Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: bamboo

59 Bamboo Fibre Extraction and Its Reinforced Polymer Composite Material

Authors: P. Zakikhani, R. Zahari, M. T. H. Sultan, D. L. Majid

Abstract:

Natural plant fibres reinforced polymeric composite materials have been used in many fields of our lives to save the environment. Especially, bamboo fibres due to its environmental sustainability, mechanical properties, and recyclability have been utilized as reinforced polymer matrix composite in construction industries. In this review study bamboo structure and three different methods such as mechanical, chemical and combination of mechanical and chemical to extract fibres from bamboo are summarized. Each extraction method has been done base on the application of bamboo. In addition Bamboo fibre is compared with glass fibre from various aspects and in some parts it has advantages over the glass fibre.

Keywords: bamboo fibres, natural fibres, bio composite, mechanical extraction, glass fibres

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
58 The Utilization of Bamboo for Wood Bamboo Composite in Lieu of Materials Furniture: Case Study of Furniture Industry in Jepara Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Nurrizka Ramadhan

Abstract:

Today,Demand for wood increase in rapid rate. Wood is widely used for many things range from building materials to furniture materials. This makes the forest area in Indonesia dropped dramatically, it is estimated that the area of Indonesiaan forest in 2020 will be only about 16 million hectares. The more forest in Indonesia loss, people are required to look for another material to subtitute wood for the furniture. Jepara, a city with the largest furniture industry in Indonesia, requires a large supply of wood, it can reach 300.000 – 500.000 cubic meters per year. Most of the furniture in Jepara use teak, mahogany, and rosewood. Though teak wood is a rare species that must be protected. Today the availability of bamboo in Indonesia is very big. With cheap price, and the period of rapid growth makes bamboo can be used as a substitute for wood for the furniture industry in the future. By making use bamboo to make wood bamboo composite to replace the use of wood for furniture material. This paper is about the use of bamboo as a substitute for wood bamboo composite for the furniture industry. Expected in future, wood can be replaced by a wood bamboo composite.

Keywords: bamboo, composite, furniture, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
57 Eco-Friendly Preservative Treated Bamboo Culm: Compressive Strength Analysis

Authors: Perminder JitKaur, Santosh Satya, K. K. Pant, S. N. Naik

Abstract:

Bamboo is extensively used in construction industry. Low durability of bamboo due to fungus infestation and termites attack under storage puts certain constrains for it usage as modern structural material. Looking at many chemical formulations for bamboo treatment leading to severe harmful environment effects, research on eco-friendly preservatives for bamboo treatment has been initiated world-over. In the present studies, eco-friendly preservative for bamboo treatment has been developed. To validate its application for structural purposes, investigation of effect of treatment on compressive strength has been investigated. Neem oil(25%) integrated with copper naphthenate (0.3%) on dilution with kerosene oil impregnated into bamboo culm at 2 bar pressure, has shown weight loss of only 3.15% in soil block analysis method. The results of compressive strength analysis using The results from compressive strength analysis using HEICO Automatic Compression Testing Machine, reveal that preservative treatment has not altered the structural properties of bamboo culms. Compressive strength of control (11.72 N/mm2) and above treated samples (11.71 N/mm2) was found to be comparable.

Keywords: D. strictus, bamboo, neem oil, presure treatment, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
56 Investigation of Antibacterial Property of Bamboo In-Terms of Percentage on Comparing with ZnO Treated Cotton Fabric

Authors: Arjun Dakuri, J. Hayavadana

Abstract:

The study includes selection of 100 % bamboo fabric and cotton fabric for the study. The 100% bamboo fabrics were of 127 g/m², and 112 g/m² and 100% cotton grey fabric were of 104 g/m². The cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and then treated with ZnO (as antimicrobial agent) with 1%, 2% and 3% using pad-dry cure method, whereas the bamboo fabrics were only desized. The antimicrobial activity of bamboo and ZnO treated cotton fabrics were evaluated and compared against E. coli and S. aureus as per the standard AATCC - 147. Moisture management properties of selected fabrics were also analyzed. Further, the selected fabric samples were tested for comfort properties like bending length, tearing strength, drape-ability, and specific handle force and air permeability. It was observed that bamboo fabrics show significant antibacterial activity and the same was shown by 3% ZnO treated cotton fabric. Both cotton and bamboo fabrics show improved moisture management properties than the cotton fabric. The comfort properties of bamboo fabrics are found to be superior to cotton fabrics making it more suitable for applications in place of cotton.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo, cotton, comfort properties, moisture management, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
55 Using a Hybrid Method to Eradicate Bamboo Growth along the Route of Overhead Power Lines

Authors: Miriam Eduful

Abstract:

The Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) is under obligation, demanded by the Public Utility and Regulation Commission to meet set performance indices. However, in certain parts of the country, bamboo related power interruptions have become a challenge. Growth rate of the bamboo is such that the cost of regular vegetation maintenance along route of the overhead power lines has become prohibitive. To address the problem, several methods and techniques of bamboo eradication have being used. Some of these methods involved application of chemical compounds that are considered inimical and dangerous to the environment. In this paper, three methods of bamboo eradication along the route of the ECG overhead power lines have been investigated. A hybrid method has been found to be very effective and ecologically friendly. The method is locally available and comparatively inexpensive to apply.

