Search results for: cryogenic gas bottles
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 166

Search results for: cryogenic gas bottles

166 Processing Studies and Challenges Faced in Development of High-Pressure Titanium Alloy Cryogenic Gas Bottles

Authors: Bhanu Pant, Sanjay H. Upadhyay


Frequently, the upper stage of high-performance launch vehicles utilizes cryogenic tank-submerged pressurization gas bottles with high volume-to-weight efficiency to achieve a direct gain in the satellite payload. Titanium alloys, owing to their high specific strength coupled with excellent compatibility with various fluids, are the materials of choice for these applications. Amongst the Titanium alloys, there are two alloys suitable for cryogenic applications, namely Ti6Al4V-ELI and Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI. The two-phase alpha-beta alloy Ti6Al4V-ELI is usable up to LOX temperature of 90K, while the single-phase alpha alloy Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI can be used down to LHe temperature of 4 K. The high-pressure gas bottles submerged in the LH2 (20K) can store more amount of gas in as compared to those submerged in LOX (90K) bottles the same volume. Thus, the use of these alpha alloy gas bottles stored at 20K gives a distinct advantage with respect to the need for a lesser number of gas bottles to store the same amount of high-pressure gas, which in turn leads to a one-to-one advantage in the payload in the satellite. The cost advantage to the tune of 15000$/ kg of weight is saved in the upper stages, and, thereby, the satellite payload gain is expected by this change. However, the processing of alpha Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI alloy gas bottles poses challenges due to the lower forgeability of the alloy and mode of qualification for the critical severe application environment. The present paper describes the processing and challenges/ solutions during the development of these advanced gas bottles for LH2 (20K) applications.

Keywords: titanium alloys, cryogenic gas bottles, alpha titanium alloy, alpha-beta titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
165 Challenges of Cryogenic Fluid Metering by Coriolis Flowmeter

Authors: Evgeniia Shavrina, Yan Zeng, Boo Cheong Khoo, Vinh-Tan Nguyen


The present paper is aimed at providing a review of error sources in cryogenic metering by Coriolis flowmeters (CFMs). Whereas these flowmeters allow accurate water metering, high uncertainty and low repeatability are commonly observed at cryogenic fluid metering, which is often necessary for effective renewable energy production and storage. The sources of these issues might be classified as general and cryogenic specific challenges. A conducted analysis of experimental and theoretical studies shows that material behaviour at cryogenic temperatures, composition variety, and multiphase presence are the most significant cryogenic challenges. At the same time, pipeline diameter limitation, ambient vibration impact, and drawbacks of the installation may be highlighted as the most important general challenges of cryogenic metering by CFM. Finally, the techniques, which mitigate the impact of these challenges are reviewed, and future development direction is indicated.

Keywords: Coriolis flowmeter, cryogenic, multicomponent flow, multiphase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
164 Design to Cryogenic System for Dilution Refrigerator with Cavity and Superconducting Magnet

Authors: Ki Woong Lee


The Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research is studying the search for dark matter using 12 tesla superconducting magnets. A dilution refrigerator is being used for search experiments, and superconducting magnets, superconducting cavities. The dilution refrigerator requires a stable cryogenic environment using liquid helium. Accordingly, a cryogenic system for a stable supply of liquid helium is to be established. This cryogenic system includes the liquefying, supply, storage, and purification of liquid helium. This article presents the basic design, construction, and operation plans for building cryogenic systems.

Keywords: cryogenic system, dilution refrigerator, superconducting magnet, helium recovery system

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
163 Joint Modeling of Bottle Use, Daily Milk Intake from Bottles, and Daily Energy Intake in Toddlers

Authors: Yungtai Lo


The current study follows an educational intervention on bottle-weaning to simultaneously evaluate the effect of the bottle-weaning intervention on reducing bottle use, daily milk intake from bottles, and daily energy intake in toddlers aged 11 to 13 months. A shared parameter model and a random effects model are used to jointly model bottle use, daily milk intake from bottles, and daily energy intake. We show in the two joint models that the bottle-weaning intervention promotes bottleweaning, and reduces daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers not off bottles and daily energy intake. We also show that the odds of drinking from a bottle were positively associated with the amount of milk intake from bottles and increased daily milk intake from bottles was associated with increased daily energy intake. The effect of bottle use on daily energy intake is through its effect on increasing daily milk intake from bottles that in turn increases daily energy intake.

