Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5508

Search results for: photothermal defelction technique PDS

5508 Two Layer Photo-Thermal Deflection Model to Investigate the Electronic Properties in BGaAs/GaAs Alloys

Authors: S. Ilahi, M. Baira, F. Saidi, N. Yacoubi, L. Auvray, H. Maaref

Abstract:

Photo-thermal deflection technique (PTD) is used to study the nonradiative recombination process in BGaAs/GaAs alloy with boron composition of 3% and 8% grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A two layer theoretical model has been developed taking into account both thermal and electronic contribution in the photothermal signal allowing to extract the electronic parameters namely electronic diffusivity, surface and interface recombination. It is found that the increase of boron composition alters the BGaAs epilayers transport properties.

Keywords: photothermal defelction technique, two layer model, BGaAs/GaAs alloys, boron composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
5507 Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaAsPN/GaP for Tandem Solar Cells: Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing

Authors: S. Ilahi, S. Almosni, F. Chouchene, M. Perrin, K. Zelazna, N. Yacoubi, R. Kudraweic, P. Rale, L. Lombez, J. F. Guillemoles, O. Durand, C. Cornet

Abstract:

Great efforts have been dedicated to obtain high quality of GaAsPN. The properties of GaAsPN have played a great part on the development of solar cells devices based in Si substrate. The incorporation of N in GaAsPN that having a band gap around of 1.7 eV is of special interest in view of growing in Si substrate. In fact, post-growth and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) could be an effective way to improve the quality of the layer. Then, the influence of growth conditions and post-growth annealing on optical and thermal parameters is considered. We have used Photothermal deflection spectroscopy PDS to investigate the impact of rapid thermal annealing on thermal and optical properties of GaAsPN. In fact, the principle of the PDS consists to illuminate the sample by a modulated monochromatic light beam. Then, the absorbed energy is converted into heat through the nonradiative recombination process. The generated thermal wave propagates into the sample and surrounding media creating a refractive-index gradient giving rise to the deflection of a laser probe beam skimming the sample surface. The incident light is assumed to be uniform, and only the sample absorbs the light. In conclusion, the results are promising revealing an improvement in absorption coefficient and thermal conductivity.

Keywords: GaAsPN absorber, photothermal defelction technique PDS, photonics on silicon, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
5506 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermophysical Properties of Photothermal Fluid and Enhancement of Photothermal Deflection Signal

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq Ahmed, Sabastine Ezugwu

Abstract:

Thermophysical properties of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl₄), a photothermal fluid used frequently in Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS), containing different volume fractions of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) and their effect on the amplitude of PDS signal are investigated. It is found that the presence of highly thermally conducting SWCNTs in CCl₄ enhances the heat transfer from heated sample to the adjoining photothermal fluid, resulting in an increase in the intensity of amplitude of PDS signal. With the increasing volume fraction of SWCNTs in CCl₄, the amplitude of PDS signal is nearly doubled for volume fraction fopt =3.7X10⁻³ %., after that the signal drops with a further increase in the fraction of SWCNTs. It is shown that the use of highly thermally conducting carbon nanotubes enhances the heat exchange coefficient between the heated sample surface and adjoining fluid, resulting to an enhancement of PDS signal and consequently the improvement in the sensitivity of PDS technique.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, heat transfer, nanofluid, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, thermophysical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
5505 Thermal Diffusion of Photovoltaic Organic Semiconductors Determined by Scanning Photothermal Deflection Technique

Authors: K.L. Chiu, Johnny K. W. Ho, M. H. Chan, S. H. Cheung, K. H. Chan, S.K. So

Abstract:

Thermal diffusivity is an important quantity in heat conduction. It measures the rate of heat transfer from the hot side to the cold side of a material. In solid-state materials, thermal diffusivity reveals information related to morphologies and solid quality, as thermal diffusivity can be affected by microstructures. However, thermal diffusivity studies on organic semiconductors are very limited. In this study, scanning photothermal deflection (SPD) technique is used to study the thermal diffusivities of different classes of semiconducting polymers. The reliability of the technique was confirmed by crossing-checking our SPD derived experimental values of different reference materials with their known diffusivities from the literature. To show that thermal diffusivity determination is a potential tool for revealing microscopic properties of organic photovoltaic semiconductors, SPD measurements were applied to various organic semiconducting films with different crystallinities. It is observed that organic photovoltaic semiconductors possess low thermal diffusivity, with values in the range of 0.3mm²/s to 1mm²/s. It is also discovered that polymeric photovoltaic semiconductors with greater molecular planarity, stronger stacking and higher crystallinity would possess greater thermal diffusivities. Correlations between thermal, charge transport properties will be discussed.

