0%) were not detected in B. melitensis. The results from this research suggest that most isolates of Brucella have virulence-related genes associated with disease pathogenesis. Finally, our findings showed that Brucella strains in the Eastern Cape Province are extremely virulent as virulence characteristics exist in most strains investigated.

Keywords: putative virulence genes, brucella, polymerase chain reaction, milk

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186 Syndrome of Irreversible Lithium-Effectuated Neurotoxicity: Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: David J. Thomson, Joshua C. J. Chew

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Background: Syndrome of Irreversible Lithium-Effectuated Neurotoxicity (SILENT) is a rare complication of lithium toxicity that typically causes irreversible cerebellar dysfunction. These patients may require hemodialysis and extensive supports in the intensive care. Methods: A review was performed on the available literature of SILENT with a focus on current pathophysiological hypotheses and advances in treatment. Articles were restricted to the English language. Results: Although the exact mechanism is unclear, CNS demyelination, especially in the cerebellum, was seen on the brain biopsies of a proportion of patients. There is no definitive management of SILENT but instead current management is focused on primary and tertiary prevention – detection of those at risk, and rehabilitation post onset of neurological deficits. Conclusions: This review draws conclusions from a limited amount of available literature, most of which are isolated case reports. Greater awareness of SILENT and further investigation into the risk factors and pathogenesis are required so this serious and irreversible syndrome may be avoided.

Keywords: lithium toxicity, pathogenesis, SILENT, syndrome of irreversible lithium-effectuated neurotoxicity

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185 Development Of Diabetes Mellitus In Overweight People

Authors: Ashiraliyev SHavkat

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Relevance of the topic: Diabetes mellitus in overweight people development and absence of treatment measures. Objective: to give patients the correct instructions on proper nutrition, to organize a network of preventive and therapeutic measures. Materials and methods: Multidisciplinary Tashkent Medical Academy. As a result of objective observations in patients who applied to the clinic, 28 11 overweight patients had to type 2 diabetes. Diabetesmellituswasdiagnosed. Results: 11.5 mmol / L on an empty stomach in the morning. EDT yes. Pathogenesis: fat content in the diet of patients with diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate foods make up 60%. Eating disorders and physical inactivity As a result, the accumulation of glucose in the form of fat increases, and this is constantly in the blood, which led to an increase in the number of fatty acids. Clinic: Frequent fasting in 11 patients (hypothalamus). Associated with glucose deficiency), drinking 8-9 liters of water per day of blood in 7 people Systolic pressure 150 diastolic pressures 100. Sensation of ants in 3 people and poor eyesight in 5 people. Conclusion: Explain to patients that nutritional guidelines should be followed. Assign active movement in accordance with the energy entering the body.

Keywords: mellitus, diabetes, pathogenesis, clinic

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184 Visfatin and Apelin Are New Interrelated Adipokines Playing Role in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated Coronary Artery Disease in Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Hala O. El-Mesallamy, Salwa M. Suwailem, Mae M. Seleem

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Visfatin and apelin are two new adipokines that recently gained a special interest in diabetes research. This study was conducted to study the interplay between these two adipokines and their correlation with other inflammatory and biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetic (T2D) postmenopausal women with CAD. Visfatin and apelin were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Visfatin was found to be significantly higher in the following groups: T2D patients without CAD, non-obese and obese T2D patients with CAD when compared to control group. Apelin was found to be significantly lower in non-obese and obese T2D patients with CAD when compared to control group. Visfatin and apelin were found to be significantly associated with each other and with other biochemical parameters. The current study provides evidence for the interplay between visfatin and apelin through the inflammatory milieu characteristic of T2D and their possible role in the pathogenesis of CAD complication of T2D.

Keywords: apelin, coronary artery disease, inflammation, type 2 diabetes, visfatin

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183 Identifying the Host Substrates for the Mycobacterial Virulence Factor Protein Kinase G

Authors: Saha Saradindu, Das Payel, Somdeb BoseDasgupta

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Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacteria tuberculosis is a dreadful disease and more so with the advent of extreme and total drug-resistant species. Mycobacterial pathogenesis is an ever-changing paradigm from phagosome maturation block to phagosomal escape into macrophage cytosol and finally acid tolerance and survival inside the lysosome. Mycobacteria are adept at subverting the host immune response by highjacking host cell signaling and secreting virulence factors. One such virulence factor is a ser/thr kinase; Protein kinase G (PknG), which is known to prevent phagosome maturation. The host substrates of PknG, allowing successful pathogenesis still remain an enigma. Hence we carried out a comparative phosphoproteomic screen and identified a number of substrates phosphorylated by PknG. We characterized some of these substrates in vivo and in vitro and observed that PknG mediated phosphorylation of these substrates leads to reduced TNFa production as well as decreased response to TNFa induced macrophage necroptosis, thus enabling mycobacterial survival and proliferation.