Keywords: two-part model, semi-continuous variable, joint model, gamma regression, shared parameter model, random effects model

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
162 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Various Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Different Material: A Review

Authors: Prashant Dhiman, Viranshu Kumar, Pradeep Joshi


Lot of research is going on to study the effect of cryogenic treatment on materials. Cryogenic treatment is a heat treatment process which is used widely to enhance the mechanical and metallurgical properties of various materials whether the material is ferrous or non ferrous. In almost all ferrous metals, it is found that retained austenite is converted into martensite. Generally deep cryogenic treatment is done using liquid nitrogen having temperature of -195 ℃. The austenite is unstable at this stage and converts into martensite. In non ferrous materials there presents a microcavity and under the action of stress it becomes crack. When this crack propagates, fracture takes place. As the metal contract under low temperature, by doing cryogenic treatment these microcavities will be filled hence increases the soundness of the material. Properties which are enhanced by cryogenic treatment of both ferrous and non ferrous materials are hardness, tensile strength, wear rate, electrical and thermal conductivity, and others. Also there is decrease in residual stress. A large number of manufacturing process (EDM, CNC etc.) are using cryogenic treatment on different tools or workpiece to reduce their wear. In this Review paper the use of cryogenic heat treatment in different manufacturing has been shown along with their advantages.

Keywords: cyrogenic treatment, EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining), CNC (Computer Numeric Control), Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
161 Optimization of Machining Parameters by Using Cryogenic Media

Authors: Shafqat Wahab, Waseem Tahir, Manzoor Ahmad, Sarfraz Khan, M. Azam


Optimization and analysis of tool flank wear width and surface finish of alloy steel rods are studied in the presence of cryogenic media (LN2) by using Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404- WF 4215). Robust design concept of Taguchi L9(34) method and ANOVA is applied to determine the contribution of key cutting parameters and their optimum conditions. Through analysis, it revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear width while surface finish is mostly dependent on feed rate.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic fluid, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface roughness, taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 645
160 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden


Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
159 Improvement in Tool Life Through Optimizing Cutting Parameters Using Cryogenic Media in Machining of Aerospace Alloy Steel

Authors: Waseem Tahir, Syed Hussain Imran Jaffery, Mohammad Azam


In this research work, liquid nitrogen gas (LN2) is used as a cryogenic media to optimize the cutting parameters for evaluation of tool flank wear width of Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404-WF 4215) while turning a high strength alloy steel. Robust design concept of Taguchi L9 (34) method is applied to determine the optimum conditions. The analysis is revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear. However, High Speed Machining is shown most significant as compare to cooling media on work piece surface roughness.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface finish

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
158 Recovery of Post-Consumer PET Bottles in a Composite Material Preparation

Authors: Rafenomananjara Tsinjo Nirina, Tomoo Sekito, Andrianaivoravelona Jaconnet Oliva


Manufacturing a composite material from post-consumer bottles is an interesting outlet since Madagascar is still facing the challenges of managing plastic waste on the one hand and appropriate waste treatment facilities are not yet developed on the other hand. New waste management options are needed to divert End-Of-Life (EOL) soft plastic wastes from landfills and incineration. Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles might be considered as a valuable resource and recovered into polymer concrete. The methodology is easy to implement and appropriate to the local context in Madagascar. This approach will contribute to the production of ecological building materials that might be profitable for the environment and the construction sector. This work aims to study the feasibility of using the post-consumer PET bottles as an alternative binding agent instead of the conventional Portland cement and water. Then, the mechanical and physical properties of the materials were evaluated.