Keywords: polymer crystallinity, photovoltaic organic semiconductors, photothermal deflection technique, thermal diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
5504 Investigation on the Thermal Properties of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Prepared with Glass Powder

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal property of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) using glass powder as a substitute. Glass powder by proportion 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cement’s weight was added to specimens. At the end of a drying time of 28 days, thermal properties, compressive strength and bulk density of samples were determined. Thermal property is measured by Photothermal Deflection Technique by comparing the experimental of normalized amplitude and the phase curves of the photothermal signal to the corresponding theoretical ones. The findings indicate that incorporation of glass powder decreases the thermal properties of MOC.

Keywords: magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC), phototharmal deflection technique, thermal properties, Ddensity

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5503 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

Abstract:

The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
5502 Enhanced Solar-Driven Evaporation Process via F-Mwcnts/Pvdf Photothermal Membrane for Forward Osmosis Draw Solution Recovery

Authors: Ayat N. El-Shazly, Dina Magdy Abdo, Hamdy Maamoun Abdel-Ghafar, Xiangju Song, Heqing Jiang

Abstract:

Product water recovery and draw solution (DS) reuse is the most energy-intensive stage in forwarding osmosis (FO) technology. Sucrose solution is the most suitable DS for FO application in food and beverages. However, sucrose DS recovery by conventional pressure-driven or thermal-driven concentration techniques consumes high energy. Herein, we developed a spontaneous and sustainable solar-driven evaporation process based on a photothermal membrane for the concentration and recovery of sucrose solution. The photothermal membrane is composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs)photothermal layer on a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) substrate. The f-MWCNTs photothermal layer with a rough surface and interconnected network structures not only improves the light-harvesting and light-to-heat conversion performance but also facilitates the transport of water molecules. The hydrophilic PVDF substrate can promote the rapid transport of water for adequate water supply to the photothermal layer. As a result, the optimized f-MWCNTs/PVDF photothermal membrane exhibits an excellent light absorption of 95%, and a high surface temperature of 74 °C at 1 kW m−2 . Besides, it realizes an evaporation rate of 1.17 kg m−2 h−1 for 5% (w/v) of sucrose solution, which is about 5 times higher than that of the natural evaporation. The designed photothermal evaporation process is capable of concentrating sucrose solution efficiently from 5% to 75% (w/v), which has great potential in FO process and juice concentration.

Keywords: solar, pothothermal, membrane, MWCNT

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5501 Light-Emitting Diode Assisted Synthesis of [email protected] Nanoparticles and Their Application in Magnetic and Photothermal Hyperthermia Therapy

Authors: Pei-Wen Lin, Ta-I Yang

Abstract:

Cancer has been one of the leading causes of human death for centuries. Considerable effort has been devoted to developing new treatments to reduce and control cancers. Magnetic particle hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy are the promising strategies to treat cancers due to its effectiveness with only mild side effects. This study focused on synthesizing magnetic [email protected] nanoparticles applicable for both of magnetic hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy. The hydrophilic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) polymer was utilized to prepare superparamagnetic Fe3O4 clusters and to promote silver nanoparticles grown on Fe3O4 surfaces, obtaining [email protected] nanoparticles. The morphology (shape and dimension) of Ag nanoparticles was subsequently tailored using commercial LED lights. Therefore, the resulting [email protected] nanoparticles can absorb specific wavelength of light ranging from 400 nm to 800 nm by adjusting the wavelength of LED lights and the free silver ions in reaction solution. Heating performance tests confirmed that the synthesized [email protected] nanoparticles show appreciable heating capability for both of magnetic particle hyperthermia and near-infrared photothermal therapy. The findings in this study could provide new ideas to design functional materials to treat cancers.