Keywords: bamboo, eradication, hybrid method, gly gold

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
54 Bamboo: A Trendy and New Alternative to Wood

Authors: R. T. Aggangan, R. J. Cabangon

Abstract:

Bamboo is getting worldwide attention over the last 20 to 30 years due to numerous uses and it is regarded as the closest material that can be used as substitute to wood. In the domestic market, high quality bamboo products are sold in high-end markets while lower quality products are generally sold to medium and low income consumers. The global market in 2006 stands at about 7 billion US dollars and was projected to increase to US$ 17 B from 2015 to 2020. The Philippines had been actively producing and processing bamboo products for the furniture, handicrafts and construction industry. It was however in 2010 that the Philippine bamboo industry was formalized by virtue of Executive Order 879 that stated that the Philippine bamboo industry development is made a priority program of the government and created the Philippine Bamboo Industry Development Council (PBIDC) to provide the overall policy and program directions of the program for all stakeholders. At present, the most extensive use of bamboo is for the manufacture of engineered bamboo for school desks for all public schools as mandated by EO 879. Also, engineered bamboo products are used for high-end construction and furniture as well as for handicrafts. Development of cheap adhesives, preservatives, and finishing chemicals from local species of plants, development of economical methods of drying and preservation, product development and processing of lesser-used species of bamboo, development of processing tools, equipment and machineries are the strategies that will be employed to reduce the price and mainstream engineered bamboo products in the local and foreign market. In addition, processing wastes from bamboo can be recycled into fuel products such as charcoal are already in use. The more exciting possibility, however, is the production of bamboo pellets that can be used as a substitute for wood pellets for heating, cooking and generating electricity.

Keywords: bamboo charcoal and light distillates, engineered bamboo, furniture and handicraft industries, housing and construction, pellets

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
53 Study Properties of Bamboo Composite after Treatment Surface by Chemical Method

Authors: Kiatnarong Supapanmanee, Ekkarin Phongphinittana, Pongsak Nimdum

Abstract:

Natural fibers are readily available raw materials that are widely used as composite materials. The most common problem facing many researchers with composites made from this fiber is the adhesion between the natural fiber contact surface and the matrix material. Part of the problem is due to the hydrophilic properties of natural fibers and the hydrophobic properties of the matrix material. Based on the aforementioned problems, this research selected bamboo fiber, which is a strong natural fiber in the research study. The first step was to study the effect of the mechanical properties of the pure bamboo strip by testing the tensile strength of different measurement lengths. The bamboo strip was modified surface with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 6wt% concentrations for different soaking periods. After surface modification, the physical and mechanical properties of the pure bamboo strip fibers were studied. The modified and unmodified bamboo strips were molded into a composite material using epoxy as a matrix to compare the mechanical properties and adhesion between the fiber surface and the material with tensile and bending tests. In addition, the results of these tests were compared with the finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the length of the bamboo strip affects the strength of the fibers, with shorter fibers causing higher tensile stress. Effects of surface modification of bamboo strip with NaOH, this chemical eliminates lignin and hemicellulose, resulting in the smaller dimension of the bamboo strip and increased density. From the pretreatment results above, it was found that the treated bamboo strip and composite material had better Ultimate tensile stress and Young's modulus. Moreover, that results in better adhesion between bamboo fiber and matrix material.

Keywords: bamboo fiber, bamboo strip, composite material, bamboo composite, pure bamboo, surface modification, mechanical properties of bamboo, bamboo finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
52 Development of High Fiber Biscuit with Bamboo Shoot Powder

Authors: Beatrix Inah C. Mercado

Abstract:

Bamboo shoots are the immature and edible culms from bamboos which contains high amount of dietary fibers. However, in spite of these functional properties of bamboo shoots it is still underutilized. Objectives: To develop bamboo shoot powder and incorporate it to biscuits as a source of dietary fiber and antioxidant. Materials and Methods: Bamboo shoot powder (BSP) was freeze-drying and grind and was incorporated to biscuits in 20% concentration. BSP and biscuits with BSP were analyzed for its proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytonutrients and antioxidant capacity. Results: BSP has 13.1 % moisture, 18.8% protein and 8% ash, 2.4g/100g total fat and 57.7% carbohydrate. BSP and biscuits with 20% BSP were good sources of dietary fiber containing 27.8g/100g and 7.1 g/100g, respectively. BSP is high in phytonutrient contents in terms of total polyphenols (1052mg gallic/100 g) and flavonoids (4046mg catechin/100g). Biscuits with BSP contained higher source of phytonutrients and antioxidant capacity as compared to biscuits without BSP. Sensory evaluation revealed that biscuits with BSP were more acceptable than biscuits without BSP. Conclusion: Bamboo shoots may be used as a potential functional ingredient in food products for broader application.