Keywords: PET recycling, polymer concrete, ecological building materials, pollution mitigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
157 Comparison of Bactec plus Blood Culture Media to BacT/Alert FAN plus Blood Culture Media for Identification of Bacterial Pathogens in Clinical Samples Containing Antibiotics

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Ela Tasdogan, Ercan Kurtipek


Aim: The aim of this study was to compare resin based Bactec plus aerobic/anaerobic blood culture bottles (Becton Dickinson, MD, USA) and polymeric beads based BacT/Alert FA/FN plus blood culture bottles (bioMerieux, NC, USA) in terms of microorganisms recovery rates and time to detection (TTD) in the patients receiving antibiotic treatment. Method: Blood culture samples were taken from the patients who admitted to the intensive care unit and received antibiotic treatment. Forty milliliters of blood from patients were equally distributed into four types of bottles: Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus. Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media were compared to culture recovery rates and TTD. Results: Blood culture samples were collected from 382 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and 245 patients who were diagnosed as having bloodstream infections were included in the study. A total of 1528 Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus blood culture bottles analyzed and 176, 144, 154, 126 bacteria or fungi were isolated, respectively. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were significantly more frequently isolated in the resin-based Bactec Plus bottles than in the polymeric beads based BacT/Alert Plus bottles. The Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media recovery rates were similar for fungi and anaerobic bacteria. The mean TTDs in the Bactec Plus bottles were shorter than those in the BacT/Alert Plus bottles regardless of the microorganisms. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resin-containing media is a reliable and time-saving tool for patients who are receiving antibiotic treatment due to sepsis in the intensive care unit.

Keywords: Bactec Plus, BacT/Alert Plus, blood culture, antibiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
156 Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites

Authors: K. N. Umesh


Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.

Keywords: Cryogenic Machining, Process Capability, Surface Finish, Wood Polymer Composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
155 Production of Premium Quality Cinnamon Bark Powder Using Cryogenic Grinding

Authors: Monika R. Bhoi, R. F. Sutar, Bhaumik B. Patel


The objective of this research paper is to obtain the premium quality of cinnamon bark powder through cryogenic grinding technology. The effect of grinding temperature (0, -20, -40, -60, -80 and -100˚C), feed rate (8, 9 and 10 kg/h), and sieve size (0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mm) were evaluated with respect to grinding time, volatile oil content, particle size, energy consumption, and liquid nitrogen consumption. Cryogenic grinding process parameters were optimized to obtain premium quality cinnamon bark powder was carried out using three factorial completely randomized design. The optimization revealed that grinding of cinnamon bark at -80⁰C temperature using 0.8 mm sieve size and 10 kg/h feed rate resulted in premium quality cinnamon bark powder containing volatile oil 3.01%. In addition, volatile oil retention in cryogenically ground powder was 88.23%, whereas control (ambient grinding) had 33.11%. Storage study of premium quality cryogenically ground powder was carried out under accelerated storage conditions (38˚C & 90% R.H). Accelerated storage of cryoground powder was found to be advantageous over the conventional ground for extended storage of the ground cinnamon powder with retention of its nutritional quality. Hence, grinding of spices at optimally low cryogenic temperature is a promising technology for the production of its premium quality powder economically.

Keywords: cinnamon bark, cryogenic grinding, feed rate, volatile oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
154 Titanium Alloys for Cryogenic Gas Bottle Applications: A Comparative Study

Authors: Bhanu Pant, Sanjay H. Upadhyay


Titanium alloys, owing to their high specific strength coupled with excellent resistance to corrosion in many severe environments, find extensive usage in the aerospace sector. Alpha and beta lean Titanium alloys have an additional characteristic of exhibiting high toughness with an NTS/ UTS ratio greater than one down to liquid oxygen and liquid helium temperatures. The cryogenic stage of high-performance rockets utilizes cryo-fluid submerged pressurizing tanks to improve volume to mass performance factor. A superior volume-to-mass ratio is achieved for LH2-submerged pressurizing tanks as compared to those submerged in LOX. Such high-efficiency tanks for LH2 submerged application necessitate the use of difficult to process alpha type Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI alloy, which requires close control of process parameters to develop the tanks. In the present paper, a comparison of this alpha-type cryogenic Titanium alloy has been brought out with conventional alpha-beta Ti6Al4V-ELI alloy, which is usable up to LOX temperatures. Specific challenges faced during the development of these cryogenic pressurizing tanks for a launch vehicle based on the author's experience are included in the paper on the comparatively lesser-studied alpha Ti5Al2.5Sn-ELI alloy.