Keywords: light-emitting diode assisted synthesis, magnetic particles, photothermal materials, hyperthermia

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
5500 Upconversion Nanoparticles for Imaging and Controlled Photothermal Release of Anticancer Drug in Breast Cancer

Authors: Rishav Shrestha, Yong Zhang

Abstract:

The Anti-Stoke upconversion process has been used extensively for bioimaging and is recently being used for photoactivated therapy in cancer utilizing upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs). The UCNs have an excitation band at 980nm; 980nm laser excitation used to produce UV/Visible emissions also produce a heating effect. Light-to-heat conversion has been observed in nanoparticles(NPs) doped with neodymium(Nd) or ytterbium(Yb)/erbium(Er) ions. Despite laser-induced heating in Rare-earth doped NPs being proven to be a relatively efficient process, only few attempts to use them as photothermal agents in biosystems have been made up to now. Gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes are the most researched and developed for photothermal applications. Both have large heating efficiency and outstanding biocompatibility. However, they show weak fluorescence which makes them harder to track in vivo. In that regard, UCNs are attractive due to their excellent optical features in addition to their light-to-heat conversion and excitation by NIR, for imaging and spatiotemporally releasing drugs. In this work, we have utilized a simple method to coat Nd doped UCNs with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM on which 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-T) is loaded. Such UCNs demonstrate a high loading efficiency and low leakage of 4-OH-T. Encouragingly, the release of 4-OH-T can be modulated by varying the power and duration of the NIR. Such UCNs were then used to demonstrate imaging and controlled photothermal release of 4-OH-T in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Keywords: cancer therapy, controlled release, photothermal release, upconversion nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
5499 Application of Gold Nanorods in Cancer Photothermaltherapy

Authors: Mehrnaz Mostafavi

Abstract:

Lung cancer is one of the most harmful forms of cancer. The long-term survival rate of lung cancer patients treated by conventional modalities such as surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy remains far from satisfactory. Systemic drug delivery is rarely successful because only a limited amount of the chemotherapeutic drug targets lung tumor sites, even when administered at a high dose. Targeted delivery of drug molecules to organs or special sites is one of the most challenging research areas in pharmaceutical sciences. By developing colloidal delivery systems such as liposomes, micelles and nanoparticles a new frontier was opened for improving drug delivery. Nanoparticles with their special characteristics such as small particle size, large surface area and the capability of changing their surface properties have numerous advantages compared with other delivery systems. Targeted nanoparticle delivery to the lungs is an emerging area of interest.Multimodal or combination therapy represents a promising new method to fight disease. Therefore, a combination of different therapeutic strategies may be the best alternative to improve treatment outcomes for lung cancer. Photothermal therapy was proposed as a novel approach to treatment. In this work, photothermal therapy with gold nanoparticles and near infrared laser (NIR) irradiation was investigated.Four types of small (<100nm), NIR absorbing gold nanoparticles (nanospheres, nanorods) were synthesized using wet chemical methods and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and UV-vis spectroscopy. Their synthesis and properties were evaluated, to determine their feasibility as a photothermal agent for clinical applications. In vitro cellular uptake studies of the nanoparticles into lung cancer cell lines was measured using light scattering microscopy.Small gold nanorods had good photothermal properties and the greatest cellular uptake, and were used in photothermal studies. Under 4W laser irradiation, an increase in temperature of 10°C and decrease in cell viability of up to 80% were obtained.

Keywords: photothermal, therapy, cancer, gold nanorods

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
5498 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport

Abstract:

Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, amyloids, photothermal treatment, catechol, Congo-red

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
5497 Site-Specific Delivery of Hybrid Upconversion Nanoparticles for Photo-Activated Multimodal Therapies of Glioblastoma

Authors: Yuan-Chung Tsai, Masao Kamimura, Kohei Soga, Hsin-Cheng Chiu

Abstract:

In order to enhance the photodynamic/photothermal therapeutic efficacy on glioblastoma, the functionized upconversion nanoparticles with the capability of converting the deep tissue penetrating near-infrared light into visible wavelength for activating photochemical reaction were developed. The drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained from the self-assembly of oleic acid-coated upconversion nanoparticles along with maleimide-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-cholesterol (Mal-PEG-Chol), as the NP stabilizer, and hydrophobic photosensitizers, IR-780 (for photothermal therapy, PTT) and mTHPC (for photodynamic therapy, PDT), in aqueous phase. Both the IR-780 and mTHPC were loaded into the hydrophobic domains within NPs via hydrophobic association. The peptide targeting ligand, angiopep-2, was further conjugated with the maleimide groups at the end of PEG adducts on the NP surfaces, enabling the affinity coupling with the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 of tumor endothelial cells and malignant astrocytes. The drug-loaded NPs with the size of ca 80 nm in diameter exhibit a good colloidal stability in physiological conditions. The in vitro data demonstrate the successful targeting delivery of drug-loaded NPs toward the ALTS1C1 cells (murine astrocytoma cells) and the pronounced cytotoxicity elicited by combinational effect of PDT and PTT. The in vivo results show the promising brain orthotopic tumor targeting of drug-loaded NPs and sound efficacy for brain tumor dual-modality treatment. This work shows great potential for improving photodynamic/photothermal therapeutic efficacy of brain cancer.