Keywords: mycobacteria, Protein kinase G, phosphoproteomics, necroptosis

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182 Renal Complications in Patients with Falciparum Malaria

Authors: Saira Baloch, Mohsin Ali Baloch

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Background: Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease and also a major public health problem in Pakistan. Renal failure is an emerging problem correlated with morbidity and mortality, however can be diagnosed and treated in the early stages. Objectives: To elucidate the biochemical renal parameters in patients with falciparum malaria and comparison with healthy control subjects. Method: 80 patients, who were diagnosed to be affected by falciparum malaria. Detailed history, general physical and systemic examination and necessary pathological, biochemical renal laboratory parameters and investigations were done. Results: Among the 80 patients, 43 were males and 37 were females. All patients were infected with P. falciparum. All patients had increased serum creatinine and urea levels and urine output of less than 400 ml/day were categorized as suffering from renal failure. Conclusion: Patients infected with P. falciparum are at an increased risk of developing renal failure when compared to patients infected with other complications. P. vivax has massive potential to cause life threatening complications and even death. Further research is required to understand the exact pathogenesis of various complications encountered in vivax malaria.

Keywords: falciparum malaria, renal failure, biochemical parameters, pathogenesis

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181 Genetic Association and Functional Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Promoter Variants rs1004030 and rs1003349 in Gallbladder Cancer Pathogenesis

Authors: J. Vinay , Kusumbati Besra, Niharika Pattnaik, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Manjusha Dixit

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Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is rare but highly malignant cancer; its prevalence is more in certain geographical regions and ethnic groups, which include the Northern and Eastern states of India. Previous studies in India have reported genetic predisposition as one of the risk factors in GBC pathogenesis. Although the matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP14) is a well-known modulator of the tumor microenvironment and tumorigenesis and TCGA data also suggests its upregulation yet, its role in the genetic predisposition for GBC is completely unknown. We elucidated the role of MMP14 promoter variants as genetic risk factors and their implications in expression modulation. We screened MMP14 promoter variants association with GBC using Sanger’s sequencing in approximately 300 GBC and 300 control subjects and 26 GBC tissue samples of Indian ethnicity. The immunohistochemistry was used to check the MMP14 protein expression in GBC tissue samples. The role of promoter variants on expression levels was elucidated using a luciferase reporter assay. The variants rs1004030 (p-value = 0.0001) and rs1003349 (p-value = 0.0008) were significantly associated with gallbladder cancer. The luciferase assay in two different cell lines, HEK-293 (p = 0.0006) and TGBC1TKB (p = 0.0036) showed a significant increase in relative luciferase activity in the presence of risk alleles for both the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Similarly, genotype-phenotype correlation in patients samples confirmed that the presence of risk alleles at rs1004030 and rs1003349 increased MMP14 expression. Overall, this study unravels the genetic association of MMP14 promoter variants with gallbladder cancer, which may contribute to pathogenesis by increasing its expression.

Keywords: gallbladder cancer, matrix metalloproteinase-14, single nucleotide polymorphism, case control study, genetic association study

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180 Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens β2-Toxin in Type a Isolates of Sheep and Goats

Authors: Mudassar Mohiuddin, Zahid Iqbal

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Introduction: Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen responsible for causing enteric diseases in both human and animals. The bacteria produce several toxins. These toxins play vital role in the pathogenesis of various fatal enteric diseases and are classified into five types, on the basis of the differential production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. In addition to the so-called major toxins, there are other toxins like beta2 toxin, produced by some strains of C. perfringens which may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Aim of the study: In this study a multiplex PCR assay was developed and used for detection of cpb2 gene to identify the Beta2 harboring isolates among different types of C. perfringens. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of β2-toxin gene in local isolates of Clostridium perfringens. Methodology: This was an experimental study. Random sampling technique was used. A total of 97 sheep and goats were included in this study. All were Pakistani local breeds. The samples were collected during the period from Sep, 2014 to Mar, 2015 from selected districts of Punjab province (Pakistan). Faecal samples were cultured in cooked meat media. The identification of Clostridium perfringens was made on the basis of biochemical tests. Multiplex PCR was performed to identify the toxin genes. Results: A total of 43 C. perfringens isolates were genotyped using multiplex PCR assay. The gene encoding C. perfringens β2-toxin (cpb2) was present in more than 50% of the isolates genotyped. However, the prevalence of this gene varied between sheep and goat isolates. Conclusion: The present study suggests the high occurrence of C. perfringens b2-toxin (cpb2) in the local isolates of Pakistan. As β2-toxin is present in both healthy and diseased animals, so further studies are suggested to establish the role of β2-toxin in pathogenesis of the clostridial enteric diseases.

