Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Benoit Durand

37 Molecular Survey and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae Strains Infecting Stray Cats from Algeria

Authors: Naouelle Azzag, Nadia Haddad, Benoit Durand, Elisabeth Petit, Ali Ammouche, Bruno Chomel, Henri J. Boulouis


Bartonella henselae is a small, gram negative, arthropod-borne bacterium that has been shown to cause multiple clinical manifestations in humans including cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, and bacteremia. In this research, we report the results of a cross sectional study of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in stray cats from Algiers. Whole blood of 227 stray cats from Algiers was tested for the presence of Bartonella species by culture and for the evaluation of the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats assay (MLVA). Bacteremia prevalence was 17% and only B. henselae was identified. Type I was the predominant type (64%). MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles. 51 of these profiles were specific to Algerian cats/identified for the first time. 20/30 cats (67%) harbored 2 to 7 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering showed that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain.

Keywords: Bartonella, cat, MLVA, genetic

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36 A Serious Game to Upgrade the Learning of Organizational Skills in Nursing Schools

Authors: Benoit Landi, Hervé Pingaud, Jean-Benoit Culie, Michel Galaup


Serious games have been widely disseminated in the field of digital learning. They have proved their utility in improving skills through virtual environments that simulate the field where new competencies have to be improved and assessed. This paper describes how we created CLONE, a serious game whose purpose is to help nurses create an efficient work plan in a hospital care unit. In CLONE, the number of patients to take care of is similar to the reality of their job, going far beyond what is currently practiced in nurse school classrooms. This similarity with the operational field increases proportionally the number of activities to be scheduled. Moreover, very often, the team of nurses is composed of regular nurses and nurse assistants that must share the work with respect to the regulatory obligations. Therefore, on the one hand, building a short-term planning is a complex task with a large amount of data to deal with, and on the other, good clinical practices have to be systematically applied. We present how reference planning has been defined by addressing an optimization problem formulation using the expertise of teachers. This formulation ensures the gameplay feasibility for the scenario that has been produced and enhanced throughout the game design process. It was also crucial to steer a player toward a specific gaming strategy. As one of our most important learning outcomes is a clear understanding of the workload concept, its factual calculation for each caregiver along time and its inclusion in the nurse reasoning during planning elaboration are focal points. We will demonstrate how to modify the game scenario to create a digital environment in which these somewhat abstract principles can be understood and applied. Finally, we give input on an experience we had on a pilot of a thousand undergraduate nursing students.

Keywords: care planning, workload, game design, hospital nurse, organizational skills, digital learning, serious game

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35 Electrical Properties of CVD-Graphene on SiC

Authors: Bilal Jabakhanji, Dimitris Kazazis, Adrien Michon, Christophe Consejo, Wilfried Desrat, Benoit Jouault


In this paper, we investigate the electrical properties of graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the Si face of SiC substrates. Depending on the growth condition, hole or electron doping can be achieved, down to a few 1011cm−2. The high homogeneity of the graphene and the low intrinsic carrier concentration, allow the remarkable observation of the Half Integer Quantum Hall Effect, typical of graphene, at the centimeter scale.

Keywords: graphene, quantum hall effect, chemical vapor, deposition, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 571
34 Electromagnetic Assessment of Submarine Power Cable Degradation Using Finite Element Method and Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: N. Boutra, N. Ravot, J. Benoit, O. Picon


Submarine power cables used for offshore wind farms electric energy distribution and transmission are subject to numerous threats. Some of the risks are associated with transport, installation and operating in harsh marine environment. This paper describes the feasibility of an electromagnetic low frequency sensing technique for submarine power cable failure prediction. The impact of a structural damage shape and material variability on the induced electric field is evaluated. The analysis is performed by modeling the cable using the finite element method, we use sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main damage characteristics affecting electric field variation. Lastly, we discuss the results obtained.

Keywords: electromagnetism, finite element method, sensitivity analysis, submarine power cables

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33 Highly Transparent, Hydrophobic and Self-Cleaning ZnO-Durazane Based Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings

Authors: Abderrahmane Hamdi, Julie Chalon, Benoit Dodin, Philippe Champagne


In this report, we present a simple route to realize robust, hydrophobic, and highly transparent coatings using organic polysilazane (durazane) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). These coatings were deposited by spraying the mixture solution on glass slides. Thus, the properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and water contact angle method. This sprayable polymer mixed with ZnO nanoparticles shows high transparency for visible light > 90%, a hydrophobic character (CA > 90°), and good mechanical and chemical stability. The coating also demonstrates excellent self-cleaning properties, which makes it a promising candidate for commercial use.

Keywords: coatings, durability, hydrophobicity, organic polysilazane, self-cleaning, transparence, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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32 Boosting Crime Scene Investigations Capabilities through Crime Script Analysis

Authors: Benoit Leclerc


The concept of scripts and the role that crime scripts has been playing in criminology during the last decade is reviewed. Particularly illuminating is the potential use of scripts not only to understand and disrupt offender scripts (e.g., commonly referred as crime scripts) but to capture victim and guardian scripts to increase the likelihood of preventing crime. Similarly, the concept of scripts is applied to forensic science – another field that can benefit from script analysis. First, similar to guardian scripts, script analysis can illuminate the process of completing crime scene investigations for those who investigate (crime scene investigators or other professionals involved in crime scene investigations), and as a result, provide a range of intervention-points to improve the success of these investigations. Second, script analysis can also provide valuable information on offenders’ crime-commission processes for crime scene investigators and highlight a number of ‘contact points’ that could be targeted during investigations.