Keywords: bamboo shoots, phytonutrients, fiber, biscuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
51 The Development of the Prototype of Bamboo Shading Device

Authors: Nuanwan Tuaycharoen, Wanarat Konisranukul

Abstract:

The main aim of this research was to investigate the prototype of bamboo shading device. There were two objectives of this study. The first objective was to investigate the effect of non-chemical treatments on damage of bamboo shading device by powder-post beetle and fungi. The second aim of this study was to develop a prototype of bamboo shading device. The study of the effect of non-chemical treatments on damage of bamboo shading device by powder-post beetle in laboratory showed that, among seven treatments tested, wood vinegar treatment can protect powder-post beetle better than the original method up to 92.91%. It was also found that wood vinegar treatment can show the best performance in fungi protection and work better than the original method up to 40%. The second experiment was carried out by constructing four bamboo shading devices and installing them on a building for 28 days. All aspects of shading device were investigated in terms of their beauty, durability, and ease of construction and assembly. The final prototype was developed from the lessons drawn from these tested options. In conclusion this study showed the effectiveness of some natural preservatives against insect and fungi damage. It also illustrated the characteristics of the prototype of bamboo shading device that can constructed by rural workers within one week.

Keywords: bamboo, shading device, energy conservation, alternative material

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
50 Using Bamboo Structures for Protecting Mangrove Ecosystems: A Nature-Based Approach

Authors: Sourabh Harihar, Henk Jan Verhagen

Abstract:

The nurturing of a mangrove ecosystem requires a protected coastal environment with adequate drainage of the soil substratum. In a conceptual design undertaken for a mangrove rejuvenation project along the eastern coast of Mumbai (India), various engineering alternatives have been thought of as a protective coastal structure and drainage system. One such design uses bamboo-pile walls in creating shielded compartments in the form of various layouts, coupled with bamboo drains. The bamboo-based design is found to be environmentally and economically advantageous over other designs like sand-dikes which are multiple times more expensive. Moreover, employing a natural material such as bamboo helps the structure naturally blend with the developing mangrove habitat, allaying concerns about dismantling the structure post mangrove growth. A cost-minimising and eco-friendly bamboo structure, therefore, promises to pave the way for large rehabilitation projects in future. As mangrove ecosystems in many parts of the world increasingly face the threat of destruction due to urban development and climate change, protective nature-based designs that can be built in a short duration are the need of the hour.

Keywords: bamboo, environment, mangrove, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
49 Effect of Bamboo Chips in Cemented Sand Soil on Permeability and Mechanical Properties in Triaxial Compression

Authors: Sito Ismanti, Noriyuki Yasufuku

Abstract:

Cement utilization to improve the properties of soil is a well-known method applied in field. However, its addition in large quantity must be controlled. This study presents utilization of natural and environmental-friendly material mixed with small amount of cement content in soil improvement, i.e. bamboo chips. Absorbability, elongation, and flatness ratio of bamboo chips were examined to investigate and understand the influence of its characteristics in the mixture. Improvement of dilation behavior as a problem of loose and poorly graded sand soil is discussed. Bamboo chips are able to improve the permeability value that affects the dilation behavior of cemented sand soil. It is proved by the stress path as the result of triaxial compression test in the undrained condition. The effect of size and content variation of bamboo chips, as well as the curing time variation are presented and discussed.  

Keywords: bamboo chips, permeability, mechanical properties, triaxial compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
48 Waste to Biofuel by Torrefaction Technology

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Yu-Zen Lin, Wei-Zhi Chen

Abstract:

Torrefaction is one of waste to energy (WTE) technologies developing in Taiwan recently, which can reduce the moisture and impurities and increase the energy density of biowaste effectively. To understand the torrefaction characteristics of different biowaste and the influences of different torrefaction conditions, four typical biowaste were selected to carry out the torrefaction experiments. The physical and chemical properties of different biowaste prior to and after torrefaction were analyzed and compared. Experimental results show that the contents of elemental carbon and caloric value of the four biowaste were significantly increased after torrefaction. The increase of combustible and caloric value in bamboo was the greatest among the four biowaste. The caloric value of bamboo can be increased from 1526 kcal/kg to 6104 kcal/kg after 300oC and 1 hour torrefaction. The caloric value of torrefied bamboo was almost four times as the original. The increase of elemental carbon content in wood was the greatest (from 41.03% to 75.24%), and the next was bamboo (from 47.07% to 74.63%). The major parameters which affected the caloric value of torrefied biowaste followed the sequence of biowaste kinds, torrefaction time, and torrefaction temperature. The optimal torrefaction conditions of the experiments were bamboo torrefied at 300oC for 3 hours, and the corresponding caloric value of torrefied bamboo was 5953 kcal/kg. This caloric value is similar to that of brown coal or bituminous coal.

Keywords: torrefaction, waste to energy, calorie, biofuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
47 Guadua Bamboo as Eco-Friendly Element in Interior Design and Architecture

Authors: Sarah Noaman

Abstract:

Utilizing renewable resources has become extensive solution for most problems in Egypt nowadays. It plays role in environmental issues such as energy crisis, lake of natural resources and climate change. This paper focuses on the importance of working with the key concepts of creating eco-friendly spaces in Egypt by using traditional perennial plants, such as Guadua bamboo as renewable resources in structures manufacture. Egypt is in critical need to search for alternative raw materials. Thus, this paper focuses on studying the usage of neglected yet affordable materials, such as Guadua bamboo in light weight structures and digital fabrication. Guadua bamboo has been cultivated throughout in tropical and subtropical areas. In Egypt, they exist in many rural areas where people try to control their growth by using pesticides as it serves no economic purpose. This paper aims to discuss the usage of Guadua bamboo either in its original state or after fabrication in the context of interior design and architecture. The results will show the applicability of using perennial plants as complementary materials in the manufacturing processes; also the conclusion will focus the lights on the importance of re-forming shallow water plants in interior design and architecture.