Keywords: beta 2 toxin gene, clostridium perfringens, enteric diseases, goats, multiplex PCR, sheep

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179 Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease Using ANN

Authors: G. Anjan Babu, G. Sumana, M. Rajasekhar

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Many inherited diseases and non-hereditary disorders are common in the development of renal cystic diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disorder developed within the kidneys in which grouping of cysts filled with water like fluid. PKD is responsible for 5-10% of end-stage renal failure treated by dialysis or transplantation. New experimental models, application of molecular biology techniques have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of PKD. Researchers are showing keen interest for developing an automated system by applying computer aided techniques for the diagnosis of diseases. In this paper a multi-layered feed forward neural network with one hidden layer is constructed, trained and tested by applying back propagation learning rule for the diagnosis of PKD based on physical symptoms and test results of urinanalysis collected from the individual patients. The data collected from 50 patients are used to train and test the network. Among these samples, 75% of the data used for training and remaining 25% of the data are used for testing purpose. Furthermore, this trained network is used to implement for new samples. The output results in normality and abnormality of the patient.

Keywords: dialysis, hereditary, transplantation, polycystic, pathogenesis

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178 Genetic Association of SIX6 Gene with Pathogenesis of Glaucoma

Authors: Riffat Iqbal, Sidra Ihsan, Andleeb Batool, Maryam Mukhtar

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Glaucoma is a gathering of optic neuropathies described by dynamic degeneration of retinal ganglionic cells. It is clinically and innately heterogenous illness containing a couple of particular forms each with various causes and severities. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most generally perceived kind of glaucoma. This study investigated the genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs10483727 and rs33912345) at the SIX1/SIX6 locus with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Pakistani population. The SIX6 gene plays an important role in ocular development and has been associated with morphology of the optic nerve. A total of 100 patients clinically diagnosed with glaucoma and 100 control individuals of age over 40 were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted by organic extraction method. The SNP genotyping was done by (i) PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing method. Significant genetic associations were observed for rs10483727 (risk allele T) and rs33912345 (risk allele C) with POAG. Hence, it was concluded that Six6 gene is genetically associated with pathogenesis of Glaucoma in Pakistan.

Keywords: genotyping, Pakistani population, primary open-angle glaucoma, SIX6 gene

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177 Potential Activities of Human Endogenous Retroviral kDNA in Melanoma Pathogenesis and HIV-1 Infection

Authors: Jianli Dong, Fangling Xu, Gengming Huang

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Human endogenous retroviral elements (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. They are thought to be germline-integrated genetic remnants of retroviral infections. Although HERV sequences are highly defective, some, especially the K type (HERV-K), have been shown to be expressed and may have biological activities in the pathogenesis of cancer, chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. We found that HERV-K GAG and ENV proteins were strongly expressed in pleomorphic melanoma cells. We also detected a critical role of HERV-K ENV in mediating intercellular fusion and colony formation of melanoma cells. Interestingly, we found that levels of HERV-K GAG and ENV expression correlated with the activation of ERK and loss of p16INK4A in melanoma cells, and inhibition of MEK or CDK4, especially in combination, reduced HERV-K expression in melanoma cells. We also performed a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using DNase I digestion to remove “contaminating” HERV-K genomic DNA and examined HERV-K RNA expression in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected individuals. We found a covariation between HERV-K RNA expression and CD4 cell counts in HIV-1 positive samples. Although a causal link between HERV-K activation and melanoma development, and between HERV-K activation, HIV-1 infection and CD4 cell count have yet to be determined, existing data support the further research efforts in HERV-K.

Keywords: CD4 cell, HERV-K, HIV-1, melanoma

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176 Identification and Characterization of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein (CAPD) of Enterococcus faecium

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Hubert E. Blum, Türkân Sakinc

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Enterococcus faecium is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen increased dramatically worldwide and causing bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract and surgical site infections in immunocomprised patients. The capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system are also involved in hindering leukocyte killing of enterococci. The gene cluster (enterococcal polysaccharide antigen) of E. faecalis encoding homologues of many genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. We identified two putative loci with 22 kb and 19 kb which contained 11 genes encoding for glycosyltransferases (GTFs); this was confirmed by using genome comparison of already sequenced strains that has no homology to known capsule genes and the epa-locus. The polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines have rapidly emerged as a suitable strategy to combat different pathogenic bacteria, therefore, we investigated a polysaccharide biosynthesis CapD protein in E. faecium contains 336 amino acids and had putative function for N-linked glycosylation. The deletion/knock-out capD mutant was constructed and complemented by homologues recombination method and confirmed by using PCR and sequencing. For further characterization and functional analysis, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Our ΔcapD mutant shows a strong hydrophobicity and all strains exhibited biofilm production. Subsequently, the opsonic activity was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay which shows increased in mutant compared complemented and wild type strains but more than two fold decreased in colonization and adherence was seen on surface of uroepithelial cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonialization was observed in capD mutant during animal bacteremia infection. Unlike other polysaccharides biosynthesis proteins, CapD does not seems to be a major virulence factor in enterococci but further experiments and attention is needed to clarify its function, exact mechanism and involvement in pathogenesis of enteroccocal nosocomial infections eventually to develop a vaccine/ or targeted therapy.