Keywords: crime scripts, crime scene investigation, script analysis, situational crime prevention

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31 The Shape Memory Recovery Properties under Load of a Polymer Composite

Authors: Abdul Basit, Gildas Lhostis, Bernard Durand


Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are replacing shape memory alloys (SMAs) in many applications as SMPs have certain superior properties than SMAs. However, SMAs possess some properties like recovery under stress that SMPs lack. SMPs cannot give complete recovery even under a small load. SMPs are initially heated close to their transition temperature (glass transition temperature or the melting temperature). Then force is applied to deform the heated SMP to a specific position. Subsequently, SMP is allowed to cool keeping it deformed. After cooling, SMP gets the temporary shape. This temporary shape can be recovered by heating it again at the same temperature that was given it while heating it initially. As a result, it will recover its original position. SMP can perform unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, however; under the load, it only recovers partially. In this work, the recovery under the load of an asymmetrical shape memory composite called as CBCM-SMPC has been investigated. It is found that it has the ability to recover under different loads. Under different loads, it shows powerful complete recovery in reference to initial position. This property can be utilized in many applications.

Keywords: shape memory, polymer composite, thermo-mechanical testing, recovery under load

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30 Magnetoelectric Effect in Polyvinylidene Fluoride Beta Phase Thin Films

Authors: Belouadah Rabah, Guyomar Daneil, Guiffard Benoit


The magnetoelectric (ME) materials has dielectric polarization induced by the magnetic field or induced magnetization under an electric field. A strong ME effect requires the simultaneous presence of magnetic moments and electric dipoles. In the last decades, extensive research has been conducted on the ME effect in single phase and composite materials. This article reported the results obtained with two samples, the first is mono layer of PVDF bi-stretched and the second is the multi layer PVDF bi-stretched with the Polyurethane filled with micro particles magnetic Fe3O4 (PU+2% Fe3O4). Compare with non ME material like Alumine, a large ME polarization coefficient for the two samples was obtained. The piezoelectric properties of the PVDF and elastic proprieties of Pu+2% Fe3O4 give a big linear ME coefficient of the multi layer PVDF/(Pu+2% Fe3O4) than in the monolayer of PVDF.

Keywords: magnetoelectric effect, polymers, magnetic particles, composites, films

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29 Uncertainty Analysis of a Hardware in Loop Setup for Testing Products Related to Building Technology

Authors: Balasundaram Prasaant, Ploix Stephane, Delinchant Benoit, Muresan Cristian


Hardware in Loop (HIL) testing is done to test and validate a particular product especially in building technology. When it comes to building technology, it is more important to test the products for their efficiency. The test rig in the HIL simulator may contribute to some uncertainties on measured efficiency. The uncertainties include physical uncertainties and scenario-based uncertainties. In this paper, a simple uncertainty analysis framework for an HIL setup is shown considering only the physical uncertainties. The entire modeling of the HIL setup is done in Dymola. The uncertain sources are considered based on available knowledge of the components and also on expert knowledge. For the propagation of uncertainty, Monte Carlo Simulation is used since it is the most reliable and easy to use. In this article it is shown how an HIL setup can be modeled and how uncertainty propagation can be performed on it. Such an approach is not common in building energy analysis.

Keywords: energy in buildings, hardware in loop testing, modelica modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, uncertainty propagation

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28 Synthesis and Characterization of Fluorine-Free, Hydrophobic and Highly Transparent Coatings

Authors: Abderrahmane Hamdi, Julie Chalon, Benoit Dodin, Philippe Champagne


This research work concerns the synthesis of hydrophobic and self-cleaning coatings as an alternative to fluorine-based coatings used on glass. The developed, highly transparent coatings are produced by a chemical route (sol-gel method) using two silica-based precursors, hexamethyldisilazane and tetraethoxysilane (HMDS/TEOS). The addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) within the gel provides a photocatalytic property to the final coating. The prepared gels were deposited on glass slides using different methods. The properties of the coatings were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, and water contact angle method. The results show that the obtained coatings are homogeneous and have a hydrophobic character. In particular, after thermal treatment, the HMDS/[email protected] charged gel deposited on glass constitutes a coating capable of degrading methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. Optical transmission reaches more than 90% in most of the visible light spectrum. Synthetized coatings have also demonstrated their mechanical durability and self-cleaning ability.

Keywords: coating, durability, hydrophobicity, sol-gel, self-cleaning, transparence

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27 Shock and Particle Velocity Determination from Microwave Interrogation

Authors: Benoit Rougier, Alexandre Lefrancois, Herve Aubert


Microwave interrogation in the range 10-100 GHz is identified as an advanced technique to investigate simultaneously shock and particle velocity measurements. However, it requires the understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation in a multi-layered moving media. The existing models limit their approach to wave guides or evaluate the velocities with a fitting method, restricting therefore the domain of validity and the precision of the results. Moreover, few data of permittivity on high explosives at these frequencies under dynamic compression have been reported. In this paper, shock and particle velocities are computed concurrently for steady and unsteady shocks for various inert and reactive materials, via a propagation model based on Doppler shifts and signal amplitude. Refractive index of the material under compression is also calculated. From experimental data processing, it is demonstrated that Hugoniot curve can be evaluated. The comparison with published results proves the accuracy of the proposed method. This microwave interrogation technique seems promising for shock and detonation waves studies.