Keywords: digital fabrication, Guadua bamboo, zero-waste material, sustainable material, interior architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
46 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanical properties of Spiny (Kawayan Tinik) Bamboo Layers

Authors: Ma. Doreen E. Candelaria, Ma. Louise Margaret A. Ramos, Dr. Jaime Y. Hernandez, Jr

Abstract:

Bamboo has been introduced as a possible alternative to some construction materials nowadays. Its potential use in the field of engineering, however, is still not widely practiced due to insufficient engineering knowledge on the material’s properties and characteristics. Although there are researches and studies proving its advantages, it is still not enough to say that bamboo can sustain and provide the strength and capacity required of common structures. In line with this, a more detailed analysis was made to observe the layered structure of the bamboo, particularly the species of Kawayan Tinik. It is the main intent of this research to provide the necessary experiments to determine the tensile strength of dried bamboo samples. The test includes tensile strength parallel to fibers with samples taken at internodes only. Throughout the experiment, methods suggested by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) were followed. The specimens were tested using 3366 INSTRON Universal Testing Machine, with a rate of loading set to 0.6 mm/min. It was then observed from the results of these experiments that dried bamboo samples recorded high layered tensile strengths, as high as 600 MPa. Likewise, along the culm’s length and across its cross section, higher tensile strength were observed at the top part and at its outer layers. Overall, the top part recorded the highest tensile strength per layer, with its outer layers having tensile strength as high as 600 MPa. The recorded tensile strength of its middle and inner layers, on the other hand, were approximately 450 MPa and 180 MPa, respectively. From this variation in tensile strength across the cross section, it may be concluded that an increase in tensile strength may be observed towards the outer periphery of the bamboo. With these preliminary investigations on the layered tensile strength of bamboo, it is highly recommended to conduct experimental investigations on the layered compressive strength properties as well. It is also suggested to conduct investigations evaluating perpendicular layered tensile strength of the material.

Keywords: bamboo strength, layered strength tests, strength test, tensile test

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
45 Case Analysis of Bamboo Based Social Enterprises in India-Improving Profitability and Sustainability

Authors: Priyal Motwani

Abstract:

The current market for bamboo products in India is about Rs. 21000 crores and is highly unorganised and fragmented. In this study, we have closely analysed the structure and functions of a major bamboo craft based organisation in Kerela, India and elaborated about its value chain, product mix, pricing strategy and supply chain, collaborations and competitive landscape. We have identified six major bottlenecks that are prevalent in such organisations, based on the Indian context, in relation to their product mix, asset management, and supply chain- corresponding waste management and retail network. The study has identified that the target customers for the bamboo based products and alternative revenue streams (eco-tourism, microenterprises, training), by carrying out secondary and primary research (5000 sample space), that can boost the existing revenue by 150%. We have then recommended an optimum product mix-covering premium, medium and low valued processing, for medium sized bamboo based organisations, in accordance with their capacity to maximize their revenue potential. After studying such organisations and their counter parts, the study has established an optimum retail network, considering B2B, B2C physical and online retail, to maximize their sales to their target groups. On the basis of the results obtained from the analysis of the future and present trends, our study gives recommendations to improve the revenue potential of bamboo based organisation in India and promote sustainability.

Keywords: bamboo, bottlenecks, optimization, product mix, retail network, value chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
44 Preliminary Study of Fermented Pickle of Tabah Bamboo Shoot: Gigantochloa nigrociliata (Buese) Kurz

Authors: Luh Putu T. Darmayanti, A. A. Duwipayana, I. Nengah K. Putra, Nyoman S. Antara

Abstract:

Tabah Bamboo (Gigantochloa nigrociliata (Buese) Kurz) is the indigenous bamboo species which grows in District of Pupuan, Tabanan at Province of Bali. Compared to the others, this shoot has low concentration of hydrocyanide acid (HCN). However, as found for almost of bamboo shoot, its seasonal availability, perishable in nature, and short-lived. This study aimed to gather information about total of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), pH, total acidity, HCN content, detection of LAB’s type involved during fermentation, and organic acids’ profiles of fermented pickles of Tabah bamboo shoot. The pickle was made by natural fermentation with 6 % salt concentration and fermentation conducted for 13 days. The result showed during the fermentation time, in the fourth day we found LAB’s number was highest as much as 72 x 107 CFU/ml and the lowest pH was 3.09. We also found decreasing in HCN from 37.8 ppm at the beginning to 20.52 ppm at the end of fermentation process. The total number of indigenous LAB isolated from the pickle are 48 strains we found 18 out of these had rod shape. For the preliminary study, all of the LAB with rod shape were detected by PCR as member of Lactobacillus spp., in which 17 strains detected as L. plantarum. The organic acids detected during the fermentation were lactic acid with the highest concentration was 0.0546 g/100 g and small amount of acetic acid.

