Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 283

Search results for: cracking

283 Rational Probabilistic Method for Calculating Thermal Cracking Risk of Mass Concrete Structures

Authors: Naoyuki Sugihashi, Toshiharu Kishi


The probability of occurrence of thermal cracks in mass concrete in Japan is evaluated by the cracking probability diagram that represents the relationship between the thermal cracking index and the probability of occurrence of cracks in the actual structure. In this paper, we propose a method to directly calculate the cracking probability, following a probabilistic theory by modeling the variance of tensile stress and tensile strength. In this method, the relationship between the variance of tensile stress and tensile strength, the thermal cracking index, and the cracking probability are formulated and presented. In addition, standard deviation of tensile stress and tensile strength was identified, and the method of calculating cracking probability in a general construction controlled environment was also demonstrated.

Keywords: thermal crack control, mass concrete, thermal cracking probability, durability of concrete, calculating method of cracking probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
282 Password Cracking on Graphics Processing Unit Based Systems

Authors: N. Gopalakrishna Kini, Ranjana Paleppady, Akshata K. Naik


Password authentication is one of the widely used methods to achieve authentication for legal users of computers and defense against attackers. There are many different ways to authenticate users of a system and there are many password cracking methods also developed. This paper is mainly to propose how best password cracking can be performed on a CPU-GPGPU based system. The main objective of this work is to project how quickly a password can be cracked with some knowledge about the computer security and password cracking if sufficient security is not incorporated to the system.

Keywords: GPGPU, password cracking, secret key, user authentication

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
281 Structural Engineering Forensic Evaluation of Misdiagnosed Concrete Masonry Wall Cracking

Authors: W. C. Bracken


Given that concrete masonry walls are expected to experience shrinkage combined with thermal expansion and contraction, and in some cases even carbonation, throughout their service life, cracking is to be expected. However, after concrete masonry walls have been placed into service, originally anticipated and accounted for cracking is often misdiagnosed as a structural defect. Such misdiagnoses often result in or are used to support litigation. This paper begins by discussing the causes and types of anticipated cracking within concrete masonry walls followed by a discussion on the processes and analyses that exists for properly evaluating them and their significance. From here, the paper then presents a case of misdiagnosed concrete masonry cracking and the flawed logic employed to support litigation.

Keywords: concrete masonry, masonry wall cracking, structural defect, structural damage, construction defect, forensic investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
280 A Probabilistic Study on Time to Cover Cracking Due to Corrosion

Authors: Chun-Qing Li, Hassan Baji, Wei Yang


Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures is a major problem worldwide. The volume expansion of corrosion products causes concrete cover cracking, which could lead to delamination of concrete cover. The time to cover cracking plays a key role to the assessment of serviceability of reinforced concrete structures subjected to corrosion. Many analytical, numerical, and empirical models have been developed to predict the time to cracking initiation due to corrosion. In this study, a numerical model based on finite element modeling of corrosion-induced cracking process is used. In order to predict the service life based on time to cover initiation, the numerical approach is coupled with a probabilistic procedure. In this procedure, all the influential factors affecting time to cover cracking are modeled as random variables. The results show that the time to cover cracking is highly variables. It is also shown that rust product expansion ratio and the size of more porous concrete zone around the rebar are the most influential factors in predicting service life of corrosion-affected structures.

Keywords: corrosion, crack width, probabilistic, service life

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
279 Risk of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: M. Eckert, M. Oliveira


The intensive use of natural aggregates, near cities and towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and takes up space. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete preparation would contribute to mitigate the problem. However, it arises the problem that the high water absorption of recycled aggregate decreases the bleeding rate of concrete, and when this gets lower than the evaporation rate, plastic shrinkage cracking occurs. This phenomenon can be particularly problematic in hot and windy curing environments. Cracking facilitates the flow of liquid and gas into concrete which attacks the reinforcement and degrades the concrete. These factors reduce the durability of concrete structures and consequently the lifetime of buildings. A ring test was used, cured in a wind tunnel, to evaluate the plastic shrinkage cracking sensitivity of recycled aggregate concrete, in order to implement preventive means to control this phenomenon. The role of several aggregate properties on the concrete segregation and cracking mechanisms were also discussed.