Keywords: cryogenic tanks, titanium Alloys, NTS/UTS ratio, alpha and alpha-beta ELI alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
153 Behavior of Pet Packaging on Quality Characteristics of an Algerian Virgin Olive Oil Under Various Conditions of Storage

Authors: Hamitri-Guerfi Fatiha, Mekimene Lekhder, Madani Khodir, Youyou Ahcene


Virgin olive oil is appreciated by consumers, the quality of the oil is regulated by the international olive oil council depends on its chemical composition, so, the correct packing conditions are a prerequisite to preserve oil color, flavor, and nutriments, from production to consumption. The contact of food with various materials of packaging, since the production, until their consumption constitutes one of the essential aspects of food safety (directive 76/833/CEE). In Algeria, plastic bottles, although, they are economic and light are largely used at packaging olive oil but not used in other countries. This is due to migration phenomena that can occur from these materials. Thus, the goal of this work is to examine the physicochemical behavior of the couple packaging plastic-oil during their exposure to three temperatures corresponding to the conditions of storage applied in Algeria. Like, it is difficult to compare blowers of bottles which are heavy engineering, it comes out from this study that the effect of heat, the absorption of water, the constraints of storage of acidity, as well as the composition of oil, the PET bottles showed a remarkable structural instability, this defect of quality was confirmed by the analysis of morphology by electronic scan microscopy. These bottles present a total migration significantly higher than the threshold of acceptance. Moreover, a metal contamination of oil by its packaging was confirmed by the spectroscopy of atomic absorption and a microanalysis. The differences observed between the results of the microanalysis applied and the mechanical characterizations of the various bottles are reported, showing the reality of the container-contents exchanges.

Keywords: interaction, stability, pet, virgin olive oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
152 Assessing Effects of an Intervention on Bottle-Weaning and Reducing Daily Milk Intake from Bottles in Toddlers Using Two-Part Random Effects Models

Authors: Yungtai Lo


Two-part random effects models have been used to fit semi-continuous longitudinal data where the response variable has a point mass at 0 and a continuous right-skewed distribution for positive values. We review methods proposed in the literature for analyzing data with excess zeros. A two-part logit-log-normal random effects model, a two-part logit-truncated normal random effects model, a two-part logit-gamma random effects model, and a two-part logit-skew normal random effects model were used to examine effects of a bottle-weaning intervention on reducing bottle use and daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers aged 11 to 13 months in a randomized controlled trial. We show in all four two-part models that the intervention promoted bottle-weaning and reduced daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers drinking from a bottle. We also show that there are no differences in model fit using either the logit link function or the probit link function for modeling the probability of bottle-weaning in all four models. Furthermore, prediction accuracy of the logit or probit link function is not sensitive to the distribution assumption on daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers not off bottles.

Keywords: two-part model, semi-continuous variable, truncated normal, gamma regression, skew normal, Pearson residual, receiver operating characteristic curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
151 Retail Managers’ Perception on Coca-Cola Company’s Success of Glass Package Recovery and Recycling in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Brigitte Wabuyabo-Okonga


Little research has been done to establish the level of success of Coca Cola Company in recycling and reusing their glass bottles. This paper attempts to establish retail managers’ perception of the company’s self acclaimed success. Retail managers of supermarkets in the CBD of Nairobi, Kenya were considered for the study. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive (mean, frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (correlation analysis) were used to analyze the data. The study found out that there is relative success although a lot needs to be done. For example, improving in communicating policy issues and in practice enhance the actual collection of broken and/or non-broken Coca Cola Company glass bottles through providing drop-off points in open areas such as on the streets and in parks.