Keywords: E. faecium, pathogenesis, polysaccharides, biofilm formation

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175 The Effect of SIRT1 on NLRP3 (Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-Like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3) Inflammasome of Osteoarthritis

Authors: So Youn Park, Yi Sle Lee, Ki Whan Hong, Chi Dae Kim

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The role of metabolism in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is an emerging field. Metabolic alterations may be a role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, and these changes influence joint destruction via several cytokine. Especially, in OA patients, levels of IL-1β are elevated in the synovial fluid, synovial membrane, subchondral bone, and cartilage. The IL-1β is activated by NLRP3 inflammasomes, and NLRP3 inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that drive the production of other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β. In this study, we examined that SIRT1 suppresses IL-1β through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes and SIRT1 ameliorates osteoarthritis. OA fibroblasts were isolated from synovium of OA patients. IL-1β and NLRP3 were detected in synovium of OA patients by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulated the expression of active IL-1β mRNA in OA fibroblasts and combination of LPS, and adenosine triphosphate increased more the expression of active IL-1β in OA fibroblasts. The level of IL-1β was measured by western blot and ELISA assay. NLRP3 inflammasomes complex were measured by western blot. SIRT1 did not inhibit expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. So caspase-1, apoptotic speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and NLRP3 protein were expressed in OA fibroblasts. But SIRT1 suppressed activation of IL-1β by inhibiting activity of caspase-1 via NLRP3 inflammasome in OA fibroblasts under LPS plus ATP stimulation. These results suggest that SIRT1 is a modulator of NLRP3 inflammasomes in OA fibroblasts and ameliorate IL-1β, so expression of SIRT1 in OA fibroblast may be a potential strategy for OA inflammation treatment.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, inflammasome, SIRT1, IL-1beta

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174 Epigenetic Drugs for Major Depressive Disorder: A Critical Appraisal of Available Studies

Authors: Aniket Kumar, Jacob Peedicayil

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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and important psychiatric disorder. Several clinical features of MDD suggest an epigenetic basis for its pathogenesis. Since epigenetics (heritable changes in gene expression not involving changes in DNA sequence) may underlie the pathogenesis of MDD, epigenetic drugs such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACi) may be useful for treating MDD. The available literature indexed in Pubmed on preclinical drug trials of epigenetic drugs for the treatment of MDD was investigated. The search terms we used were ‘depression’ or ‘depressive’ and ‘HDACi’ or ‘DNMTi’. Among epigenetic drugs, it was found that there were 3 preclinical trials using HDACi and 3 using DNMTi for the treatment of MDD. All the trials were conducted on rodents (mice or rats). The animal models of depression that were used were: learned helplessness-induced animal model, forced swim test, open field test, and the tail suspension test. One study used a genetic rat model of depression (the Flinders Sensitive Line). The HDACi that were tested were: sodium butyrate, compound 60 (Cpd-60), and valproic acid. The DNMTi that were tested were: 5-azacytidine and decitabine. Among the three preclinical trials using HDACi, all showed an antidepressant effect in animal models of depression. Among the 3 preclinical trials using DNMTi also, all showed an antidepressant effect in animal models of depression. Thus, epigenetic drugs, namely, HDACi and DNMTi, may prove to be useful in the treatment of MDD and merit further investigation for the treatment of this disorder.

Keywords: DNA methylation, drug discovery, epigenetics, major depressive disorder

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173 Autoantibodies against Central Nervous System Antigens and the Serum Levels of IL-32 in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Fatemeh Keshavarz

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Background: Schizophrenia is a disease of the nervous system, and immune system disorders can affect its pathogenesis. Activation of microglia, proinflammatory cytokines, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to inflammation, activation of autoreactive B cells, and consequently the production of autoantibodies against system antigens are among the immune processes involved in neurological diseases. interleukin 32 (IL-32) a proinflammatory cytokine that important player in the activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. This study aimed to measure the serum level of IL-32 as well as the frequency of autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens in patients with schizophrenia. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy individuals in the control group. Serum IL-32 levels were measured by ELISA. The frequency of autoantibodies against Hu, Ri, Yo, Tr, CV2, Amphiphysin, SOX1, Zic4, ITPR1, CARP, GAD, Recoverin, Titin, and Ganglioside antigens were measured by indirect immunofluorescence method. Results: Serum IL-32 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were positive in 8 patients for GAD antigen and 5 patients for Ri antigen, which showed a significant relationship compared to the control group. Autoantibodies were also positive in 2 patients for CV2, in 1 patient for Hu, and in 1 patient for CARP. Negative results were reported for other antigens. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated the serum IL-32 level and autoantibody positivity against several nervous system antigens may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