Keywords: recycled aggregate, plastic shrinkage cracking, wind tunnel, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
278 N-Heptane as Model Molecule for Cracking Catalyst Evaluation to Improve the Yield of Ethylene and Propylene

Authors: Tony K. Joseph, Balasubramanian Vathilingam, Stephane Morin


Currently, the refiners around the world are more focused on improving the yield of light olefins (propylene and ethylene) as both of them are very prominent raw materials to produce wide spectrum of polymeric materials such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Henceforth, it is desirable to increase the yield of light olefins via selective cracking of heavy oil fractions. In this study, zeolite grown on SiC was used as the catalyst to do model cracking reaction of n-heptane. The catalytic cracking of n-heptane was performed in a fixed bed reactor (12 mm i.d.) at three different temperatures (425, 450 and 475 °C) and at atmospheric pressure. A carrier gas (N₂) was mixed with n-heptane with ratio of 90:10 (N₂:n-heptane), and the gaseous mixture was introduced into the fixed bed reactor. Various flow rate of reactants was tested to increase the yield of ethylene and propylene. For the comparison purpose, commercial zeolite was also tested in addition to Zeolite on SiC. The products were analyzed using an Agilent gas chromatograph (GC-9860) equipped with flame ionization detector (FID). The GC is connected online with the reactor and all the cracking tests were successfully reproduced. The entire catalytic evaluation results will be presented during the conference.

Keywords: cracking, catalyst, evaluation, ethylene, heptane, propylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
277 Stress Corrosion Cracking, Parameters Affecting It, Problems Caused by It and Suggested Methods for Treatment: State of the Art

Authors: Adnan Zaid


Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) may be defined as a degradation of the mechanical properties of a material under the combined action of a tensile stress and corrosive environment of the susceptible material. It is a harmful phenomenon which might cause catastrophic fracture without a sign of prior warning. In this paper, the stress corrosion cracking, SCC, process, the parameters affecting it, and the different damages caused by it are given and discussed. Utilization of shot peening as a mean of enhancing the resistance of materials to SCC is given and discussed. Finally, a method for improving materials resistance to SCC by grain refining its structure by some refining elements prior to usage is suggested.

Keywords: stress corrosion cracking, parameters, damages, treatment methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
276 Early-Age Cracking of Low Carbon Concrete Incorporating Ferronickel Slag as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Mohammad Khan, Arnaud Castel


Concrete viscoelastic properties such as shrinkage, creep, and associated relaxation are important in assessing the risk of cracking during the first few days after placement. This paper investigates the early-age mechanical and viscoelastic properties, restrained shrinkage-induced cracking and time to cracking of concrete incorporating ferronickel slag (FNS) as supplementary cementitious material. Compressive strength, indirect tensile strength and elastic modulus were measured. Tensile creep and drying shrinkage was measured on dog-bone shaped specimens. Restrained shrinkage induced stresses and concrete cracking age were assessed by using the ring test. Results revealed that early-age strength development of FNS blended concrete is lower than that of the corresponding ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. FNS blended concrete showed significantly higher tensile creep. The risk of early-age cracking for the restrained specimens depends on the development of concrete tensile stress considering both restrained shrinkage and tensile creep and the development of the tensile strength. FNS blended concrete showed only 20% reduction in time to cracking compared to reference OPC concrete, and this reduction is significantly lower compared to fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag blended concretes at similar replacement level.