Keywords: drug delivery, orthotopic brain tumor, photodynamic/photothermal therapies, upconversion nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
5496 Magnesium Nanoparticles for Photothermal Therapy

Authors: E. Locatelli, I. Monaco, R. C. Martin, Y. Li, R. Pini, M. Chiariello, M. Comes Franchini

Abstract:

Despite the many advantages of application of nanomaterials in the field of nanomedicine, increasing concerns have been expressed on their potential adverse effects on human health. There is urgency for novel green strategies toward novel materials with enhanced biocompatibility using safe reagents. Photothermal ablation therapy, which exploits localized heat increase of a few degrees to kill cancer cells, has appeared recently as a non-invasive and highly efficient therapy against various cancer types; anyway new agents able to generate hyperthermia when irradiated are needed and must have precise biocompatibility in order to avoid damage to healthy tissues and prevent toxicity. Recently, there has been increasing interest in magnesium as a biomaterial: it is the fourth most abundant cation in the human body, and it is essential for human metabolism. However magnesium nanoparticles (Mg NPs) have had limited diffusion due to the high reduction potential of magnesium cations, which makes NPs synthesis challenging. Herein, we report the synthesis of Mg NPs and their surface functionalization for the obtainment of a stable and biocompatible nanomaterial suitable for photothermal ablation therapy against cancer. We synthesized the Mg crystals by reducing MgCl2 with metallic lithium and exploiting naphthalene as an electron carrier: the lithium–naphthalene complex acts as the real reducing agent. Firstly, the nanocrystal particles were coated with the ligand 12-ethoxy ester dodecanehydroxamic acid, and then entrapped into water-dispersible polymeric micelles (PMs) made of the FDA-approved PLGA-b-PEG-COOH copolymer using the oil-in-water emulsion technique. Lately, we developed a more straightforward methodology by introducing chitosan, a highly biocompatible natural product, at the beginning of the process, simultaneously using lithium–naphthalene complex, thus having a one-pot procedure for the formation and surface modification of MgNPs. The obtained MgNPs were purified and fully characterized, showing diameters in the range of 50-300 nm. Notably, when coated with chitosan the particles remained stable as dry powder for more than 10 months. We proved the possibility of generating a temperature rise of a few to several degrees once MgNPs were illuminated using a 810 nm diode laser operating in continuous wave mode: the temperature rise resulted significant (0-15 °C) and concentration dependent. We then investigated potential cytotoxicity of the MgNPs: we used HN13 epithelial cells, derived from a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the hepa1-6 cell line, derived from hepatocellular carcinoma and very low toxicity was observed for both nanosystems. Finally, in vivo photothermal therapy was performed on xenograft hepa1-6 tumor bearing mice: the animals were treated with MgNPs coated with chitosan and showed no sign of suffering after the injection. After 12 hours the tumor was exposed to near-infrared laser light. The results clearly showed an extensive damage to tumor tissue after only 2 minutes of laser irradiation at 3Wcm-1, while no damage was reported when the tumor was treated with the laser and saline alone in control group. Despite the lower photothermal efficiency of Mg with respect to Au NPs, we consider MgNPs a promising, safe and green candidate for future clinical translations.

Keywords: chitosan, magnesium nanoparticles, nanomedicine, photothermal therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
5495 Development of Gold Nanoparticles-Antibody System for the Selective Photothermal Destruction of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Teodora Mocan, Lucian Mocan, Cornel Iancu, Flaviu A. Tabaran, Bartos Dana, Matea Cristian

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance, which threatens the efficacy of the existing antibiotics represents a worldwide public health issue. At the current time, vancomycin is the only responsive treatment although has significant cytotoxicity, is partially effective and it is poorly retained by infected tissues. From a clinical point of view, attractive alternative approaches for treating such Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) strains would be using agents that cause physical damage to the bacteria. Modular nanopharmaceuticals systems are being designed to address all of these multifunctional capabilities for the ideal bacterial treatment, with the ability to mix and match appropriate functions. Here we present a novel method of selective laser photothermal ablation of MRSA bacteria mediated by gold nanoparticles bound to PBP antibody against PBP protein located on the MRSA surface.