Keywords: electromagnetic propagation, experimental setup, Hugoniot measurement, shock propagation

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26 Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaAsPN/GaP for Tandem Solar Cells: Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing

Authors: S. Ilahi, S. Almosni, F. Chouchene, M. Perrin, K. Zelazna, N. Yacoubi, R. Kudraweic, P. Rale, L. Lombez, J. F. Guillemoles, O. Durand, C. Cornet


Great efforts have been dedicated to obtain high quality of GaAsPN. The properties of GaAsPN have played a great part on the development of solar cells devices based in Si substrate. The incorporation of N in GaAsPN that having a band gap around of 1.7 eV is of special interest in view of growing in Si substrate. In fact, post-growth and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) could be an effective way to improve the quality of the layer. Then, the influence of growth conditions and post-growth annealing on optical and thermal parameters is considered. We have used Photothermal deflection spectroscopy PDS to investigate the impact of rapid thermal annealing on thermal and optical properties of GaAsPN. In fact, the principle of the PDS consists to illuminate the sample by a modulated monochromatic light beam. Then, the absorbed energy is converted into heat through the nonradiative recombination process. The generated thermal wave propagates into the sample and surrounding media creating a refractive-index gradient giving rise to the deflection of a laser probe beam skimming the sample surface. The incident light is assumed to be uniform, and only the sample absorbs the light. In conclusion, the results are promising revealing an improvement in absorption coefficient and thermal conductivity.

Keywords: GaAsPN absorber, photothermal defelction technique PDS, photonics on silicon, thermal conductivity

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25 A Natural Killer T Cell Subset That Protects against Airway Hyperreactivity

Authors: Ya-Ting Chuang, Krystle Leung, Ya-Jen Chang, Rosemarie H. DeKruyff, Paul B. Savage, Richard Cruse, Christophe Benoit, Dirk Elewaut, Nicole Baumgarth, Dale T. Umetsu


We examined characteristics of a Natural Killer T (NKT) cell subpopulation that developed during influenza infection in neonatal mice, and that suppressed the subsequent development of allergic asthma in a mouse model. This NKT cell subset expressed CD38 but not CD4, produced IFN-γ, but not IL-17, IL-4 or IL-13, and inhibited the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) through contact-dependent suppressive activity against helper CD4 T cells. The NKT subset expanded in the lungs of neonatal mice after infection with influenza, but also after treatment of neonatal mice with a Th1-biasing α-GalCer glycolipid analogue, Nu-α-GalCer. These results suggest that early/neonatal exposure to infection or to antigenic challenge can affect subsequent lung immunity by altering the profile of cells residing in the lung and that some subsets of NKT cells can have direct inhibitory activity against CD4+ T cells in allergic asthma. Importantly, our results also suggest a potential therapy for young children that might provide protection against the development of asthma.

Keywords: NKT subset, asthma, airway hyperreactivity, hygiene hypothesis, influenza

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24 Visual and Chemical Servoing of a Hexapod Robot in a Confined Environment Using Jacobian Estimator

Authors: Guillaume Morin-Duponchelle, Ahmed Nait Chabane, Benoit Zerr, Pierre Schoesetters


Industrial inspection can be achieved through robotic systems, allowing visual and chemical servoing. A popular scheme for visual servo-controlled robotic is the image-based servoing sys-tems. In this paper, an approach of visual and chemical servoing of a hexapod robot using a visual and chemical Jacobian matrix are proposed. The basic idea behind the visual Jacobian matrix is modeling the differential relationship between the camera system and the robotic control system to detect and track accurately points of interest in confined environments. This approach allows the robot to easily detect and navigates to the QR code or seeks a gas source localization using surge cast algorithm. To track the QR code target, a visual servoing based on Jacobian matrix is used. For chemical servoing, three gas sensors are embedded on the hexapod. A Jacobian matrix applied to the gas concentration measurements allows estimating the direction of the main gas source. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is first demonstrated on simulation. Finally, a hexapod prototype is designed and built and the experimental validation of the approach is presented and discussed.

Keywords: chemical servoing, hexapod robot, Jacobian matrix, visual servoing, navigation

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23 Application of the Quantile Regression Approach to the Heterogeneity of the Fine Wine Prices

Authors: Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme, Benoit Faye, Eric Le Fur


In this paper, the heterogeneity of the Bordeaux Legends 50 wine market price segment is addressed. For this purpose, quantile regression is applied – with market segmentation based on wine bottle price quantile – and the hedonic price of wine attributes is computed for various price segments of the market. The approach is applied to a major privately held data set which consists of approximately 30,000 transactions over the 2003–2014 period. The findings suggest that the relative hedonic prices of several wine attributes differ significantly among deciles. In particular, the elasticity coefficient of the expert ratings shows strong variation among prices. If - as suggested in the literature - expert ratings have a positive influence on wine price on average, they have a clearly decreasing impact over the quantiles. Finally, the lower the wine price, the higher the potential for price appreciation over time. Other variables such as chateaux or vintage are also shown to vary across the distribution of wine prices. While enhancing our understanding of the complex market dynamics that underlie Bordeaux wines’ price, this research provides empirical evidence that the QR approach adequately captures heterogeneity among wine price ranges, which simultaneously applies to wine stock, vintage and auctions’ house.