Keywords: Coca Cola Company glass bottles, Kenya, Nairobi, packaging, retail manager

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
150 Examining of Tool Wear in Cryogenic Machining of Cobalt-Based Haynes 25 Superalloy

Authors: Murat Sarıkaya, Abdulkadir Güllü


Haynes 25 alloy (also known as L-605 alloy) is cobalt based super alloy which has widely applications such as aerospace industry, turbine and furnace parts, power generators and heat exchangers and petroleum refining components due to its excellent characteristics. However, the workability of this alloy is more difficult compared to normal steels or even stainless. In present work, an experimental investigation was performed under cryogenic cooling to determine cutting tool wear patterns and obtain optimal cutting parameters in turning of cobalt based superalloy Haynes 25. In experiments, uncoated carbide tool was used and cutting speed (V) and feed rate (f) were considered as test parameters. Tool wear (VBmax) were measured for process performance indicators. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the importance of machining parameters.

Keywords: cryogenic machining, difficult-to-cut alloy, tool wear, turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 572
149 Magnetocaloric Effect in Ho₂O₃ Nanopowder at Cryogenic Temperature

Authors: K. P. Shinde, M. V. Tien, H. Lin, H.-R. Park, S.-C.Yu, K. C. Chung, D.-H. Kim


Magnetic refrigeration provides an attractive alternative cooling technology due to its potential advantages such as high cooling efficiency, environmental friendliness, low noise, and compactness over the conventional cooling techniques based on gas compression. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) occurs by changes in entropy (ΔS) and temperature (ΔT) under external magnetic fields. We have been focused on identifying materials with large MCE in two temperature regimes, not only room temperature but also at cryogenic temperature for specific technological applications, such as space science and liquefaction of hydrogen in fuel industry. To date, the commonly used materials for cryogenic refrigeration are based on hydrated salts. In the present work, we report giant MCE in rare earth Ho2O3 nanopowder at cryogenic temperature. HoN nanoparticles with average size of 30 nm were prepared by using plasma arc discharge method with gas composition of N2/H2 (80%/20%). The prepared HoN was sintered in air atmosphere at 1200 oC for 24 hrs to convert it into oxide. Structural and morphological properties were studied by XRD and SEM. XRD confirms the pure phase and cubic crystal structure of Ho2O3 without any impurity within error range. It has been discovered that Holmium oxide exhibits giant MCE at low temperature without magnetic hysteresis loss with the second-order antiferromagnetic phase transition with Néels temperature around 2 K. The maximum entropy change was found to be 25.2 J/kgK at an applied field of 6 T.

Keywords: magnetocaloric effect, Ho₂O₃, magnetic entropy change, nanopowder

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
148 Investigating the Rate of Migration of Plasticizers from PET Bottles into Salad Oil during Storage

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Amir H. Soruri, Ali Moghimi


Nowadays, salad oils are used in many countries around the world. Therefore, it is of great importance to ensure the safety of these food products which are usually packaged in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and come on the market. This study investigated the effects of storage time and temperature on the migration rate of phthalate compounds from PET bottle to salad oil. In more detail, migration rate of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from bottles to salad oil samples was measured in 1st, the 30th, and the 60th days of storage at a temperature of either 20 or 40 °C. At both storage temperatures, an increase in the storage time led to a statistically significant increase in the migration rate of phthalate compounds (p<.01). Regarding this, the highest migration rate occurred after 60 days of storage in to the samples. Furthermore, it was revealed bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had a higher migration rate at 40 °C than at 20 °C which showed that an increase in the storage temperature would lead to an increase in the migration rate. The highest migration rate occurred in relation to salad oil stored at 40 °C and after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: salad oil, migration rate, polyethylene terephthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
147 Suitable Die Shaping for a Rectangular Shape Bottle by Application of FEM and AI Technique

Authors: N. Ploysook, R. Rugsaj, C. Suvanjumrat


The characteristic requirement for producing rectangular shape bottles was a uniform thickness of the plastic bottle wall. Die shaping was a good technique which controlled the wall thickness of bottles. An advance technology which was the finite element method (FEM) for blowing parison to be a rectangular shape bottle was conducted to reduce waste plastic from a trial and error method of a die shaping and parison control method. The artificial intelligent (AI) comprised of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm was selected to optimize the die gap shape from the FEM results. The application of AI technique could optimize the suitable die gap shape for the parison blow molding which did not depend on the parison control method to produce rectangular bottles with the uniform wall. Particularly, this application can be used with cheap blow molding machines without a parison controller therefore it will reduce cost of production in the bottle blow molding process.