Keywords: ferronickel slag, restraint shrinkage, tensile creep, time to cracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
275 Research on the Feasibility of Evaluating Low-Temperature Cracking Performance of Asphalt Mixture Using Fracture Energy

Authors: Tao Yang, Yongli Zhao


Low-temperature cracking is one of the major challenges for asphalt pavement in the cold region. Fracture energy could determine from various test methods, which is a commonly used parameter to evaluate the low-temperature cracking resistance of asphalt mixture. However, the feasibility of evaluating the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture using fracture energy is not investigated comprehensively. This paper aims to verify whether fracture energy is an appropriate parameter to evaluate the low-temperature cracking performance. To achieve this goal, this paper compared the test results of thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) and semi-circular bending test (SCB) of asphalt mixture with different types of aggregate, TSRST and indirect tensile test (IDT) of asphalt mixture with different additives, and single-edge notched beam test (SENB) and TSRST of asphalt mixture with different asphalt. Finally, the correlation between in-suit cracking performance and fracture energy was surveyed. The experimental results showed the evaluation result of critical cracking temperature and fracture energy are not always consistent; the in-suit cracking performance is also not correlated well with fracture energy. These results indicated that it is not feasible to evaluate low-temperature performance by fracture energy. Then, the composition of fracture energy of TSRST, SCB, disk-shaped compact tension test (DCT), three-point bending test (3PB) and IDT was analyzed. The result showed: the area of thermal stress versus temperature curve is the multiple of fracture energy and could be used to represent fracture energy of TSRST, as the multiple is nearly equal among different asphalt mixtures for a specific specimen; the fracture energy, determined from TSRST, SCB, DCT, 3PB, SENB and IDT, is mainly the surface energy that forms the fracture face; fracture energy is inappropriate to evaluate the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt mixture, as the relaxation/viscous performance is not considered; if the fracture energy was used, it is recommended to combine this parameter with an index characterizing the relaxation or creep performance of asphalt mixture.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, cold region, critical cracking temperature, fracture energy, low-temperature cracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
274 Catalytic Cracking of Butene to Propylene over Modified HZSM-5 Zeolites

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying


Catalytic cracking of butene to propylene was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over HZSM-5 catalysts modified by nickel and phosphorus. The structure and acidity of catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD and XPS. The results revealed that surface area and strong acid sites both decreased with increasing phosphorus loadings. The increment of phosphorus loadings reduced the butene conversion but enhanced the propylene selectivity and catalyst stability.

Keywords: butene, catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
273 Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Saruhan Kartal


Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.

Keywords: lateral stability, post-cracking torsional rigidity, uncracked torsional rigidity, critical moment

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
272 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan


The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: polymer reinforcement, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, cracking moment

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271 Restrained Shrinkage Behavior of Self Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Boudjelthia Radhwane


Self-compacting concrete (SCC) developed in Japan in the late 80s has enabled the construction industry to reduce demand on the resources, improve the work condition and also reduce the impact of environment by elimination of the need for compaction. The shrinkage of concrete is the main cause of cracking in bridge decks. Bridge decks tend to be restrained from shrinkage, and this restraint along with other factors causes the bridge to crack. The characteristics of SCC under restrained shrinkage are important to understand in order to predict the cracking behavior in actual structures. Restrained shrinkage testing is done in accordance to AASHTO testing protocol. The free shrinkage performance and cracking behavior were reported and compared when changing the sand to aggregate ratio and the water to cement ratio. The results of free shrinkage show that when a mix design has higher free shrinkage, it will crack in restrained shrinkage earlier than a mix with lower free shrinkage.

Keywords: concrete mix, cracking behavior, restrained shrinkage, self compacting concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
270 Investigating the Capacity of Cracking Torsion of Rectangular and Cylindrical RC Beams with Spiral and Normal Stirrups

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei, Saeed Eskanderzadeh


In this paper, the capacity of cracking torsion on rectangular and cylindrical beams with spiral and normal stirrups in similar properties are investigated. Also, in the beams with spiral stirrups, stirrups are not wrapping and spiral stirrups similar to normal stirrups in ACI code. Therefore, models of above-mentioned beams have been numerically analyzed under various loads using ANSYS software. In this research, the behavior of rectangular reinforced concrete beams is compared with the cylindrical reinforced concrete beams. The capacity of cracking torsion of rectangular and cylindrical RC beams with spiral and normal stirrups are same. In the other words, the behavior of rectangular RC beams is similar to cylindrical beams.