Keywords: hedonics, market segmentation, quantile regression, heterogeneity, wine economics

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22 Characterization of Shrinkage-Induced Cracking of Clay Soils

Authors: Ahmad El Hajjar, Joanna Eid, Salima Bouchemella, Tariq Ouahbi, Benoit Duchemin, Said Taibi


In our present society, raw earth presents an alternative as an energy-saving building material for dealing with climate and environmental issues. Nevertheless, it has a sensitivity to water, due to the presence of fines, which has a direct effect on its consistency. This can be expressed during desiccation, by shrinkage deformations resulting in cracking that begins once the internal tensile stresses developed, due to suction, exceed the tensile strength of the material. This work deals with the evolution of the strain of clay samples, from the beginning of shrinkage until the initiation of crack, using the DIC (Digital Image Correlation) technique. In order to understand the origin of cracking, desiccation is studied for different boundary conditions and depending on the intrinsic characteristics of the material. On the other hand, a study of restrained shrinkage is carried out on the ring test to investigate the ultimate tensile strength from which the crack begins in the dough of clay. The purpose of this test is to find the type of reinforcement adapted to thwart in the cracking of the material. A microscopic analysis of the damaged area is necessary to link the macroscopic mechanisms of cracking to the various physicochemical phenomena at the microscopic scale in order to understand the different microstructural mechanisms and their impact on the macroscopic shrinkage.

Keywords: clayey soil, shrinkage, strain, cracking, digital image correlation

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21 Detection and Quantification of Ochratoxin A in Food by Aptasensor

Authors: Moez Elsaadani, Noel Durand, Brice Sorli, Didier Montet


Governments and international instances are trying to improve the food safety system to prevent, reduce or avoid the increase of food borne diseases. This food risk is one of the major concerns for the humanity. The contamination by mycotoxins is a threat to the health and life of humans and animals. One of the most common mycotoxin contaminating feed and foodstuffs is Ochratoxin A (OTA), which is a secondary metabolite, produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium strains. OTA has a chronic toxic effect and proved to be mutagenic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, immunosuppressive, and carcinogenic. On the other side, because of their high stability, specificity, affinity, and their easy chemical synthesis, aptamer based methods are applied to OTA biosensing as alternative to traditional analytical technique. In this work, five aptamers have been tested to confirm qualitatively and quantitatively their binding with OTA. In the same time, three different analytical methods were tested and compared based on their ability to detect and quantify the OTA. The best protocol that was established to quantify free OTA from linked OTA involved an ultrafiltration method in green coffee solution with. OTA was quantified by HPLC-FLD to calculate the binding percentage of all five aptamers. One aptamer (The most effective with 87% binding with OTA) has been selected to be our biorecognition element to study its electrical response (variation of electrical properties) in the presence of OTA in order to be able to make a pairing with a radio frequency identification (RFID). This device, which is characterized by its low cost, speed, and a simple wireless information transmission, will implement the knowledge on the mycotoxins molecular sensors (aptamers), an electronic device that will link the information, the quantification and make it available to operators.

Keywords: aptamer, aptasensor, detection, Ochratoxin A

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20 Physics of Decision for Polling Place Management: A Case Study from the 2020 USA Presidential Election

Authors: Nafe Moradkhani, Frederick Benaben, Benoit Montreuil, Ali Vatankhah Barenji, Dima Nazzal


In the context of the global pandemic, the practical management of the 2020 presidential election in the USA was a strong concern. To anticipate and prepare for this election accurately, one of the main challenges was to confront (i) forecasts of voter turnout, (ii) capacities of the facilities and, (iii) potential configuration options of resources. The approach chosen to conduct this anticipative study consists of collecting data about forecasts and using simulation models to work simultaneously on resource allocation and facility configuration of polling places in Fulton County, Georgia’s largest county. A polling place is a dedicated facility where voters cast their ballots in elections using different devices. This article presents the results of the simulations of such places facing pre-identified potential risks. These results are oriented towards the efficiency of these places according to different criteria (health, trust, comfort). Then a dynamic framework is introduced to describe risks as physical forces perturbing the efficiency of the observed system. Finally, the main benefits and contributions resulting from this simulation campaign are presented.

Keywords: performance, decision support, simulation, artificial intelligence, risk management, election, pandemics, information system

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19 Capuchin Monkeys Sharing Their Food at a Cost of Themselves

Authors: Benoît Bucher, Hika Kuroshima, Kazuo Fujita


Although altruism is commonly observed in humans and is considered one of the most important factors in the survival of our species, its cognitive mechanisms and evolutionary roots are yet to be explained. This study is based on the previous findings that bonobos (Pan Paniscus) preferred to share a limited amount of food with others regardless of their relationships with the others. Findings such as this suggest that humans’ propensity for altruistic food-sharing may be shared among apes and may have evolved much longer ago than previously considered. We thus adapted the previous experimental design using tufted capuchins (Cebus apella), New World monkeys separating from humans about 40 million years ago. In order to achieve this, 12 pairs of capuchins (consisting of a benefactors and a partner) were tested in a row of two adjacent cages separated by a swinging door locked by a key (Fig.1). We observed whether the monkeys in possession of food (the benefactors) would allow their partner to enter their cage by unlocking the door between them. Results showed that the monkeys clearly preferred to monopolize the food for themselves, even though they in a few cases unlocked the door after eating the preferred food. This suggests that this species, which has been shown to be sensitive to the others’ welfare, would not actively share food at a cost of their own. Although further studies are needed, our results suggest the existence of significant differences in the evolutionary development of the pro social tendencies between bonobos and capuchin monkeys.