Keywords: schizophrenia, microglia, autoantibodies, IL-32

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172 Implications of Human Cytomegalovirus as a Protective Factor in the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer

Authors: Marissa Dallara, Amalia Ardeljan, Lexi Frankel, Nadia Obaed, Naureen Rashid, Omar Rashid

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Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that remains latent in approximately 60% of individuals in developed countries. Viral load is kept at a minimum due to a robust immune response that is produced in most individuals who remain asymptomatic. HCMV has been recently implicated in cancer research because it may impose oncomodulatory effects on tumor cells of which it infects, which could have an impact on the progression of cancer. HCMV has been implicated in increased pathogenicity of certain cancers such as gliomas, but in contrast, it can also exhibit anti-tumor activity. HCMV seropositivity has been recorded in tumor cells, but this may also have implications in decreased pathogenesis of certain forms of cancer such as leukemia as well as increased pathogenesis in others. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between cytomegalovirus and the incidence of breast cancer. Methods The data used in this project was extracted from a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to analyze the patients infected versus patients not infection with cytomegalovirus using ICD-10, ICD-9 codes. Permission to utilize the database was given by Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale, for the purpose of academic research. Data analysis was conducted using standard statistical methods. Results The query was analyzed for dates ranging from January 2010 to December 2019, which resulted in 14,309 patients in both the infected and control groups, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. The incidence of breast cancer was 1.642% and 235 patients in the cytomegalovirus group compared to 4.752% and 680 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant by a p-value of less than 2.2x 10^-16 with an odds ratio of 0.43 (0.4 to 0.48) with a 95% confidence interval. Investigation into the effects of HCMV treatment modalities, including Valganciclovir, Cidofovir, and Foscarnet, on breast cancer in both groups was conducted, but the numbers were insufficient to yield any statistically significant correlations. Conclusion This study demonstrates a statistically significant correlation between cytomegalovirus and a reduced incidence of breast cancer. If HCMV can exert anti-tumor effects on breast cancer and inhibit growth, it could potentially be used to formulate immunotherapy that targets various types of breast cancer. Further evaluation is warranted to assess the implications of cytomegalovirus in reducing the incidence of breast cancer.

Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, breast cancer, immunotherapy, anti-tumor

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171 Level of Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Correlation with Disease Severity

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Mohammad Owais, Abdul Khan, Atif Zafar

Abstract:

In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), impaired oxidative metabolism and imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines are responsible for causing inflammation and the degradation of cartilage and bone. The present study was done to evaluate the level and hence the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA. The present study was performed in the blood of 80 RA patients and 55 age and sex-matched healthy controls. The level of ROS (in 5% hematocrit) and the plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokines [TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-22] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) were monitored in healthy subjects and RA patients. For evaluating the role of rheumatoid factor (RF) in the pathogenesis of RA, patients were sub-divided on the basis of presence or absence of RF. Reactive species and inflammatory cytokines were correlated with disease activity measure-Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). The level of ROS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-22 were found to be significantly higher in RA patients as compared to the healthy controls, with the increase being more significant in patients positive for rheumatoid factor and those having high disease severity. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the level of IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in RA patients compared with healthy controls, with the decrease being more prominent in severe cases of RA. Higher ROS (indicative of impaired anti-oxidant defence system) and pro-inflammatory cytokines level in RA patients may lead to the damage of biomolecules which in turn contributes to tissue damage and hence to the development of more severe RA. The imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to the development of multi-system immune complications. ROS and inflammatory cytokines may also serve as a potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines

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170 Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Role of Long Non-Coding RNA NEAT1 in Dengue Patients

Authors: Abhaydeep Pandey, Shweta Shukla, Saptamita Goswami, Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Vishnampettai Ramachandran, Sudhanshu Vrati, Arup Banerjee

Abstract:

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the important regulators of gene expression and play important role in viral replication and disease progression. The role of lncRNA genes in the pathogenesis of Dengue virus-mediated pathogenesis is currently unknown. Methods: To gain additional insights, we utilized an unbiased RNA sequencing followed by in silico analysis approach to identify the differentially expressed lncRNA and genes that are associated with dengue disease progression. Further, we focused our study on lncRNAs NEAT1 (Nuclear Paraspeckle Assembly Transcript 1) as it was found to be differentially expressed in PBMC of dengue infected patients. Results: The expression of lncRNAs NEAT1, as compared to dengue infection (DI), was significantly down-regulated as the patients developed the complication. Moreover, pairwise analysis on follow up patients confirmed that suppression of NEAT1 expression was associated with rapid fall in platelet count in dengue infected patients. Severe dengue patients (DS) (n=18; platelet count < 20K) when recovered from infection showing high NEAT1 expression as it observed in healthy donors. By co-expression network analysis and subsequent validation, we revealed that coding gene; IFI27 expression was significantly up-regulated in severe dengue cases and negatively correlated with NEAT1 expression. To discriminate DI from dengue severe, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated. It revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95%CI: 85.69 – 97.22) and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.97 for NEAT1. Conclusions: Altogether, our first observations demonstrate that monitoring NEAT1and IFI27 expression in dengue patients could be useful in understanding dengue virus-induced disease progression and may be involved in pathophysiological processes.

Keywords: dengue, lncRNA, NEAT1, transcriptome

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169 Establishment and Characterization of a Dentigerous Cyst Cell Line

Authors: Muñiz-Lino Marcos Agustín, Vazquez Borbolla Jessica, Licéaga-Escalera Carlos

Abstract:

The ectomesenchymal tissues involved in tooth development and their remnants are the origin of different odontogenic lesions, including tumors and cysts of the jaws, with a wide range of clinical behaviors. Dentigerous cyst (DC) represents approximately 20% of all cases of odontogenic cysts, and it has been demonstrated that it can develop benign and malignant odontogenic tumors. DC is characterized by bone destruction of the area surrounding the crown of a tooth which has not erupted and it contain is liquid. The treatment of odontogenic tumors and cysts usually are partial or total removal of the jaw, causing important secondary co-morbidities. However, molecules implicated in DC pathogenesis as well in its development to odontogenic tumors remains unknown. A cellular model may be useful to study these molecules, but that model has not been established yet. Here, we reported the establishment of a cell culture derived from a dentigerous cyst. This cell line was named DeCy-1. In spite of its ectomesenchymal morphology, DeCy-1 cells express epithelial markers such as cytokeratins 5, 6, and 8. Furthermore, these cells express the ODAM protein, which is present in odontogenesis and in dental follicle, indicating that DeCy-1 cells derived from odontogenic epithelium. Analysis by electron microscopy of this cell line showed that it has a high vesicular activity, suggesting that DeCy-1 could secrete molecules that may be involved in DC pathogenesis. Thus, secreted proteins were analyzed by PAGE-SDS, where we observed approximately 11 bands. In addition, the capacity of these secretions to degrade proteins was analyzed by gelatin substrate zymography. A degradation band of about 62 kDa was found in these assays. Western blot assays suggested that the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) is responsible of this protease activity. Thus, our results indicate that the establishment of a cell line derived from DC is a useful in vitro model to study the biology of this odontogenic lesion and its participation in the development of odontogenic tumors.

Keywords: dentigerous cyst, MMP20, cancer, cell culture

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168 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries

Authors: Elena Pello, Martin Bobak, Yuri Nikitin

Abstract:

In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: dietary, magnesium, hypertension, lipids

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167 Identification of Candidate Congenital Heart Defects Biomarkers by Applying a Random Forest Approach on DNA Methylation Data

Authors: Kan Yu, Khui Hung Lee, Eben Afrifa-Yamoah, Jing Guo, Katrina Harrison, Jack Goldblatt, Nicholas Pachter, Jitian Xiao, Guicheng Brad Zhang

Abstract:

Background and Significance of the Study: Congenital Heart Defects (CHDs) are the most common malformation at birth and one of the leading causes of infant death. Although the exact etiology remains a significant challenge, epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects. At present, no existing DNA methylation biomarkers are used for early detection of CHDs. The existing CHD diagnostic techniques are time-consuming and costly and can only be used to diagnose CHDs after an infant was born. The present study employed a machine learning technique to analyse genome-wide methylation data in children with and without CHDs with the aim to find methylation biomarkers for CHDs. Methods: The Illumina Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip was used to screen the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiles of 24 infants diagnosed with congenital heart defects and 24 healthy infants without congenital heart defects. Primary pre-processing was conducted by using RnBeads and limma packages. The methylation levels of top 600 genes with the lowest p-value were selected and further investigated by using a random forest approach. ROC curves were used to analyse the sensitivity and specificity of each biomarker in both training and test sample sets. The functionalities of selected genes with high sensitivity and specificity were then assessed in molecular processes. Major Findings of the Study: Three genes (MIR663, FGF3, and FAM64A) were identified from both training and validating data by random forests with an average sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 95%. GO analyses for the top 600 genes showed that these putative differentially methylated genes were primarily associated with regulation of lipid metabolic process, protein-containing complex localization, and Notch signalling pathway. The present findings highlight that aberrant DNA methylation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects.