Keywords: MRSA, laser, nanoparticle, antibody

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
5494 Radiofrequency and Near-Infrared Responsive Core-Shell Multifunctional Nanostructures Using Lipid Templates for Cancer Theranostics

Authors: Animesh Pan, Geoffrey D. Bothun

Abstract:

With the development of nanotechnology, research in multifunctional delivery systems has a new pace and dimension. An incipient challenge is to design an all-in-one delivery system that can be used for multiple purposes, including tumor targeting therapy, radio-frequency (RF-), near-infrared (NIR-), light-, or pH-induced controlled release, photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), and medical diagnosis. In this regard, various inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are known to show great potential as the 'functional components' because of their fascinating and tunable physicochemical properties and the possibility of multiple theranostic modalities from individual NPs. Magnetic, luminescent, and plasmonic properties are the three most extensively studied and, more importantly biomedically exploitable properties of inorganic NPs. Although successful attempts of combining any two of them above mentioned functionalities have been made, integrating them in one system has remained challenge. Keeping those in mind, controlled designs of complex colloidal nanoparticle system are one of the most significant challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore, systematic and planned studies providing better revelation are demanded. We report a multifunctional delivery platform-based liposome loaded with drug, iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and a gold shell on the surface of liposomes, were synthesized using a lipid with polyelectrolyte (layersomes) templating technique. MNPs and the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) were co-encapsulated inside liposomes composed by zwitterionic phophatidylcholine and anionic phosphatidylglycerol using reverse phase evaporation (REV) method. The liposomes were coated with positively charge polyelectrolyte (poly-L-lysine) to enrich the interface with gold anion, exposed to a reducing agent to form a gold nanoshell, and then capped with thio-terminated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG2000). The core-shell nanostructures were characterized by different techniques like; UV-Vis/NIR scanning spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM). This multifunctional system achieves a variety of functions, such as radiofrequency (RF)-triggered release, chemo-hyperthermia, and NIR laser-triggered for photothermal therapy. Herein, we highlight some of the remaining major design challenges in combination with preliminary studies assessing therapeutic objectives. We demonstrate an efficient loading and delivery system to significant cell death of human cancer cells (A549) with therapeutic capabilities. Coupled with RF and NIR excitation to the doxorubicin-loaded core-shell nanostructure helped in securing targeted and controlled drug release to the cancer cells. The present core-shell multifunctional system with their multimodal imaging and therapeutic capabilities would be eminent candidates for cancer theranostics.

Keywords: cancer thernostics, multifunctional nanostructure, photothermal therapy, radiofrequency targeting

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
5493 Antitumor Activity of Gold Nanorods against Mammary Gland and Skin Carcinoma in Dogs and Cats

Authors: Abdoon A.S., El Ashkar E.A., Kandil O.M., Wael H. Eisa, Shaban A.M., Khaled H.M., El Ashkar M.R., El Shaer M., Hussein H., Shaalan A.H., El Sayed M.

Abstract:

Cancer is a major obstacle to human health and development worldwide. Conventional strategies for cancer intervention include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Recently, plasmon photothermal therapy (PPTT) was introduced as a promising treatment for the management of cancer and several non-cancerous diseases that are generally characterized by overgrowth of abnormal cells. The present work was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy and toxicity of gold nanorods (AuNRs) in dogs and cats suffering from spontaneous mammary gland. AuNRs was injected intratumoral (IT, n=10, dose of 75 p.p.m/kg body weight) or by using spray method after surgical removal of cancer tissue (n=2) in dogs and cats. Then exposed to laser light after 60 min. Treated animals were observed every 2 days and the morphological changes in tumor size and shape were recorded. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment for checking CBC, liver and kidney functions. Results revealed that AuNRs successfully treat mammary gland tumor in dogs and cats (adenocarcinoma type 1 to IV). AuNRs induced sloughing of carcinogenic tissue within 5 to 15 days. AuNRs have no toxic effect on blood profile and the toxicity studies still under evaluation. Conclusion, AuNRs can be used for treatment of mammary gland carcinoma in dogs and cats.