Keywords: altruism, capuchin monkeys, food sharing, pro social behaviors

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18 Revolution and Nationalism: The Grenada Revolution (1979-83) Contributed Significantly to the Development of a Grenada Nationalism

Authors: Oliver Benoit


On 13 March 1979, a left-wing political party formed in the 1970s overthrew Eric Gairy's government and established the People's Revolutionary Government which governed Grenada from (1979-1983). On the morning of 13 March 1979, the People's Revolutionary Government leader, Maurice Bishop, appealed to the people of Grenada to assist the forces of the revolution in consolidating its newly acquired political power. A cross-section of the Grenadian population responded positively to Maurice Bishop's appeal. Within the four and a half years of the revolution, noticeable social, political, and economic changes affected all areas of social life before internal divisions caused the revolution's collapse. Forty-two years following the revolution's collapse, intellectuals and commentators continue to argue about the impact of the Grenada Revolution on societal and national development. However, the revolution's impact on the spread of nationalism in Grenada is yet to be analyzed. Nationalism, as a modern phenomenon, has impacted many societies since its emergence in England in the seventeenth century, and Grenada is no exception. The paper argues that the Grenada Revolution was motivated by nationalist sentiments and the revolution itself fostered the development of nationalism in Grenada. The argument relies on 40 interviews; people who currently reside in Grenada (2020) and live in Grenada during the revolution as young adults and adults (ages 15 and beyond) and have memories of their experiences of the revolution. The sample of 40 respondence represents about 20,000 people in Grenada who are within the study population between 55 and 75 years today (2020).

Keywords: grenada, motivation, nationalism, revolution

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17 Incidence of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies and Their Risk of Cancer in Leeds, UK: An 11-year Epidemiological Study

Authors: Benoit Jauniaux, Azzam Ismail


Objectives: The aims were to identify all incident adult cases of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) in the City of Leeds, UK, and to estimate the risk of cancer in IIMs as compared with the general population. Methods: Cases of IIMs were ascertained by review of all muscle biopsy reports from the Neuropathology Laboratory. A review of medical records was undertaken for each case to review the clinical diagnosis and collect epidemiological data such as age, ethnicity, sex, and comorbidities, including cancer. Leeds denominator population numbers were publicly obtainable. Results: Two hundred and six biopsy reports were identified, and after review, 50 incident cases were included in the study between June 2010 and January 2021. Out of the 50 cases, 27 were male, and 23 were female. The mean incidence rate of IIMs in Leeds throughout the study period was 7.42/1 000 000 person years. The proportion of IIMs cases with a confirmed malignancy was 22%. Compared to the general population, the relative risk of cancer was significantly greater in the IIMs population(31.56, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The incidence rate of IIMs in Leeds was consistent with data from previous literature, however, disagreement exists between different methods of IIMs case inclusion due to varying clinical criteria and definitions. IIMs are associated with increased risk of cancer however, the pathogenesis of this relationship still requires investigating. This study supports the practice of malignancy screening and long-term surveillance in patients with IIMs.

Keywords: idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, myositis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, malignancy, epidemiology, incidence rate, relative risk

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16 Identification of Rare Mutations in Genes Involved in Monogenic Forms of Obesity and Diabetes in Obese Guadeloupean Children through Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors: Lydia Foucan, Laurent Larifla, Emmanuelle Durand, Christine Rambhojan, Veronique Dhennin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Philippe Froguel, Amelie Bonnefond


In the population of Guadeloupe Island (472,124 inhabitants and 80% of subjects of African descent), overweight and obesity were estimated at 23% and 9% respectively among children. High prevalence of diabetes has been reported (~10%) in the adult population. Nevertheless, no study has investigated the contribution of gene mutations to childhood obesity in this population. We aimed to investigate rare genetic mutations in genes involved in monogenic obesity or diabetes in obese Afro-Caribbean children from Guadeloupe Island using next-generation sequencing. The present investigation included unrelated obese children, from a previous study on overweight conducted in Guadeloupe Island in 2013. We sequenced coding regions of 59 genes involved in monogenic obesity or diabetes. A total of 25 obese schoolchildren (with Z-score of body mass index [BMI]: 2.0 to 2.8) were screened for rare mutations (non-synonymous, splice-site, or insertion/deletion) in 59 genes. Mean age of the study population was 12.4 ± 1.1 years. Seventeen children (68%) had insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.16). A family history of obesity (mother or father) was observed in eight children and three of the accompanying parent presented with type 2 diabetes. None of the children had gonadotrophic abnormality or mental retardation. We detected five rare heterozygous mutations, in four genes involved in monogenic obesity, in five different obese children: MC4R p.Ile301Thr and SIM1 p.Val326Thrfs*43 mutations which were pathogenic; SIM1 p.Ser343Pro and SH2B1 p.Pro90His mutations which were likely pathogenic; and NTRK2 p.Leu140Phe that was of uncertain significance. In parallel, we identified seven carriers of mutation in ABCC8 or KCNJ11 (involved in monogenic diabetes), which were of uncertain significance (KCNJ11 p.Val13Met, KCNJ11 p.Val151Met, ABCC8 p.Lys1521Asn and ABCC8 p.Ala625Val). Rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations, linked to severe obesity were detected in more than 15% of this Afro-Caribbean population at high risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: childhood obesity, MC4R, monogenic obesity, SIM1

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15 Ability of Bentonite-lactobacillus Rhamnosus GAF06 Mixture to Mitigate Aflatoxin M1 Damages in Balb/C Mice

Authors: Amina Aloui, Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Abdellah Zinedine, Amar Riba, Noel Durand, Catherine Brabet, Didier Montet, Samir Abbès


Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed-isa globaconcern, both economically and for public health. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1. It is frequently found in milk and other dairy products. It is responsible for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and immunotoxic in humans and animals. The reduction of its bioavailabilitybecomesa great demand in order to protect human and animal health. The use of probiotic bacteria and clay are demonstrated to be able to bind AFM1 in vitro. This study aimed to investigate, in vivo, the activity of two-component mixture: L. rhamnosusGAF06 (LR) and bentonite for reducing the oxidative stress and the histological alterationsinduced by AFM1 in the liver andkidneys. For the experiment, male mice were divided into 7 groups (6 mice/group) and treated, orally, by AFM1, alone or in combination with LR and/or bentonite, for 10 days as follows: group 1 control, group 2 treated with LR alone (2.108 CFU/ml), group 3 treated with bentonite alone (1g/kg), group 4 treated with AFM1 alone (100μg/kg), group 5 co-treated with LR+AFM1, group 6 co-treated with bentonite+AFM1, group 7 co-treated with bentonite+LR+AFM1. At the end of the treatment, the mice were sacrificed, and the livers and kidneys were collected for histological assays. Intracellular antioxidant activities and lipid peroxidation were also studied. The results showed that AFM1causeddamage in liver and kidney tissues, being evidence of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity marked by necrotic cells. It increased the MDA level and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD) in both organs. In contrast, the co-treatment with AFM1 plus LR and/or bentonitesignificantly improved the hepatic and renal tissues, regulated kidney, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities. This improvement was more remarkable with the administration of LR-bentonite mixture with AFM1.LR and bentonite alone showed to be safe during the treatment. This mixture can be a promising candidate for future applications in biotechnological processes that aimed to detoxify AFM1in food and feed.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, bentonite, L. rhamnosus GAF06, oxidative stress, prevention

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14 Structural Morphing on High Performance Composite Hydrofoil to Postpone Cavitation

Authors: Fatiha Mohammed Arab, Benoit Augier, Francois Deniset, Pascal Casari, Jacques Andre Astolfi


For the top high performance foiling yachts, cavitation is often a limiting factor for take-off and top speed. This work investigates solutions to delay the onset of cavitation thanks to structural morphing. The structural morphing is based on compliant leading and trailing edge, with effect similar to flaps. It is shown here that the commonly accepted effect of flaps regarding the control of lift and drag forces can also be used to postpone the inception of cavitation. A numerical and experimental study is conducted in order to assess the effect of the geometric parameters of hydrofoil on their hydrodynamic performances and in cavitation inception. The effect of a 70% trailing edge and a 30% leading edge of NACA 0012 is investigated using Xfoil software at a constant Reynolds number 106. The simulations carried out for a range flaps deflections and various angles of attack. So, the result showed that the lift coefficient increase with the increase of flap deflection, but also with the increase of angle of attack and enlarged the bucket cavitation. To evaluate the efficiency of the Xfoil software, a 2D analysis flow over a NACA 0012 with leading and trailing edge flap was studied using Fluent software. The results of the two methods are in a good agreement. To validate the numerical approach, a passive adaptive composite model is built and tested in the hydrodynamic tunnel at the Research Institute of French Naval Academy. The model shows the ability to simulate the effect of flap by a LE and TE structural morphing due to hydrodynamic loading.

Keywords: cavitation, flaps, hydrofoil, panel method, xfoil

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13 Climatic Variations and Risk of Mycotoxins in the Wheat Sector in Morocco: Two Years of Investigation

Authors: Aicha El Jai, Abdellah Zinedine, Didier Montet, Catherine Brabet, Noel Durand


Morocco, a Mediterranean and North African country, is recognized with its climate with annual variations in recorded temperature and precipitations. Morocco's climate is very diverse, varying with the season and region. On the coasts, the climate is Mediterranean, considered humid temperate at higher elevations, while hot and dry in the Southwestern part. The aim of the study was to investigate the multi-occurrence of Mycotoxinsin wheat Samplesharvestedfrom two different climatic areasof, Morocco during 2020 and 2021. Analytical results showed that out of 60 total wheat grain samples sampled during 2019 and 2020 seasons from two different areas in Morocco,19 (31.6%) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin and that several mycotoxins co-occurred in the analyzed samples. On the other hand, wheat samples collected from the littoral area were found to be more contaminated.In this area, five mycotoxins occurred: ENB (100%), ENB1 (73.3%), FB1 (40%), ENA1 (13%), OTA (6.6%). The highest mycotoxin level was found for ENB (4940 ng/g) in a sample from the littoral area. While in the continental area, only three mycotoxins (ENB (75%), DON (25%), ENB1 (25%)) were found. One contaminated sample with OTA beyond the thirty samples harvested from the littoral area exceeded the Regulatory limits set by Moroccan and European legislations with 12ng/g. On the other hand, 100 total wheat grain samples were sampled during 2020, and 2021 seasons from two different areas in Morocco, ENB showed the highest incidence (100%) followed by ENB1 (73.3%) and FB1 with (40%), 80% of the positive samples were pre-storage samples. Concerning the continental area, ENB was mainly present with an incidence of (75%) followed by ENB1 and DON with the same incidence (25%), while (ENB + ENB1) was the only co-occurrent mycotoxin (5% of positive samples) in both areas. The highest mycotoxin level was found for ENB (493 ng/g) in a sample from the continental area, even though enniatins are emerging Fusarium mycotoxins and there are currently no regulatory limits. Results showed as well a co-presence of mycotoxins This is the first study assessing the impact of climate variations on multi-occurrence of mycotoxinsin wheat samplesharvestedfrom two different climatic areasof morocco during two years of investigation. Therefore, a polyphasic identification of toxigenic fungi is essential to seek the fungi origin of the contaminations.