Keywords: cracking torsion, RC beams, spiral stirrups, normal stirrups

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
269 Characterization of Shrinkage-Induced Cracking of Clay Soils

Authors: Ahmad El Hajjar, Joanna Eid, Salima Bouchemella, Tariq Ouahbi, Benoit Duchemin, Said Taibi


In our present society, raw earth presents an alternative as an energy-saving building material for dealing with climate and environmental issues. Nevertheless, it has a sensitivity to water, due to the presence of fines, which has a direct effect on its consistency. This can be expressed during desiccation, by shrinkage deformations resulting in cracking that begins once the internal tensile stresses developed, due to suction, exceed the tensile strength of the material. This work deals with the evolution of the strain of clay samples, from the beginning of shrinkage until the initiation of crack, using the DIC (Digital Image Correlation) technique. In order to understand the origin of cracking, desiccation is studied for different boundary conditions and depending on the intrinsic characteristics of the material. On the other hand, a study of restrained shrinkage is carried out on the ring test to investigate the ultimate tensile strength from which the crack begins in the dough of clay. The purpose of this test is to find the type of reinforcement adapted to thwart in the cracking of the material. A microscopic analysis of the damaged area is necessary to link the macroscopic mechanisms of cracking to the various physicochemical phenomena at the microscopic scale in order to understand the different microstructural mechanisms and their impact on the macroscopic shrinkage.

Keywords: clayey soil, shrinkage, strain, cracking, digital image correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
268 Simulation of a Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Dae Shik Kim, Jong Min Lee


Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery indusrty. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its nonlinearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flowsheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flowsheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking, simulation, plant data, process design

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
267 Thermal Cracking Approach Investigation to Improve Biodiesel Properties

Authors: Roghaieh Parvizsedghy, Seyyed Mojtaba Sadrameli


Biodiesel as an alternative diesel fuel is steadily gaining more attention and significance. However, there are some drawbacks while using biodiesel regarding its properties that requires it to be blended with petrol based diesel and/or additives to improve the fuel characteristics. This study analyses thermal cracking as an alternative technology to improve biodiesel characteristics in which, FAME based biodiesel produced by transesterification of castor oil is fed into a continuous thermal cracking reactor at temperatures range of 450-500°C and flowrate range of 20-40 g/hr. Experiments designed by response surface methodology and subsequent statistical studies show that temperature and feed flowrate significantly affect the products yield. Response surfaces were used to study the impact of temperature and flowrate on the product properties. After each experiment, the produced crude bio-oil was distilled and diesel cut was separated. As shorter chain molecules are produced through thermal cracking, the distillation curve of the diesel cut fitted more with petrol based diesel curve in comparison to the biodiesel. Moreover, the produced diesel cut properties adequately pose within property ranges defined by the related standard of petrol based diesel. Cold flow properties, high heating value as the main drawbacks of the biodiesel are improved by this technology. Thermal cracking decreases kinematic viscosity, Flash point and cetane number.

Keywords: biodiesel, castor oil, fuel properties, thermal cracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
266 Modeling and Simulation of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

Authors: Sungho Kim, Dae Shik Kim, Jong Min Lee


Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process is one of the most important process in modern refinery industry. This paper focuses on the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. As the FCC process is difficult to model well, due to its non linearities and various interactions between its process variables, rigorous process modeling of whole FCC plant is demanded for control and plant-wide optimization of the plant. In this study, a process design for the FCC plant includes riser reactor, main fractionator, and gas processing unit was developed. A reactor model was described based on four-lumped kinetic scheme. Main fractionator, gas processing unit and other process units are designed to simulate real plant data, using a process flow sheet simulator, Aspen PLUS. The custom reactor model was integrated with the process flow sheet simulator to develop an integrated process model.

