Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: piezoelectrics

8 Design and Analysis of Hybrid Morphing Smart Wing for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Chetan Gupta, Ramesh Gupta


Unmanned aerial vehicles, of all sizes, are prime targets of the wing morphing concept as their lightweight structures demand high aerodynamic stability while traversing unsteady atmospheric conditions. In this research study, a hybrid morphing technology is developed to aid the trailing edge of the aircraft wing to alter its camber as a monolithic element rather than functioning as conventional appendages like flaps. Kinematic tailoring, actuation techniques involving shape memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectrics – individually fall short of providing a simplistic solution to the conundrum of morphing aircraft wings. On the other hand, the feature of negligible hysteresis while actuating using compliant mechanisms has shown higher levels of applicability and deliverability in morphing wings of even large aircrafts. This research paper delves into designing a wing section model with a periodic, multi-stable compliant structure requiring lower orders of topological optimization. The design is sub-divided into three smaller domains with external hyperelastic connections to achieve deflections ranging from -15° to +15° at the trailing edge of the wing. To facilitate this functioning, a hybrid actuation system by combining the larger bandwidth feature of piezoelectric macro-fibre composites and relatively higher work densities of shape memory alloy wires are used. Finite element analysis is applied to optimize piezoelectric actuation of the internal compliant structure. A coupled fluid-surface interaction analysis is conducted on the wing section during morphing to study the development of the velocity boundary layer at low Reynold’s numbers of airflow.

Keywords: compliant mechanism, hybrid morphing, piezoelectrics, shape memory alloys

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7 MEMS based Vibration Energy Harvesting: An overview

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Shaurya Kaushal, Pulkit Dubey, B. D. Pant


The current race of miniaturization of circuits, systems, modules and networks has resulted in portable and mobile wireless systems having tremendous capabilities with small volume and weight. The power drivers or the power pack, electrically driving these modules have also reduced in proportion. Normally, the power packs in these mobile or fixed systems are batteries, rechargeable or non-rechargeable, which need regular replacement or recharging. Another approach to power these modules is to utilize the ambient energy available for electrical driving to make the system self-sustained. The current paper presents an overview of the different MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based techniques used for the harvesting of vibration energy to electrically drive a WSN (wireless sensor network) or a mobile module. This kind of system would have enormous applications, the most significant one, may be in cell phones.

Keywords: energy harvesting, WSN, MEMS, piezoelectrics

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6 Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems

Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Tim Dekegel, Ann Peeters, Klara Stinders, Niek Blondeel, Sam De Winne, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi


Matching an embedded electronic application with a cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour due to the large number of factors influencing the output power. In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and frequency as variables.

Keywords: vibration energy harvesting, piezoelectrics, harvester parametrization, complementary balanced energy harvesting

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5 Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of Vanadium-Modified Lead-Free (K₀.₅Na₀.₅)NbO₃ Ceramics

Authors: Radhapiyari Laishram, Chongtham Jiten, K. Chandramani Singh


During the last decade, there has been a significant growth in developing lead-free piezoelectric ceramics which have the potential to replace the currently dominant but highly superior lead-based piezoelectric materials such as PZT. Among the lead-free piezoelectrics, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 - based piezoceramics are promising candidates due to their superior piezoelectric properties and high Curie temperatures. In this work, (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb1-xVx)O3 powders with x varying the range 0 to 0.05 were synthesized from the raw materials K2CO3, Na2CO3, Nb2O5, and V2O5. These powders were ball milled with high-energy Retsch PM 100 ball mill using isopropanol as the medium at the speed of 200rpm for a duration of 8h. The milled powders were sintered at 1080oC for 1h. The crystalline phase of all the calcined powders and corresponding ceramics prepared was found to be perovskite with orthorhombic symmetry. The ceramic with V5+ content of x=0.03 exhibits the maximum values in density of 4.292 g/cc, room temperature dielectric constant (εr) of 432, and piezoelectric charge constant (d33) of 93pC/N. For this sample, the dielectric tan δ loss remains relatively low over a wide temperature range. The temperature dependence of P-E hysteresis loops has been investigated for the ceramic composition with x = 0.03.

Keywords: dielectric properties, ferroelectric properties, perovskie, piezoelectric properties

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4 Study of Electro-Chemical Properties of ZnO Nanowires for Various Application