Keywords: AI, bottle, die shaping, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
146 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Hybrid Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: B. Vinod, L. J. Sudev


Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material are gaining lot of attention in recent years. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are gaining importance. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
145 Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Hemp/Jute Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature

Authors: B. Vinod, L. Jsudev


Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material is gaining lot of attention in recent years, as they are light in weight, less in cost, and ecologically advanced surrogate material to glass and carbon fibers in composites. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites like cryogenic wind tunnels, cryogenic transport vessels, support structures in space shuttles and rockets are gaining importance. In these unique cryogenic applications, the requirements of polymer composites are extremely severe and complicated. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures such as liquid helium (4.2 K), liquid hydrogen (20 K), liquid nitrogen (77 K), and liquid oxygen (90 K) temperatures, etc., to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hemp and Jute fibers are used as reinforcement material as they have high specific strength, stiffness and good adhering property and has the potential to replace the synthetic fibers. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
144 Mechanical Properties of D2 Tool Steel Cryogenically Treated Using Controllable Cooling

Authors: A. Rabin, G. Mazor, I. Ladizhenski, R. Shneck, Z.


The hardness and hardenability of AISI D2 cold work tool steel with conventional quenching (CQ), deep cryogenic quenching (DCQ) and rapid deep cryogenic quenching heat treatments caused by temporary porous coating based on magnesium sulfate was investigated. Each of the cooling processes was examined from the perspective of the full process efficiency, heat flux in the austenite-martensite transformation range followed by characterization of the temporary porous layer made of magnesium sulfate using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), surface and core hardness and hardenability using Vickr’s hardness technique. The results show that the cooling rate (CR) at the austenite-martensite transformation range have a high influence on the hardness of the studied steel.

Keywords: AISI D2, controllable cooling, magnesium sulfate coating, rapid cryogenic heat treatment, temporary porous layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
143 Deep Cryogenic Treatment With Subsequent Aging Applied to Martensitic Stainless Steel: Evaluation of Hardness, Tenacity and Microstructure

Authors: Victor Manuel Alcántara Alza


The way in which the application of the deep cryogenic treatment DCT(-196°C) affects, applied with subsequent aging, was investigated, regarding the mechanical properties of hardness, toughness and microstructure, applied to martensitic stainless steels, with the aim of establishing a different methodology compared to the traditional DCT cryogenic treatment with subsequent tempering. For this experimental study, a muffle furnace was used, first subjecting the specimens to deep cryogenization in a liquid Nitrogen bath/4h, after being previously austenitized at the following temperatures: 1020-1030-1040-1050 (°C) / 1 hour; and then tempered in oil. A first group of cryogenic samples were subjected to subsequent aging at 150°C, with immersion times: 2.5 -5- 10 - 20 - 50 – 100 (h). The next group was subjected to subsequent tempering at temperatures: 480-500-510-520-530-540 (°C)/ 2h. The hardness tests were carried out under standards, using a Universal Durometer, and the readings were made on the HRC scale. The Impact Resistance tests were carried out in a Charpy machine following the ASTM E 23 – 93ª standard. Measurements were taken in joules. Microscopy was performed at the optical level using a 1000X microscope. It was found: For the entire aging interval, the samples austenitized at 1050°C present greater hardness than austenitized at 1040°C, with the maximum peak aged being at 30h. In all cases, the aged samples exceed the hardness of the tempered samples, even in their minimum values. In post-tempered samples, the tempering temperature hardly have effect on the impact strength of material. In the Cryogenic Treatment: DCT + subsequent aging, the maximum hardness value (58.7 HRC) is linked to an impact toughness value (54J) obtained with aging time of 39h, which is considered an optimal condition. The higher hardness of steel after the DCT treatment is attributed to the transformation of retained austenite into martensite. The microstructure is composed mainly of lath martensite; and the original grain size of the austenite can be appreciated. The choice of the combination: Hardness-toughness, is subject to the required service conditions of steel.