Keywords: fermentation, LAB, pickle, Tabah Bamboo shoot

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
43 The Effect of Manggong Bamboo Leaves Extract (Gigantochloa manggong) on Rat (Rattus novergicus) Blood Profile

Authors: Sri Rahayu, Supriyatin, Yuli Rahma Dini

Abstract:

One of the consequences of excess physical activity is the oxidative stress which resulted in damage to blood cells. Oxidative stress condition can be reduced by an exogenous antioxidant. The natural exogenous antioxidant can be extracted from Manggong bamboo (Gigantochloa manggong). This research was aim to evaluate the effect of physical exercise and Manggong bamboo (Gigantochloa manggong) leaf extract on blood profile of rats. This research was conducted in July 2013 to May 2014 using experimental method with completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors, physical exercise and Manggong bamboo leaf extract. The rats blood profile to be measured were the level of erythrocyte cells, leucocyte cells and hemoglobin. Data were analyzed with parametric statistical 2-way ANOVA test (α = 0.05). Manggong bamboo leaf extract was non toxic and contained flavonoid, triterpenoid, saponin and alkaloid. There was an effect of physical exercise and manggong bamboo leaf extract on blood profile of rats. Data obtained on physical activity, giving erythrocyte cells (2.5 million/µl) and hemoglobin (12,42g/dL) declined compared to the number of leucocyte cells increases (6,500cells/L). Extract treatment was increased the erythrocytes (5,13 million/µl) and hemoglobin level (14,72 g/dL.) while the leukocytes level were decreased (1.591,67 cells/L). The extract and physical activity treatment showed an increase in erythrocytes (2,96 million/µl) and hemoglobin (14,3 g/dL) but decrease the number of leukocytes (1.291,67 cells/L). The conclusion was that physical activity and Manggong bamboo leafs extract gaves effect on the blood profile of white rat.

Keywords: antioxidant, blood profile of rats, Manggong bamboo leaf extract, leukocytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
42 Flexural Behavior of Eco-Friendly Prefabricated Low Cost Bamboo Reinforced Wall Panels

Authors: Vishal Puri, Pradipta Chakrabortty, Swapan Majumdar

Abstract:

Precast concrete construction is the most commonly used technique for a rapid construction. This technique is very frequently used in the developed countries. Different guidelines required to utilize the potential of prefabricated construction are still not available in the developing countries. This causes over dependence on in-situ construction procedure which further affects the quality, scheduling, and duration of construction. Also with the ever increasing costs of building materials and their negative impact on the environment it has become imperative to look out for alternate construction materials which are cheap and sustainable. Bamboo and fly ash are alternate construction materials having great potential in the construction industry. Thus there is a great need to develop prefabricated components by utilizing the potential of these materials. Bamboo reinforced beams, bamboo reinforced columns and bamboo arches as researched previously have shown great prospects for prefabricated construction industry. But, many other prefabricated components still need to be studied and widely tested before their utilization in the prefabricated construction industry. In the present study, authors have showcased prefabricated bamboo reinforced wall panel for the prefabricated construction industry. It presents a detailed methodology for the development of such prefabricated panels. It also presents the flexural behavior of such panels as tested under flexural loads following ASTM guidelines. It was observed that these wall panels are much flexible and do not show brittle failure as observed in traditional brick walls. It was observed that prefabricated walls are about 42% cheaper as compared to conventional brick walls. It was also observed that prefabricated walls are considerably lighter in weight and are environment friendly. It was thus concluded that this type of wall panels are an excellent alternative for partition brick walls.

Keywords: bamboo, prefabricated walls, reinforced structure, sustainable infrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
41 Experimental Study of Various Sandwich Composites

Authors: R. Naveen, E. Vanitha, S. Gayathri

Abstract:

The use of Sandwich composite materials in aerospace and civil infrastructure application has been increasing especially due to their enormously low weight that leads to a reduction in the total weight and fuel consumption, high flexural and transverse shear stiffness, and corrosion resistance. The essential properties of sandwich materials vary according to the application area of the structure. The objectives of this study are to identify the mechanical behaviour and failure mechanisms of sandwich structures made of bamboo, V- board and metal (Aluminium as face sheet and Foam as Core material). The three-point bending test and UTM (Universal testing machine) experimental tests are done for three specimens for each type of sandwich composites. From the experiment results of three sandwich composites, bamboo shows high Young’s modulus of elasticity and low density.