Keywords: fluid catalytic cracking, simulation, plant data, process design

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
265 Biofuel Production via Thermal Cracking of Castor Methyl Ester

Authors: Roghaieh Parvizsedghy, Seyed Mojtaba Sadrameli


Diminishing oil reserves, deteriorating health standards because of greenhouse gas emissions and associated environmental impacts have emerged biofuel production. Vegetable oils are proved to be valuable feedstock in these growing industries as they are renewable and potentially inexhaustible sources. Thermal Cracking of vegetable oils (triglycerides) leads to production of biofuels which are similar to fossil fuels in terms of composition but their combustion and physical properties have limits. Acrolein (very poisonous gas) and water production during cracking of triglycerides occurs because of presence of glycerin in their molecular structure. Transesterification of vegetable oil is a method to extract glycerol from triglycerides structure and produce methyl ester. In this study, castor methyl ester was used for thermal cracking in order to survey the efficiency of this method to produce bio-gasoline and bio-diesel. Thus, several experiments were designed by means of central composite method. Statistical studies showed that two reaction parameters, namely cracking temperature and feed flowrate, affect products yield significantly. At the optimized conditions (480 °C and 29 g/h) for maximum bio-gasoline production, 88.6% bio-oil was achieved which was distilled and separated as bio-gasoline (28%) and bio-diesel (48.2%). Bio-gasoline exposed a high octane number and combustion heat. Distillation curve and Reid vapor pressure of bio-gasoline fell in the criteria of standard gasoline (class AA) by ASTM D4814. Bio-diesel was compatible with standard diesel by ASTM D975. Water production was negligible and no evidence of acrolein production was distinguished. Therefore, thermal cracking of castor methyl ester could be used as a method to produce valuable biofuels.

Keywords: bio-diesel, bio-gasoline, castor methyl ester, thermal cracking, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
264 Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbon over Zeolite Based Catalysts

Authors: Debdut Roy, Vidyasagar Guggilla


In this research, we highlight our exploratory work on modified zeolite based catalysts for catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons for production of light olefin i.e. ethylene and propylene. The work is focused on understanding the catalyst structure and activity correlation. Catalysts are characterized by surface area and pore size distribution analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) of ammonia, pyridine Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and correlated with the catalytic activity. It is observed that the yield of lighter olefins increases with increase of Bronsted acid strength.

Keywords: catalytic cracking, zeolite, propylene, structure-activity correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
263 Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying


HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts. The introduction of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: butene catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification, reaction conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
262 A Study on the Effect of Different Climate Conditions on Time of Balance of Bleeding and Evaporation in Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete Pavements

Authors: Hasan Ziari, Hassan Fazaeli, Seyed Javad Vaziri Kang Olyaei, Asma Sadat Dabiri


The presence of cracks in concrete pavements is a place for the ingression of corrosive substances, acids, oils, and water into the pavement and reduces its long-term durability and level of service. One of the causes of early cracks in concrete pavements is the plastic shrinkage. This shrinkage occurs due to the formation of negative capillary pressures after the equilibrium of the bleeding and evaporation rates at the pavement surface. These cracks form if the tensile stresses caused by the restrained shrinkage exceed the tensile strength of the concrete. Different climate conditions change the rate of evaporation and thus change the balance time of the bleeding and evaporation, which changes the severity of cracking in concrete. The present study examined the relationship between the balance time of bleeding and evaporation and the area of cracking in the concrete slabs using the standard method ASTM C1579 in 27 different environmental conditions by using continuous video recording and digital image analyzing. The results showed that as the evaporation rate increased and the balance time decreased, the crack severity significantly increased so that by reducing the balance time from the maximum value to its minimum value, the cracking area increased more than four times. It was also observed that the cracking area- balance time curve could be interpreted in three sections. An examination of these three parts showed that the combination of climate conditions has a significant effect on increasing or decreasing these two variables. The criticality of a single factor cannot cause the critical conditions of plastic cracking. By combining two mild environmental factors with a severe climate factor (in terms of surface evaporation rate), a considerable reduction in balance time and a sharp increase in cracking severity can be prevented. The results of this study showed that balance time could be an essential factor in controlling and predicting plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete pavements. It is necessary to control this factor in the case of constructing concrete pavements in different climate conditions.