Keywords: biomarker, congenital heart defects, DNA methylation, random forest

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166 Molecular Pathogenesis of NASH through the Dysregulation of Metabolic Organ Network in the NASH-HCC Model Mouse Treated with Streptozotocin-High Fat Diet

Authors: Bui Phuong Linh, Yuki Sakakibara, Ryuto Tanaka, Elizabeth H. Pigney, Taishi Hashiguchi

Abstract:

NASH is an increasingly prevalent chronic liver disease that can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and now is attracting interest worldwide. The STAM™ model is a clinically-correlated murine NASH model which shows the same pathological progression as NASH patients and has been widely used for pharmacological and basic research. The multiple parallel hits hypothesis suggests abnormalities in adipocytokines, intestinal microflora, and endotoxins are intertwined and could contribute to the development of NASH. In fact, NASH patients often exhibit gut dysbiosis and dysfunction in adipose tissue and metabolism. However, the analysis of the STAM™ model has only focused on the liver. To clarify whether the STAM™ model can also mimic multiple pathways of NASH progression, we analyzed the organ crosstalk interactions between the liver and the gut and the phenotype of adipose tissue in the STAM™ model. NASH was induced in male mice by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 µg streptozotocin 2 days after birth and feeding with high-fat diet after 4 weeks of age. The mice were sacrificed at NASH stage. Colon samples were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80˚C for tight junction-related protein analysis. Adipose tissue was prepared into paraffin blocks for HE staining. Blood adiponectin was analyzed to confirm changes in the adipocytokine profile. Tight junction-related proteins in the intestine showed that expression of ZO-1 decreased with the progression of the disease. Increased expression of endotoxin in the blood and decreased expression of Adiponectin were also observed. HE staining revealed hypertrophy of adipocytes. Decreased expression of ZO-1 in the intestine of STAM™ mice suggests the occurrence of leaky gut, and abnormalities in adipocytokine secretion were also observed. Together with the liver, phenotypes in these organs are highly similar to human NASH patients and might be involved in the pathogenesis of NASH.

Keywords: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrosis, organ crosstalk, leaky gut

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165 Maresin Like 1 Treatment: Curbing the Pathogenesis of Behavioral Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

Authors: Yan Lu, Song Hong, Janakiraman Udaiyappan, Aarti Nagayach, Quoc-Viet A. Duong, Masao Morita, Shun Saito, Yuichi Kobayashi, Yuhai, Zhao, Hongying Peng, Nicholas B. Pham, Walter J Lukiw, Christopher A. Vuong, Nicolas G. Bazan

Abstract:

Aims: Neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction occurs in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and as the disease progresses many patients develop cognitive impairment. 5XFAD mouse model of AD is widely used to study AD pathogenesis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maresin like 1 (MaR-L1) treatment in AD pathology using 5XFAD mice. Methods: We tested 12-month-old male 5XFAD mice and wild type control mice treated with MaR-L1 in a battery of behavioral tasks. We performed open field test, beam walking test, clasping test, inverted grid test, acetone test, marble burring test, elevated plus maze test, cross maze test and novel object recognition test. We also studied neuronal loss, amyloid β burden, and inflammation in the brains of 5XFAD mice using immunohistology and Western blotting. Results: MaR-L1 treatment to the 5XFAD mice showed improved cognitive function of 5XFAD mice. MaR-L1 showed decreased anxiety behavior in open field test and marble burring test, increased muscular strength in the beam walking test, clasping test and inverted grid test. Cognitive function was improved in MaR-L1 treated 5XFAD mice in the novel object recognition test. MaR-L1 prevented neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that behavioral abnormalities were normalized by the administration of MaR-L1 and the neuroprotective role of MaR-L1 in the AD. It also indicates that MaR-L1 treatment is able to prevent and or ameliorate neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Further experiments to validate the results are warranted using other AD models in the future.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, motor and cognitive behavior, 5XFAD mice, Maresin Like 1, microglial cell, astrocyte, neurodegeneration, inflammation, resolution of inflammation

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164 Update on Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC), Types, Origin, Molecular Pathogenesis, and Biomarkers

Authors: Salina Yahya Saddick

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy due to the lack of highly sensitive and specific screening tools for detection of early-stage disease. The OSE provides the progenitor cells for 90% of human ovarian cancers. Recent morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic studies have led to the development of a new paradigm for the pathogenesis and origin of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) based on a ualistic model of carcinogenesis that divides EOC into two broad categories designated Types I and II which are characterized by specific mutations, including KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2, CTNNB1, PTEN PIK3CA, ARID1A, and PPPR1A, which target specific cell signaling pathways. Type 1 tumors rarely harbor TP53. type I tumors are relatively genetically stable and typically display a variety of somatic sequence mutations that include KRAS, BRAF, PTEN, PIK3CA CTNNB1 (the gene encoding beta catenin), ARID1A and PPP2R1A but very rarely TP53 . The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that the tumorigenic potential of CSCs is confined to a very small subset of tumor cells and is defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate leading to the formation of a tumor mass. Potential protein biomarker miRNA, are promising biomarkers as they are remarkably stable to allow isolation and analysis from tissues and from blood in which they can be found as free circulating nucleic acids and in mononuclear cells. Recently, genomic anaylsis have identified biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer namely, FGF18 which plays an active role in controlling migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells through NF-κB activation, which increased the production of oncogenic cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes update information on epithelial ovarian cancers and point out to the most recent ongoing research.