Authors: Meera A. Albloushi, Adel B. Gougam


The development in the field of piezoelectrics has led to a renewed interest in ZnO nanowires (NWs) as a promising material in the nanogenerator devices category. It can be used as a power source for self-powered electronic systems with higher density, higher efficiency, longer lifetime, as well as lower cost of fabrication. Highly aligned ZnO nanowires seem to exhibit a higher performance compared with nonaligned ones. The purpose of this study was to develop ZnO nanowires and to investigate their electrical and chemical properties for various applications. They were grown on silicon (100) and glass substrates. We have used a low temperature and non-hazardous method: aqueous chemical growth (ACG). ZnO (non-doped) and AZO (Aluminum doped) seed layers were deposited using RF magnetron sputteringunder Argon pressure of 3 mTorr and deposition power of 180 W, the times of growth were selected to obtain thicknesses in the range of 30 to 125 nm. Some of the films were subsequently annealed. The substrates were immersed tilted in an equimolar solution composed of zinc nitrate and hexamine (HMTA) of 0.02 M and 0.05 M in the temperature range of 80 to 90 ᵒC for 1.5 to 2 hours. The X-ray diffractometer shows strong peaks at 2Ө = 34.2ᵒ of ZnO films which indicates that the films have a preferred c-axis wurtzite hexagonal (002) orientation. The surface morphology of the films is investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM) which proved the uniformity of the film since the roughness is within 5 nm range. The scanning electron microscopes(SEM) (Quanta FEG 250, Quanta 3D FEG, Nova NanoSEM 650) are used to characterize both ZnO film and NWs. SEM images show forest of ZnO NWs grown vertically and have a range of length up to 2000 nm and diameter of 20-300 nm. The SEM images prove that the role of the seed layer is to enhance the vertical alignment of ZnO NWs at the pH solution of 5-6. Also electrical and optical properties of the NWs are carried out using Electrical Force Microscopy (EFM). After growing the ZnO NWs, developing the nano-generator is the second step of this study in order to determine the energy conversion efficiency and the power output.

Keywords: ZnO nanowires(NWs), aqueous chemical growth (ACG), piezoelectric NWs, harvesting enery

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3 Enhanced Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties in Holmium Substituted Stoichiometric and Non-Stoichiometric SBT Ferroelectric Ceramics

Authors: Sugandha Gupta, Arun Kumar Jha


A large number of ferroelectric materials have been intensely investigated for applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAMs), piezoelectric transducers, actuators, pyroelectric sensors, high dielectric constant capacitors, etc. Bismuth layered ferroelectric materials such as Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) has attracted a lot of attention due to low leakage current, high remnant polarization and high fatigue endurance up to 1012 switching cycles. However, pure SBT suffers from various major limitations such as high dielectric loss, low remnant polarization values, high processing temperature, bismuth volatilization, etc. Significant efforts have been made to improve the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of this compound. Firstly, it has been reported that electrical properties vary with the Sr/ Bi content ratio in the SrBi2Ta2O9 compsition i.e. non-stoichiometric compositions with Sr-deficient / Bi excess content have higher remnant polarization values than stoichiometic SBT compositions. With the objective to improve structural, dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of SBT compound, rare earth holmium (Ho3+) was chosen as a donor cation for substitution onto the Bi2O2 layer. Moreover, hardly any report on holmium substitution in stoichiometric SrBi2Ta2O9 and non-stoichiometric Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 compositions were available in the literature. The holmium substituted SrBi2-xHoxTa2O9 (x= 0.00-2.0) and Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 (x=0.0 and 0.01) compositions were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The synthesized specimens were characterized for their structural and electrical properties. X-ray diffractograms reveal single phase layered perovskite structure formation for holmium content in stoichiometric SBT samples up to x ≤ 0.1. The granular morphology of the samples was investigated using scanning electron microscope (Hitachi, S-3700 N). The dielectric measurements were carried out using a precision LCR meter (Agilent 4284A) operating at oscillation amplitude of 1V. The variation of dielectric constant with temperature shows that the Curie temperature (Tc) decreases on increasing the holmium content. The specimen with x=2.0 i.e. the bismuth free specimen, has very low dielectric constant and does not show any appreciable variation with temperature. The dielectric loss reduces significantly with holmium substitution. The polarization–electric field (P–E) hysteresis loops were recorded using a P–E loop tracer based on Sawyer–Tower circuit. It is observed that the ferroelectric property improve with Ho substitution. Holmium substituted specimen exhibits enhanced value of remnant polarization (Pr= 9.22 μC/cm²) as compared to holmium free specimen (Pr= 2.55 μC/cm²). Piezoelectric co-efficient (d33 values) was measured using a piezo meter system (Piezo Test PM300). It is observed that holmium substitution enhances piezoelectric coefficient. Further, the optimized holmium content (x=0.01) in stoichiometric SrBi2-xHoxTa2O9 composition has been substituted in non-stoichiometric Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 composition to obtain further enhanced structural and electrical characteristics. It is expected that a new class of ferroelectric materials i.e. Rare Earth Layered Structured Ferroelectrics (RLSF) derived from Bismuth Layered Structured Ferroelectrics (BLSF) will generate which can be used to replace static (SRAM) and dynamic (DRAM) random access memories with ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAMS).