Keywords: bleeding and cracking severity, concrete pavements, climate conditions, plastic shrinkage

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
261 Microwave Assisted Thermal Cracking of Castor Oil Zeolite ZSM-5 as Catalyst for Biofuel Production

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Ali Abdul Rahman–Al Ezzi, Tharmathas A/L Alagappan


The aim of this investigation was to produce biofuel from castor oil through microwave assisted thermal cracking with zeolite ZSM-5 as catalyst. The obtained results showed that microwave assisted thermal cracking of castor oil with Zeolite ZSM-5 as catalyst generates products consisting of alcohol, methyl esters and fatty acids. The products obtained from this experimental procedure by the cracking of castor oil are components of biodiesel. Samples of cracked castor oil containing 1, 3 and 5wt % catalyst was analyzed, however, only the sample containing the 5wt % catalyst showed significant presence of condensate. FTIR and GCMS studies show that the condensate obtained is an unsaturated fatty acid, is 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, suitable for biofuel use. 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.445 g/mol. Characterization of the sample demonstrates that functional group for the products from the three samples display a similar peak in the FTIR graph analysis at 1700 cm-1 and 3600 cm-1. The result obtained from GCMS shows that there are 16 peaks obtained from the sample. The compound with the highest peak area is 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid with a retention time of 9.941 and 24.65 peak areas. All these compounds are organic material and can be characterized as biofuel and biodiesel.

Keywords: castor oil, biofuel, biodiesel, thermal cracking, microwave

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
260 Analysis of the Influence of Fiber Volume and Fiber Orientation on Post-Cracking Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Marilia M. Camargo, Luisa A. Gachet-Barbosa, Rosa C. C. Lintz


The addition of fibers into concrete matrix can enhance some properties of the composite, such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths, toughness, deformation capacity and post-cracking ductility. Many factors affect the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete, such as concrete matrix (concrete strength, additions, aggregate diameter, etc.), characteristics of the fiber (geometry, type, aspect ratio, volume, orientation, distribution, strength, stiffness, etc.), specimen (size, geometry, method of preparation and loading rate). This research investigates the effects of fiber volume and orientation on the post-cracking behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). Hooked-end steel fibers with aspect ratios of 45 were added into concrete with volume of 0,32%, 0,64%, 0,94%. The post-cracking behaviour was assessed by double punch test of cubic specimens and the actual volume and orientation of the fibers were determined by non-destructive tests by means of electromagnetic induction. The results showed that the actual volume of fibers in each sample differs in a small amount from the dosed volume of fibers and that the deformation and toughness of the concrete increase with the increase in the actual volume of fibers. In determining the orientation of the fibers, it was found that they tend to distribute more in the X and Y axes due to the influence of the walls of the mold. In addition, it was concluded that the orientation of the fibers is important in the post-cracking behaviour of FRC when analyzed together with the actual volume of fibers, since the greater the volume of fibers, the greater the number of fibers oriented orthogonally to the application of loadings and, consequently, there is a better mechanical behavior of the composite. These results provide a better understanding of the influence of volume and fiber orientation on the post-cracking behavior of the FRC.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, steel fibers, volume of fibers, orientation of fibers, post-cracking behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
259 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Controlling the Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete. The results indicate that recycled plastic RP fiber of 50 mm length is capable of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete to some extent, but are not as effective as polypropylene PP fibers when added at the same volume fraction. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was The increase in flexural strength of RP fibers and PP fibers concrete were 12.34% and 40.30%, respectively in comparison to plain concrete. RP fiber showed a substantial increase in toughness and a slight decrease in flexural strength of concrete at a fiber volume fraction of 1.00% compared to PP fibers at fiber volume fraction of 0.50%. RP fibers caused a significant increase in compressive strengths up to 13.02% compared to concrete without fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: concrete, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, RF recycled fibers, polypropylene PP fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
258 Mechanistic Study of Composite Pavement Behavior in Heavy Duty Area