Keywords: mycotoxins, climatic variations, morocco, wheat sector

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12 High Physical Properties of Biochar Issued from Cashew Nut Shell to Adsorb Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins and Ochratoxine A) and Its Effects on Toxigenic Molds

Authors: Abderahim Ahmadou, Alfredo Napoli, Noel Durand, Didier Montet


Biochar is a microporous and adsorbent solid carbon product obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic materials (biomass, agricultural waste). Biochar is distinguished from vegetable charcoal by its manufacture methods. Biochar is used as the amendment in soils to give them favorable characteristics under certain conditions, i.e., absorption of water and its release at low speed. Cashew nuts shell from Mali is usually discarded on land by local processors or burnt as a mean for waste management. The burning of this biomass poses serious socio-environmental problems including greenhouse gas emission and accumulation of tars and soot on houses closed to factories, leading to neighbor complaints. Some mycotoxins as aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds resulting from the secondary metabolism of molds that develop on plants in the field and during their conservation. They are found at high level on some seeds and nuts in Africa. Ochratoxin A, member of mycotoxins, is produced by various species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Human exposure to Ochratoxin A can occur through consumption of contaminated food products, particularly contaminated grain, as well as coffee, wine grapes. We showed that cashew shell biochars produced at 400, 600 and 800°C adsorbed aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) at 100% by filtration (rapid contact) as well as by stirring (long contact). The average percentage of adsorption of Ochratoxin A was 35% by filtration and 80% by stirring. The duration of the biochar-mycotoxin contact was a significant parameter. The effect of biochar was also tested on two strains of toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus (producers of Aflatoxins) and Aspergillus carbonarius (producers of Ochratoxins). The growth of the strain Aspergillus carbonarius was inhibited at up to 60% by the biochar at 600°C. An opposite effect to the inhibition was observed on Aspergillus parasiticus using the same biochar. In conclusion, we observed that biochar adsorbs mycotoxins: Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A to different degrees; 100% adsorption of aflatoxins under all conditions (filtration and stirring) and adsorption of Ochratoxin A varied depending on the type of biochar and the experiment conditions (35% by filtration and 85% by stirring). The effects of biochar at 600 °C on the toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus carbonarius, varied according to the experimental conditions and the strains. We observed an opposite effect on the growth with an inhibition of Aspergillus carbonarius up to 60% and a stimulated growth of Aspergillus parasiticus.

Keywords: biochar, cashew nut shell, mycotoxins, toxicogenic molds

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11 Flexural Properties of Typha Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composite

Authors: Sana Rezig, Yosr Ben Mlik, Mounir Jaouadi, Foued Khoffi, Slah Msahli, Bernard Durand


Increasing interest in environmental concerns, natural fibers are once again being considered as reinforcements for polymer composites. The main objective of this study is to explore another natural resource, Typha fiber; which is renewable without production cost and available abundantly in nature. The aim of this study was to study the flexural properties of composite resin with and without reinforcing Typha leaf and stem fibers. The specimens were made by the hand-lay-up process using polyester matrix. In our work, we focused on the effect of various treatment conditions (sea water, alkali treatment and a combination of the two treatments), as a surface modifier, on the flexural properties of the Typha fibers reinforced polyester composites. Moreover, weight ratio of Typha leaf or stem fibers was investigated. Besides, both fibers from leaf and stem of Typha plant were used to evaluate the reinforcing effect. Another parameter, which is reinforcement structure, was investigated. In fact, a first composite was made with air-laid nonwoven structure of fibers. A second composite was with a mixture of fibers and resin for each kind of treatment. Results show that alkali treatment and combined process provided better mechanical properties of composites in comparison with fiber treated by sea water. The fiber weight ratio influenced the flexural properties of composites. Indeed, a maximum value of flexural strength of 69.8 and 62,32 MPa with flexural modulus of 6.16 and 6.34 GPawas observed respectively for composite reinforced with leaf and stem fibers for 12.6 % fiber weight ratio. For the different treatments carried out, the treatment using caustic soda, whether alone or after retting seawater, show the best results because it improves adhesion between the polyester matrix and the fibers of reinforcement. SEM photographs were made to ascertain the effects of the surface treatment of the fibers. By varying the structure of the fibers of Typha, the reinforcement used in bulk shows more effective results as that used in the non-woven structure. In addition, flexural strength rises with about (65.32 %) in the case of composite reinforced with a mixture of 12.6% leaf fibers and (27.45 %) in the case of a composite reinforced with a nonwoven structure of 12.6 % of leaf fibers. Thus, to better evaluate the effect of the fiber origin, the reinforcing structure, the processing performed and the reinforcement factor on the performance of composite materials, a statistical study was performed using Minitab. Thus, ANOVA was used, and the patterns of the main effects of these parameters and interaction between them were established. Statistical analysis, the fiber treatment and reinforcement structure seem to be the most significant parameters.