Keywords: deep cryogenic treatment; aged precipitation; martensitic steels;, mechanical properties; martensitic steels, hardness, carbides precipitaion

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
142 Evaluation of Sloshing in Process Equipment for Floating Cryogenic Application

Authors: Bo Jin


A variety of process equipment having flow in and out is widely used in industrial land-based cryogenic facilities. In some of this equipment, such as vapor-liquid separator, a liquid level is established during the steady operation. As the implementation of such industrial processes extends to off-shore floating facilities, it is important to investigate the effect of sea motion on the process equipment partially filled with liquid. One important aspect to consider is the occurrence of sloshing therein. The flow characteristics are different from the classical study of sloshing, where the fluid is enclosed inside a vessel (e.g., storage tank) with no flow in or out. Liquid inside process equipment continuously flows in and out of the system. To understand this key difference, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate the liquid motion inside a partially filled cylinder with and without continuous flow in and out. For a partially filled vertical cylinder without any continuous flow in and out, the CFD model is found to be able to capture the well-known sloshing behavior documented in the literature. For the cylinder with a continuous steady flow in and out, the CFD simulation results demonstrate that the continuous flow suppresses sloshing. Given typical cryogenic fluid has very low viscosity, an analysis based on potential flow theory is developed to explain why flow into and out of the cylinder changes the natural frequency of the system and thereby suppresses sloshing. This analysis further validates the CFD results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, cryogenic process equipment, off-shore floating processes, sloshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
141 Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Aluminium Alloy Used for Making Heat Exchangers in Automotive HVAC System

Authors: H. Mohit


In automotive air conditioning system, two heat exchangers are used as evaporator and condenser which are placed inside the bonnet of a car in a compact manner. The dust particles from outside and moisture content produced during the process leads to formation of impure particles on the surface of evaporator coil. But in condenser coil, the impure particles are settling down due to dust from atmosphere. The major problem of the heat exchanger used in automotive air conditioning is leakage of refrigerant due to corrosion. This effect of corrosion will lead to damage on the surface of heat exchanger and leakage of refrigerant from the system. To protect from corrosion, coatings are applied on its surfaces. Nowadays, to improve the corrosion resistance of these heat exchangers, hydrophilic coatings are used, which is very expensive. Cryogenic treatment is one method which involves the treatment of materials below -150 °C using the cryogenic fluid such as liquid nitrogen. In this project work, a study of improvement in corrosion resistance of materials of aluminium alloys of various grades as AA 1100, AA 6061, AA 6063 and AA 2024 that are mainly used for fin and tube heat exchangers in automotive air conditioning system is made. In total, five different processes are selected for these grades of aluminium alloy and various parameters like corrosion rate, dimensional stability, hardness and microstructure are measured. The improvements were observed in these parameters while comparing it with conventional heat treatment process.

Keywords: cryogenic treatment, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, materials science

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140 Hybrid Lubri-Coolants as an Alternatives to Mineral Based Emulsion in Machining Aerospace Alloy Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Muhammad Jamil, Ning He, Wei Zhao


Ti-6Al-4V has poor thermal conductivity (6.7W/mK) accumulates shear and friction heat at the tool-chip interface zone. To dissipate the heat generation and friction effect, cryogenic cooling, Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), nanofluids, hybrid cryogenic-MQL, solid lubricants, etc are applied frequently to underscore their significant effect on improving the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V. Nowadays, hybrid lubri-cooling is getting attention from researchers to explore their effect on machining Ti-6Al-4V.