Keywords: bamboo sandwich composite, metal sandwich composite, sandwich composite, v-board sandwich composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
40 Bamboo as the Frontier for Economically Sustainable Solution to Flood Control and Human Wildlife Conflict

Authors: Nirman Kumar Ojha

Abstract:

Bamboo plantation can be integrated for natural embankment against flood and live fencing against wild animals, at the same time provide economic opportunity for the poor farmers as a sustainable solution and adaptation alternative. 2010 flood in the Rui River completely inundated fields of four VDCs in Madi, Chitwan National Park with extensive bank erosion. The main aim of this action research was to identify an economically sustainable natural embankment against flood and also providing wildlife friendly fencing to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Community people especially poor farmers were trained for soil testing, land identification, plantation, and the harvesting regime, nursery set up and intercropping along with bamboo plantation on the edge of the river bank in order to reduce or minimize soil erosion. Results show that farmers are able to establish cost efficient and economically sustainable river embankment with bamboo plantation also creating a fence for wildlife which has also promoted bamboo cultivation and conservation. This action research has amalgamated flood control and wildlife control with the livelihood of the farmers which otherwise would cost huge resource. Another major impact of the bamboo plantation is its role in climate change and its adaptation process reducing degradation and improving vegetation cover contributing to landscape management. Based on this study, we conclude that bamboo plantation in Madi, Chitwan promoted the livelihood of the poor farmers providing a sustainable economic solution to reduce bank erosion, human-wildlife conflict and contributes to landscape management.

Keywords: climate change and conservation, economic opportunity, flood control, national park

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
39 Influence of Roofing Material on Indoor Thermal Comfort of Bamboo House

Authors: Thet Su Hlaing, Shoichi Kojima

Abstract:

The growing desire for better indoor thermal performance with moderate energy consumption is becoming an issue for challenging today’s built environment. Studies related to the effective way of enhancing indoor thermal comfort had been done by approaching in numerous ways. Few studies have been focused on the correlation between building material and indoor thermal comfort of vernacular house. This paper analyzes the thermal comfort conditions of Bamboo House, mostly located in a hot and humid region. Depending on the roofing material, how the indoor environment varies will be observed through monitoring indoor and outdoor comfort measurement of Bamboo house as well as occupants’ preferable comfort condition. The result revealed that the indigenous roofing material mostly influences the indoor thermal environment by performing to have less effect from the outdoor temperature. It can keep the room cool with moderate thermal comfort, especially in the early morning and night, in the summertime without mechanical device assistance. After analyzing the performance of roofing material, which effect on indoor thermal comfort for 24 hours, it can be efficiently managed the time for availing mechanical cooling devices and make it supply only the necessary period of a day, which will lead to a partially reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: bamboo house, hot and humid climate, indoor thermal comfort, local indigenous roofing material

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
38 Failure Analysis of Laminated Veneer Bamboo Dowel Connections

Authors: Niloufar Khoshbakht, Peggi L. Clouston, Sanjay R. Arwade, Alexander C. Schreyer

Abstract:

Laminated veneer bamboo (LVB) is a structural engineered composite made from glued layers of bamboo. A relatively new building product, LVB is currently employed in similar sizes and applications as dimensional lumber. This study describes the results of a 3D elastic Finite Element model for halfhole specimens when loaded in compression parallel-to-grain per ASTM 5764. The model simulates LVB fracture initiation due to shear stresses in the dowel joint and predicts displacement at failure validated through comparison with experimental results. The material fails at 1mm displacement due to in-plane shear stresses. The paper clarifies the complex interactive state of in-plane shear, tension perpendicular-to-grain, and compression parallel-to-grain stresses that form different distributions in the critical zone beneath the bolt hole for half-hole specimens. These findings are instrumental in understanding key factors and fundamental failure mechanisms that occur in LVB dowel connections to help devise safe standards and further LVB product adoption and design.

Keywords: composite, dowel connection, embedment strength, failure behavior, finite element analysis, Moso bamboo

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
37 Use of Bamboo Piles in Ground Improvement Design: Case Study

Authors: Thayalan Nall, Andreas Putra

Abstract:

A major offshore reclamation work is currently underway in Southeast Asia for a container terminal. The total extent of the reclamation extent is 2600m x 800m and the seabed level is around -5mRL below mean sea level. Subsoil profile below seabed comprises soft marine clays of thickness varying from 8m to 15m. To contain the dredging spoil within the reclamation area, perimeter bunds have been constructed to +2.5mRL. They include breakwaters of trapezoidal geometry, made of boulder size rock along the northern, eastern and western perimeters, with a sand bund along the southern perimeter. Breakwaters were constructed on a composite bamboo pile and raft foundation system. Bamboo clusters 8m long, with 7 individual Bamboos bundled together as one, have been installed within the footprint of the breakwater below seabed in soft marine clay. To facilitate drainage two prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) have been attached to each cluster. Once the cluster piles were installed, a bamboo raft was placed as a load transfer platform. Rafts were made up of 5 layers of bamboo mattress, and in each layer bamboos were spaced at 200mm centres. The rafts wouldn’t sink under their own weight, and hence, they were sunk by loading quarry run rock onto them. Bamboo is a building material available in abundance in Indonesia and obtained at a relatively low cost. They are commonly used as semi-rigid inclusions to improve compressibility and stability of soft soils. Although bamboo is widely used in soft soil engineering design, no local design guides are available and the designs are carried out based on local experience. In June 2015, when the 1st load of sand was pumped by a dredging vessel next to the breakwater, a 150m long section of the breakwater underwent failure and displaced the breakwater between 1.2m to 4.0m. The cause of the failure was investigated to implement remedial measures to reduce the risk of further failures. Analyses using both limit equilibrium approach and finite element modelling revealed two plausible modes of breakwater failure. This paper outlines: 1) Developed Geology and the ground model, 2) The techniques used for the installation of bamboo piles, 3) Details of the analyses including modes and mechanism of failure and 4) Design changes incorporated to reduce the risk of failure.