Authors: Makara Rith, Young Kyu Kim, Seung Woo Lee


In heavy duty areas, asphalt pavement constructed as entrance roadway may expose distresses such as cracking and rutting during service life. To mitigate these problems, composite pavement with a roller-compacted concrete base may be a good alternative; however, it should be initially investigated. Structural performances such as fatigue cracking and rut depth may be changed due to variation of some design factors. Therefore, this study focuses on the variation effect of material modulus, layer thickness and loading on composite pavement performances. Stress and strain at the critical location are determined and used as the input of transfer function for corresponding distresses to evaluate the pavement performance. Also, composite pavement satisfying the design criteria may be selected as a design section for heavy duty areas. Consequently, this investigation indicates that composite pavement has the ability to eliminate fatigue cracking in asphalt surfaces and significantly reduce rut depth. In addition, a thick or strong rigid base can significantly reduce rut depth and prolong fatigue life of this layer.

Keywords: composite pavement, ports, cracking, rutting

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
257 Structural Properties of RC Beam with Progression of Corrosion Induced Delamination Cracking

Authors: Anupam Saxena, Achin Agrawal, Rishabh Shukla, S. Mandal


It is quite important that the properties of structural elements do not change significantly before and after cracking, and if they do, it adversely affects the structure. Corrosion in rebars causes cracking in concrete which can lead to the change in properties of beam. In the present study, two RC beams with same flexural strength but with different reinforcement arrangements are considered and modelling of cracks of RC beams has been done at different degrees of corrosion in the case of delamination using boundary conditions of Three Point Bending Test. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been done at different degree of corrosion to observe the variation of different parameters like modal frequency, Elasticity and Flexural strength in case of delamination. Also, the comparison between two different RC arrangements is made to conclude which one of them is more suitable.

Keywords: delamination, elasticity, FEA, flexural strength, modal frequency, RC beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
256 Long-Term Field Performance of Paving Fabric Interlayer Systems to Reduce Reflective Cracking

Authors: Farshad Amini, Kejun Wen


The formation of reflective cracking of pavement overlays has confronted highway engineers for many years. Stress-relieving interlayers, such as paving fabrics, have been used in an attempt to reduce or delay reflective cracking. The effectiveness of paving fabrics in reducing reflection cracking is related to joint or crack movement in the underlying pavement, crack width, overlay thickness, subgrade conditions, climate, and traffic volume. The nonwoven geotextiles are installed between the old and new asphalt layers. Paving fabrics enhance performance through two mechanisms: stress relief and waterproofing. Several factors including proper installation, remedial work performed before overlay, overlay thickness, variability of pavement strength, existing pavement condition, base/subgrade support condition, and traffic volume affect the performance. The primary objective of this study was to conduct a long-term monitoring of the paving fabric interlayer systems to evaluate its effectiveness and performance. A comprehensive testing, monitoring, and analysis program were undertaken, where twelve 500-ft pavement sections of a four-lane highway were rehabilitated, and then monitored for seven years. A comparison between the performance of paving fabric treatment systems and control sections is reported. Lessons learned, and the various factors are discussed.

Keywords: monitoring, paving fabrics, performance, reflective cracking

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255 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Minimizing Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Cement Based Mortar

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy


The development of new construction materials using recycled plastic is important to both the construction and the plastic recycling industries. Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or post-consumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of ordinary cement based mortar. Parameters investigated include: Fiber length ranging from 20 to 50 mm, and fiber volume fraction ranging from 0% to 1.5% by volume. The test results showed significant improvement in crack arresting mechanism and substantial reduction in the surface area of cracks for the mortar reinforced with recycled plastic fibers compared to plain mortar. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was a slight decrease in compressive strength of mortar reinforced with different lengths and contents of recycled fibers compared to plain mortar. This study suggests that adding more than 1% of RP fibers to mortar, can be used effectively for controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of cement based mortar, and thus results in waste reduction and resources conservation.

Keywords: mortar, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, RF recycled fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
254 Prediction of Concrete Hydration Behavior and Cracking Tendency Based on Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and ANSYS Simulation

Authors: Samaila Muazu Bawa


Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.

Keywords: concrete hydration, electrical resistivity, restrained shrinkage crack, ANSYS simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 169