Keywords: hybrid lubri-cooling, tool wear, surface roughness, minimum quantity lubrication

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139 Cryogenic Grinding of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Peel and Its Effect on Chemical and Morphological Characteristics

Authors: Bhupinder Kaur, P. P. Srivastav


The fruit and vegetable industries are responsible for producing huge amount of waste, which is a problem to environmental safety and should be utilized efficiently. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important commercially grown fruit and referred as the “King of fruits”. In 2015, India was the largest producer (18.506 MT) of mangoes and out of which 9.16 % lost during post-harvest handling. The mango kernel and peel represent approximately 17-22% and 7-22% of the overall mass of fruit respectively and discarded as waste. Hence, an attempt has been made with three mango cultivars (Langra, Dashehari, Fazli) to investigate the effect of cryogenic grinding on various characteristics of mango peel powder (MPP). The cryogenic grinding is an emerging technology which is used for retention of beneficial volatile and bioactive components. The feed rate was highest for Langra followed by Chausa. The samples have 2-4% fat along with significant amount of protein (4-6%) and crude fiber (9-13%). Mango peel is also a good source of minerals such as calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium. Interestingly, the significant amount of essential minerals like phosphorus and chlorine in all the varieties was found with the highest value in Langra (phosphorus 10.83% and chlorine 2.41%) which are not reported earlier. SEM analysis revealed the surface morphology and shape of the particles. Waste utilization is a promising measure from both an environmental and economic point of view. Chemical characterization of the samples indicated its potential to be used for the fortification of food products which in turn reduces hazards due to waste and improve functional quality of the foods.

Keywords: cryogenic grinding, morphological, mineral composition, SEM

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138 Optimization of Oxygen Plant Parameters Simulating with MATLAB

Authors: B. J. Sonani, J. K. Ratnadhariya, Srinivas Palanki


Cryogenic engineering is the fast growing branch of the modern technology. There are various applications of the cryogenic engineering such as liquefaction in gas industries, metal industries, medical science, space technology, and transportation. The low-temperature technology developed superconducting materials which lead to reduce the friction and wear in various components of the systems. The liquid oxygen, hydrogen and helium play vital role in space application. The liquefaction process is produced very low temperature liquid for various application in research and modern application. The air liquefaction system for oxygen plants in gas industries is based on the Claude cycle. The effect of process parameters on the overall system is difficult to be analysed by manual calculations, and this provides the motivation to use process simulators for understanding the steady state and dynamic behaviour of such systems. The parametric study of this system via MATLAB simulations provide useful guidelines for preliminary design of air liquefaction system based on the Claude cycle. Every organization is always trying for reduce the cost and using the optimum performance of the plant for the staying in the competitive market.

Keywords: cryogenic, liquefaction, low -temperature, oxygen, claude cycle, optimization, MATLAB

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137 Enhancement of Critical Temperature and Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide Superconductor

Authors: Hamed Rahmati


Nowadays, increasing demand for electric energy makes applying high-temperature superconductors inevitable. However, the most important problem of the superconductors is their critical temperature, which necessitates using a cryogenic system for keeping these substances’ temperatures lower than the critical level. Cryogenic systems used for this reason are not efficient enough, and keeping these large systems maintained is costly. Moreover, the low critical temperature of superconductors has delayed using them in electrical equipment. In this article, at first, characteristics of three superconductors, magnesium diboride (MgB2), yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO), and iron-based superconductors (FeSC), have been analyzed and a new structure of YBCO superconductors is presented. Generally, YBCO (YBa2Cu7O2) has a weak mechanical structure. By introducing some changes in its configuration and adding one silver atom (Ag) to it, its mechanical characteristics improved significantly. Moreover, for each added atom, a star-form structure was introduced in which changing the location of Ag atom led to considerable changes in temperature. In this study, Ag has been added by applying two accurate methods named random and substitute ones. The results of both methods have been examined. It has been shown that adding Ag by applying the substitute method can improve the mechanical properties of the superconductor in addition to increasing its critical temperature. In the mentioned strategy (using the substitute method), the critical temperature of the superconductor was measured up to 99 Kelvin. This new structure is usable in designing superconductors’ rings to be applied in superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). It can also lead to a reduction in the cryogenic system size, a decline in conductor wastes, and a decrease in costs of the whole system.

Keywords: critical temperature, cryogenic system, high-temperature superconductors, YBCO

Procedia PDF Downloads 126