Keywords: bamboo piles, ground improvement, reclamation, breakwater failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
36 Composite Panels from Under-Utilized Wood and Agricultural Fiber Resources

Authors: Salim Hiziroglu

Abstract:

Rice straw, jute, coconut fiber, oil palm, bagasse and bamboo are some of agricultural resources that can be used to produce different types of value-added composite panels including particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF). Invasive species such as Eastern red cedar in South Western states in the USA would also be considered as viable raw material to manufacture above products. The main objective of this study was to investigate both physical and mechanical properties of both structural and non-structural panels manufactured from underutilized and agricultural species. Eastern red cedar, bamboo and rice straw were used to manufacture experimental panels. Properties of such samples including bending, internal bond strength, thickness swelling, density profiles and surface roughness were evaluated. Panels made 100% bamboo had the best properties among the other samples. Having rice straw in particleboard and medium density fiberboard panels reduced overall properties of the samples. Manufacturing interior sandwich type of panels having fibers on the face layers while particle of the same type of materials in the core improved their surface quality. Based on the findings of this work such species could have potential to be used as raw material to manufacture value-added panels with accepted properties.

Keywords: composite panels, wood and non-wood fibers, mechanical properties, bamboo

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
35 The Effects of Implementing Platform Strategy for Craft Industry Development: A Case Study on Economic Value-Added of Taiwan Bamboo Village

Authors: Kuo-Wei Hsu, Shu-Fang Huang

Abstract:

Global trend in creative economies promoted the modernization process of the development of cultural and creative industries and technology coincided with the craft industry towards value-added industrial restructuring. Due to government support and economic motivation in the private sector, regional craft products have emerged across counties and cities all over Taiwan which have led to an increased focus on craft culture promotion. However, most craft industry corporations in Taiwan are micro-enterprise, restricted operating profitability. This phenomenon shows the weakness of craft industry constitution when facing the rapid expansion of global economic commerce and manufacturing. In recent years, combining public and private enterprise, Platform business models revolutionary changed in craft industries’ original operation and transaction models. Therefore, this study attempts to explore the effects by implementing platform strategy on bamboo industry development in Nantou, the hometown of crafts in Taiwan, with an experimental investigation. This study concluded that platform strategy increases essence and insubstantial value for the bamboo industry in Taiwan. This study explored the economic value added of Taiwan bamboo village with three perspectives: Community participation, Culture Conservation, Regional Rejuvenation.

Keywords: platform strategy, craft industry, economic value-added

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
34 Improving the Dimensional Stability of Bamboo Woven Strand Board

Authors: Gulelat Gatew

Abstract:

Bamboo Woven Strand Board (WSB) products are manufactured from Ethiopia highland bamboo (Yushania alpina) as a multiple layer mat structure for enhanced mechanical performance. Hence, it shows similar mechanical properties as tropical hardwood products. WSB, therefore, constitutes a sustainable alternative to tropical hardwood products. The resin and wax ratio had a great influence on the determinants properties of the product quality such as internal bonding, water absorption, thickness swelling, bending and stiffness properties. Among these properties, because of the hygroscopic nature of the bamboo, thickness swelling and water absorption are important performances of WSB for using in construction and outdoor facilities. When WSB is exposed to water or moist environment, they tend to swell and absorb water in all directions. The degree of swelling and water absorption depends on the type of resin used, resin formulation, resin ratio, wax type and ratio. The objective of this research is investigating effects of phenol formaldehyde and wax on thickness swelling and water absorption behavior on bamboo WSB for construction and outdoor facilities. The experiments were conducted to measure the effects of wax and phenol-formaldehyde resin content on WSB thickness swelling and water absorption which leads to investigate its effect on dimension stability and mechanical properties. Both experiments were performed with 2–hour and 24-hour water immersion test and a significant set of data regarding the influence of such method parameters is also presented. The addition of up to 2% wax with 10% of phenol formaldehyde significantly reduced thickness swelling and water absorption of WSB which resulted in making it more hydrophobic and less susceptible to the influences of moisture in high humidity conditions compared to the panels without wax.

Keywords: woven strand board (WSB), water absorption, thickness swelling, phenol formaldehyde resin

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
33 Evaluation of Radio Protective Potential of Indian Bamboo Leaves

Authors: Mansi Patel, Priti Mehta

Abstract:

Background: Ionizing radiations have detrimental effects on humans, and the growing technological encroachment has increased human exposure to it enormously. So, the safety issues have emphasized researchers to develop radioprotector from natural resources having minimal toxicity. A substance having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activity can be a potential candidate for radioprotection. One such plant with immense potential i.e. Bamboo was selected for the present study. Purpose: The study aims to evaluate the potential of Indian bamboo leaves for protection against the clastogenic effect of gamma radiation. Methods: The protective effect of bamboo leaf extract against gamma radiation-induced genetic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) was evaluated in vitro using Cytokinesis blocked micronuclei assay (CBMN). The blood samples were pretreated with varying concentration of extract 30 min before the radiation exposure (4Gy & 6Gy). The reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was observed for the irradiated and control groups. The effect of various concentration of bamboo leaf extract (400,600,800 mg/kg) on the development of radiation induced sickness and altered mortality in mice exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation was studied. The developed symptoms were clinically scored by multiple endpoints for 30 days. Results: Treatment of HPBLs with varying concentration of extract before exposure to a different dose of γ- radiation resulted in significant (P < 0.0001) decline of radiation induced micronuclei. It showed dose dependent and concentration driven activity. The maximum protection ~ 70% was achieved at nine µg/ml concentration. Extract treated whole body irradiated mice showed 50%, 83.3% and 100% survival for 400, 600, and 800mg/kg with 1.05, 0.43 and 0 clinical score respectively when compared to Irradiated mice having 6.03 clinical score and 0% survival. Conclusion: Our findings indicate bamboo leaf extract reduced the radiation induced cytogenetic damage. It has also increased the survival ratio and reduced the radiation induced sickness and mortality when exposed to a lethal dose of gamma radiation.

Keywords: bamboo leaf extract, Cytokinesis blocked micronuclei (CBMN) assay, ionizing radiation, radio protector

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
32 Sensitizing Bamboo Fabric with Antimicrobial Turmeric Dye

Authors: Varinder Kaur, Amanjit Kaur, Simran Kaur, Samriti Vaid

Abstract:

Coating of fabrics with anti-microbial dyes is an adaptable technique of protection from various diseases. Natural dyes, which are known to possess antibacterial properties, can be used for antibacterial finishing of fibers like cotton, wool, bamboo and so many. Dyeing of fabrics with natural dyes normally requires the use of mordants so that dyes can stay on the fabric as well as into interstices of the fabric during multiple washings. In this study, the mordants used are alum and chitosan for ensuring a reasonable color fastness to light and washing. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide having significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, microbial activity and polycationicity. The metal ion of alum mordant can act as electron acceptor for electron donor to form coordination bond with the dye molecule, making them insoluble in water. The dyeing of bamboo fabric using a natural dye extracted from turmeric has been studied using conventional dyeing method. Natural dye was extracted using water as solvent by Soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity. The effect of mordants on the dyeing outcome in terms of colour depth as well as fastness properties of the dyeing was investigated. It has been found that employing the conventional dyeing technique at 100 oC, the mordanted samples were deeper in depth than their unmordanted counterparts. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Turmeric extract was found to enhance microbial resistance of bamboo as well as was itself as a good cause of coloration. These textiles dyed with the turmeric as natural dye can be very useful in developing clothing for infants, elderly and infirm people to protect them against common infections. The outcome of this study will provide a new feature to the interface of dyeing and pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bamboo fabric, natural dye, turmeric

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
31 Study on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan

Abstract:

Bamboo fiber (BF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, bamboo composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-65% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the BF/PP composites untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical, and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact, and bending properties were observed precisely. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) were found for 50 wt% fiber composites, 65 MPa, and 85.5 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 5.73 GPa and 7.85 GPa respectively. The BF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy doses). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 30.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated BF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated BF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.

Keywords: bamboo fiber, polypropylene, compression molding technique, gamma radiation, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
30 Sustainable Development Approach for Coastal Erosion Problem in Thailand: Using Bamboo Sticks to Rehabilitate Coastal Erosion

Authors: Sutida Maneeanakekul, Dusit Wechakit, Somsak Piriyayota

Abstract:

Coastal erosion is a major problem in Thailand, in both the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea coasts. According to the Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, land erosion occurred along the 200 km coastline with an average rate of 5 meters/year. Coastal erosion affects public and government properties, as well as the socio-economy of the country, including emigration in coastal communities, loss of habitats, and decline in fishery production. To combat the problem of coastal erosion, projects utilizing bamboo sticks for coastal defense against erosion were carried out in 5 areas beginning in November, 2010, including: Pak Klong Munharn- Samut Songkhram Province; Ban Khun Samutmaneerat, Pak Klong Pramong and Chao Matchu Shrine-Samut Sakhon Province,and Pak Klong Hongthong – Chachoengsao Province by Marine and Coastal Resources Department. In 2012, an evaluation of the effectiveness of solving the problem of coastal erosion by using bamboo stick was carried out, with a focus on three aspects. Firstly, the change in physical and biological features after using the bamboo stick technique was assessed. Secondly, participation of people in the community in the way of managing the problem of coastal erosion were these aspects evaluated as part of the study. The last aspect that was evaluated is the satisfaction of the community toward this technique. The results of evaluation showed that the amounts of sediment have dramatically changed behind the bamboo sticks lines. The increase of sediment was found to be about 23.50-56.20 centimeters (during 2012-2013). In terms of biological aspect, there has been an increase in mangrove forest areas, especially at Bang Ya Prak, Samut Sakhon Province. Average tree density was found to be about 4,167 trees per square meter. Additionally, an increase in production of fisheries was observed. Presently, the change in the evaluated physical features tends to increase in every aspect, including the satisfaction of people in community toward the process of solving the erosion problem. People in the community are involved in the preparatory, operation, monitoring and evaluation process to resolve the problem in the medium levels.

Keywords: bamboo sticks, coastal erosion, rehabilitate, Thailand sustainable development approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 157