Keywords: flexural properties, fiber treatment, structure and weight ratio, SEM photographs, Typha leaf and stem fibers

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10 The Relationship between Central Bank Independence and Inflation: Evidence from Africa

Authors: R. Bhattu Babajee, Marie Sandrine Estelle Benoit


The past decades have witnessed a considerable institutional shift towards Central Bank Independence across economies of the world. The motivation behind such a change is the acceptance that increased central bank autonomy has the power of alleviating inflation bias. Hence, studying whether Central Bank Independence acts as a significant factor behind the price stability in the African economies or whether this macroeconomic aim in these countries result from other economic, political or social factors is a pertinent issue. The main research objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between central bank autonomy and inflation in African economies where inflation has proved to be a serious problem. In this optic, we shall measure the degree of CBI in Africa by computing the turnover rates of central banks governors thereby studying whether decisions made by African central banks are affected by external forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate empirically the association between Central Bank Independence (CBI) and inflation for 10 African economies over a period of 17 years, from 1995 to 2012. The sample includes Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. In contrast to empirical research, we have not been using the usual static panel model for it is associated with potential mis specification arising from the absence of dynamics. To this issue a dynamic panel data model which integrates several control variables has been used. Firstly, the analysis includes dynamic terms to explain the tenacity of inflation. Given the confirmation of inflation inertia, that is very likely in African countries there exists the need for including lagged inflation in the empirical model. Secondly, due to known reverse causality between Central Bank Independence and inflation, the system generalized method of moments (GMM) is employed. With GMM estimators, the presence of unknown forms of heteroskedasticity is admissible as well as auto correlation in the error term. Thirdly, control variables have been used to enhance the efficiency of the model. The main finding of this paper is that central bank independence is negatively associated with inflation even after including control variables.

Keywords: central bank independence, inflation, macroeconomic variables, price stability

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9 Chemical, Structural and Mechanical Optimization of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Eliott Guérin, Remi Daudin, Georges Kalepsi, Alexis Lenain, Sebastien Gravier, Benoit Ter-Ovanessian, Damien Fabregue, Jean-Jacques Blandin


Due to interesting compromise between mechanical and corrosion properties, Zr-based BMGs are attractive for biomedical applications. However, the enhancement of their glass forming ability (GFA) is often achieved by addition of toxic elements like Ni or Be, which is of course a problem for such applications. Consequently, the development of Ni-free Be-free Zr-based BMGs is of great interest. We have developed a Zr-based (Ni and Be-free) amorphous metallic alloy with an elastic limit twice the one of Ti-6Al-4V. The Zr56Co28Al16 composition exhibits a yield strength close to 2 GPa and low Young’s modulus (close to 90 GPa) [1-2]. In this work, we investigated Niobium (Nb) addition through substitution of Zr up to 8 at%. Cobalt substitution has already been reported [3], but we chose Zr substitution to preserve the glass forming ability. In this case, we show that the glass forming ability for 5 mm diameters rods is maintained up to 3 at% of Nb substitution using suction casting in cooper moulds. Concerning the thermal stability, we measure a strong compositional dependence on the glass transition (Tg). Using DSC analysis (heating rate 20 K/min), we show that the Tg rises from 752 K for 0 at% of Nb to 759 K for 3 at% of Nb. Yet, the thermal range between Tg and the crystallisation temperature (Tx) remains almost unchanged from 33 K to 35 K. Uniaxial compression tests on 2 mm diameter pillars and 3 points bending (3PB) tests on 1 mm thick plates are performed to study the Nb addition on the mechanical properties and the plastic behaviour. With these tests, an optimal Nb concentration is found, improving both plasticity and fatigue resistance. Through interpretations of DSC measurements, an attempt is made to correlate the modifications of the mechanical properties with the structural changes. The optimized chemical, structural and mechanical properties through Nb addition are encouraging to develop the potential of this BMG alloy for biomedical applications. For this purpose, we performed polarisation, immersion and cytotoxicity tests. The figure illustrates the polarisation response of Zr56Co28Al16, Zr54Co28Al16Nb2 and TA6V as a reference after 2h of open circuit potential. The results show that the substitution of Zr by a small amount of Nb significantly improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

Keywords: metallic glasses, amorphous metal, medical, mechanical resistance, biocompatibility

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8 Thermal Conductivity Measurement and Data Analysis of Biomass-Based Oxygenated Compounds Using Microfluidics

Authors: Rosa Moreno Jimenez, Claire Marliere, Benoit Creton


Concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere are rising rapidly, with the combustion of fossil resources responsible for a large part of the human induced carbon dioxide emission. Biomass-based biofuels can drastically reduce GHG emissions. The use of oxygenated bio-derived fuels (biofuels) have attracted attention as it provides environmental benefits. To convert biomass into useful forms of energy, a variety of conversion processes are required, and the design of such processes need, thermophysical property data. Thermal conductivity is considered as one of the most important thermophysical properties of fluids for heat transfer applications. Standard methods for measuring thermal conductivity are time consuming and error-prone due to convection effects. Microfluidics has been shown to be a viable solution to these issues thanks to its low reagent consumption, low operating time, improvement of heat and mass transfers etc, allowing an automated manipulation to perform high throughput experimentation. In addition, a new field of investigation called "high pressure and high temperature (HP-HT) microfluidics" 4 has gained increasing interest, for the determination of the thermo-physical properties of fluids systems. Currently, available methods for measuring thermal conductivity in microfluidics are not adapted to HP-HT conditions. Thermal conductivity of oxygenated compounds data remains scarce and often inconsistent between the various sources , particularly in extreme conditions. Therefore, the use of predictive models, combined with microfluidics, can be developed to complement experimental data. Machine learning (ML) provides powerful predictive tools with the ability to learn from available data and has been used to analyze data generated by microfluidics in several scenarios, showing promising results. Combining microfluidics and modeling results in high throughput generation of data. In this study, two types of sensor devices are implemented within a microfluidic device, allowing the measurement of thermal conductivity using different methodologies. In parallel, a data compilation resulting in a database has been established for the development of a ML based predictive model to estimate thermal conductivity of oxygenated compounds.

Keywords: microfluidics, thermal conductivity, temperature measurement, sensor, predictive model

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