Keywords: dielectrics, ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, strontium bismuth tantalate

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2 Concepts of Technologies Based on Smart Materials to Improve Aircraft Aerodynamic Performance

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Zbigniew Czyz, Ksenia Siadkowska, Piotr Borowiec


The article presents selected concepts of technologies that use intelligent materials in aircraft in order to improve their performance. Most of the research focuses on solutions that improve the performance of fixed wing aircraft due to related to their previously dominant market share. Recently, the development of the rotorcraft has been intensive, so there are not only helicopters but also gyroplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles using rotors and vertical take-off and landing. There are many different technologies to change a shape of the aircraft or its elements. Piezoelectric, deformable actuator systems can be applied in the system of an active control of vibration dampening in the aircraft tail structure. Wires made of shape memory alloys (SMA) could be used instead of hydraulic cylinders in the rear part of the aircraft flap. The aircraft made of intelligent materials (piezoelectrics and SMA) is one of the NASA projects which provide the possibility of changing a wing shape coefficient by 200%, a wing surface by 50%, and wing deflections by 20 degrees. Active surfaces made of shape memory alloys could be used to control swirls in the flowing stream. An intelligent control system for helicopter blades is a method for the active adaptation of blades to flight conditions and the reduction of vibrations caused by the rotor. Shape memory alloys are capable of recovering their pre-programmed shapes. They are divided into three groups: nickel-titanium-based, copper-based, and ferromagnetic. Due to the strongest shape memory effect and the best vibration damping ability, a Ni-Ti alloy is the most commercially important. The subject of this work was to prepare a conceptual design of a rotor blade with SMA actuators. The scope of work included 3D design of the supporting rotor blade, 3D design of beams enabling to change the geometry by changing the angle of rotation and FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. The FEM analysis was performed using NX 12 software in the Pre/Post module, which includes extended finite element modeling tools and visualizations of the obtained results. Calculations are presented for two versions of the blade girders. For FEM analysis, three types of materials were used for comparison purposes (ABS, aluminium alloy 7057, steel C45). The analysis of internal stresses and extreme displacements of crossbars edges was carried out. The internal stresses in all materials were close to the yield point in the solution of girder no. 1. For girder no. 2 solution, the value of stresses decreased by about 45%. As a result of the displacement analysis, it was found that the best solution was the ABS girder no. 1. The displacement of about 0.5 mm was obtained, which resulted in turning the crossbars (upper and lower) by an angle equal to 3.59 degrees. This is the largest deviation of all the tests. The smallest deviation was obtained for beam no. 2 made of steel. The displacement value of the second girder solution was approximately 30% lower than the first solution. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: aircraft, helicopters, shape memory alloy, SMA, smart material, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV

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1 In-Process Integration of Resistance-Based, Fiber Sensors during the Braiding Process for Strain Monitoring of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Authors: Oscar Bareiro, Johannes Sackmann, Thomas Gries


Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) are used in a wide variety of applications due to its advantageous properties and design versatility. The braiding process enables the manufacture of components with good toughness and fatigue strength. However, failure mechanisms of CFRPs are complex and still present challenges associated with their maintenance and repair. Within the broad scope of structural health monitoring (SHM), strain monitoring can be applied to composite materials to improve reliability, reduce maintenance costs and safely exhaust service life. Traditional SHM systems employ e.g. fiber optics, piezoelectrics as sensors, which are often expensive, time consuming and complicated to implement. A cost-efficient alternative can be the exploitation of the conductive properties of fiber-based sensors such as carbon, copper, or constantan - a copper-nickel alloy – that can be utilized as sensors within composite structures to achieve strain monitoring. This allows the structure to provide feedback via electrical signals to a user which are essential for evaluating the structural condition of the structure. This work presents a strategy for the in-process integration of resistance-based sensors (Elektrisola Feindraht AG, CuNi23Mn, Ø = 0.05 mm) into textile preforms during its manufacture via the braiding process (Herzog RF-64/120) to achieve strain monitoring of braided composites. For this, flat samples of instrumented composite laminates of carbon fibers (Toho Tenax HTS40 F13 24K, 1600 tex) and epoxy resin (Epikote RIMR 426) were manufactured via vacuum-assisted resin infusion. These flat samples were later cut out into test specimens and the integrated sensors were wired to the measurement equipment (National Instruments, VB-8012) for data acquisition during the execution of mechanical tests. Quasi-static tests were performed (tensile, 3-point bending tests) following standard protocols (DIN EN ISO 527-1 & 4, DIN EN ISO 14132); additionally, dynamic tensile tests were executed. These tests were executed to assess the sensor response under different loading conditions and to evaluate the influence of the sensor presence on the mechanical properties of the material. Several orientations of the sensor with regards to the applied loading and sensor placements inside the laminate were tested. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were made by programming a data acquisition code (LabView) written for the measurement equipment. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were then correlated to the strain/stress state for the tested samples. From the assessment of the sensor integration approach it can be concluded that it allows for a seamless sensor integration into the textile preform. No damage to the sensor or negative effect on its electrical properties was detected during inspection after integration. From the assessment of the mechanical tests of instrumented samples it can be concluded that the presence of the sensors does not alter significantly the mechanical properties of the material. It was found that there is a good correlation between resistance measurements from the integrated sensors and the applied strain. It can be concluded that the correlation is of sufficient accuracy to determinate the strain state of a composite laminate based solely on the resistance measurements from the integrated sensors.

Keywords: braiding process, in-process sensor integration, instrumented composite material, resistance-based sensor, strain monitoring

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