Keywords: epithelial ovarian cancers, somatic sequence mutations, cancer stem cell (CSC), potential protein, biomarker, genomic analysis, FGF18 biomarker

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163 Afrikan Natural Medicines: An Innovation-Based Model for Medicines Production, Curriculum Development and Clinical Application

Authors: H. Chabalala, A. Grootboom, M. Tang

Abstract:

The innovative development, production, and clinical utilisation of African natural medicines requires frameworks from systematisation, innovation, registration. Afrika faces challenges when it comes to these sectors. The opposite is the case as is is evident in ancient Asian (Traditional Chinese Medicine and Indian Ayurveda and Siddha) medical systems, which are interfaced into their respective national health and educational systems. Afrikan Natural Medicines (ANMs) are yet to develop systematisation frameworks, i.e. disease characterisation and medicines classification. This paper explores classical medical systems drawn from Afrikan and Chinese experts in natural medicines. An Afrikological research methodology was used to conduct in-depth interviews with 20 key respondents selected through purposeful sampling technique. Data was summarised into systematisation frameworks for classical disease theories, patient categorisation, medicine classification, aetiology and pathogenesis of disease, diagnosis and prognosis techniques and treatment methods. It was discovered that ancient Afrika had systematic medical cosmologies, remnants of which are evident in most Afrikan cultural health practices. Parallels could be drawn from classical medical concepts of antiquity, like Chinese Taoist and Indian tantric health systems. Data revealed that both the ancient and contemporary ANM systems were based on living medical cosmologies. The study showed that African Natural Healing Systems have etiological systems, general pathogenesis knowledge, differential diagnostic techniques, comprehensive prognosis and holistic treatment regimes. Systematisation models were developed out of these frameworks, and this could be used for evaluation of clinical research, medical application including development of curriculum for high-education. It was envisaged that frameworks will pave way towards the development, production and commercialisation of ANMs. This was piloted in inclusive innovation, technology transfer and commercialisation of South African natural medicines, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and health infusions. The central model presented here in will assist in curriculum development and establishment of Afrikan Medicines Hospitals and Pharmaceutical Industries.

Keywords: African Natural Medicines, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Medical Cosmology, Clinical Application

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162 Investigation of the Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Female Genital: Tuberculosis Cases

Authors: Swati Gautam, Amita Jain, Shyampyari Jaiswar

Abstract:

Objective: To elucidate the role of (ApaI&TaqI) VDR gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) cases. Background: Female genital TB represents about 15-20% of total extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB). Female subjects with vitamin D deficiency have been shown to be at higher risk of pulmonary TB as well as FGTB. In same context few functional polymorphism in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been considered as an important genetic risk factor that modulate the development of FGTB. Therefore we aimed, to elucidate the role of (ApaI&TaqI) VDR gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of FGTB. Study design: Case-Control study. Sample size: Cases (60) and Controls (60). Study site: Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Department of Microbiology, K.G.M.U. Lucknow, (UP). Inclusion criteria: Cases: Women with age group 20-35 years, premenstrual endometrial aspiration collected and included in the study, those were positive with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)/ TB-PCR/ LJ culture/ liquid culture. Controls: Women with age group 20-35 years having no history of ATT and all test negative for TB recruited as control. Exclusion criteria: -Women with endometriosis, polycystic ovaries (PCOD), positive on Chlamydia & gonorrhea, already on anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) excluded. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from cases and controls stored at -20ºC. Genomic DNA extraction was carried out by salting-out method. Genotyping of VDR gene (ApaI&TaqI) polymorphism was performed by using single amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR technique. PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS16.3 software & computing odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. Results: Increased risk of female genital tuberculosis was observed in AA genotype (OR =1.1419-6.212 95% CI, P*<0.036) and A allele (OR =1.255-3.518, 95% CI, P* < 0.006) in FGTB as compared to controls. Moreover A allele was found more frequent in FGTB patients. No significant difference was observed in TaqI gene polymorphism of VDR gene. Conclusion: The ApaI polymorphism is significantly associated with etiology of FGTB and plays an important role as a genetic risk factor in FGTB women.

Keywords: ARMS, ATT, EPTB, FGTB, VDR

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