Keywords: pet animals, mammary gland tumor, AuNRs, photothermal therapy, toxicity studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
5492 Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Liver Cancer

Authors: Lucian Mocan

Abstract:

We present method of Nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (Human hepatocellular liver carcinomacell line), using gold nanoparticles combuned with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy usig ex vivo specimens. Ex vivo-perfused liver specimens were obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma patients similarly to the surgical technique of transplantation. Ab bound to GNPs was inoculated intra-arterially onto the resulting specimen and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the malignant tissue by means of the capillary bed. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy and at the same time surrounding parenchyma was not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the malignant liver tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into tumor cells following ex-vivo intravascular perfusion. These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

Keywords: HepG2 cells, gold nanoparticles, nanoparticle functionalization, laser irradiation

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5491 Sun-Driven Evaporation Enhanced Forward Osmosis Process for Application in Wastewater Treatment and Pure Water Regeneration

Authors: Dina Magdy Abdo, Ayat N. El-Shazly, E. A. Abdel-Aal

Abstract:

Forward osmosis (FO) is one of the important processes during the wastewater treatment system for environmental remediation and fresh water regeneration. Both Egypt and China are troubled by over millions of tons of wastewater every year, including domestic and industrial wastewater. However, the traditional FO process in wastewater treatment usually suffers low efficiency and high energy consumption because of the continuously diluted draw solution. An additional concentration process is necessary to keep running of FO separation, causing energy waste. Based on the previous study on photothermal membrane, a sun-driven evaporation process is integrated into the draw solution side of FO system. During the sun-driven evaporation, not only the draw solution can be concentrated to maintain a stable and sustainable FO system, but fresh water can be directly separated for regeneration. Solar energy is the ultimate energy source of everything we have on Earth and is, without any doubt, the most renewable and sustainable energy source available to us. Additionally, the FO membrane process is rationally designed to limit the concentration polarization and fouling. The FO membrane’s structure and surface property will be further optimized by the adjustment of doping ratio of controllable nano-materials, membrane formation conditions, and selection of functional groups. A novel kind of nano-composite functional separation membrane with bi-interception layers and high hydrophilicity will be developed for the application in wastewater treatment. So, herein we aim to design a new wastewater treatment system include forward osmosis with high-efficiency energy recovery via the integration of photothermal membrane.

Keywords: forward osmosis, membrane, solar, water treatement

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5490 Sun-Driven Evaporation Enhanced Forward Osmosis Process for Application in Wastewater Treatment and Pure Water Regeneration

Authors: Dina Magdy Abdo, Ayat N. El-Shazly, Hamdy Maamoun Abdel-Ghafar, E. A. Abdel-Aal

Abstract:

Forward osmosis (FO) is one of the important processes during the wastewater treatment system for environmental remediation and fresh water regeneration. Both Egypt and China are troubled by over millions of tons of wastewater every year, including domestic and industrial wastewater. However, traditional FO process in wastewater treatment usually suffers low efficiency and high energy consumption because of the continuously diluted draw solution. An additional concentration process is necessary to keep running of FO separation, causing energy waste. Based on the previous study on photothermal membrane, a sun-driven evaporation process is integrated into the draw solution side of FO system. During the sun-driven evaporation, not only the draw solution can be concentrated to maintain a stable and sustainable FO system, but fresh water can be directly separated for regeneration. Solar energy is the ultimate energy source of everything we have on Earth and is, without any doubt, the most renewable and sustainable energy source available to us. Additionally, the FO membrane process is rationally designed to limit the concentration polarization and fouling. The FO membrane’s structure and surface property will be further optimized by the adjustment of the doping ratio of controllable nano-materials, membrane formation conditions, and selection of functional groups. A novel kind of nano-composite functional separation membrane with bi-interception layers and high hydrophilicity will be developed for the application in wastewater treatment. So, herein we aim to design a new wastewater treatment system include forward osmosis with high-efficiency energy recovery via the integration of photothermal membrane.

Keywords: forword, membrane, solar, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
5489 Development of Energy Management System Based on Internet of Things Technique

Authors: Wen-Jye Shyr, Chia-Ming Lin, Hung-Yun Feng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to develop an energy management system for university campuses based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technique. The proposed IoT technique based on WebAccess is used via network browser Internet Explore and applies TCP/IP protocol. The case study of IoT for lighting energy usage management system was proposed. Structure of proposed IoT technique included perception layer, equipment layer, control layer, application layer and network layer.

Keywords: energy management, IoT technique, sensor, WebAccess

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
5488 Low-Power Digital Filters Design Using a Bypassing Technique

Authors: Thiago Brito Bezerra

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach to reduce power consumption of digital filters based on dynamic bypassing of partial products in their multipliers. The bypassing elements incorporated into the multiplier hardware eliminate redundant signal transitions, which appear within the carry-save adders when the partial product is zero. This technique reduces the power consumption by around 20%. The circuit implementation was made using the AMS 0.18 um technology. The bypassing technique applied to the circuits is outlined.

Keywords: digital filter, low-power, bypassing technique, low-pass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
5487 Design and Implementation of Wave-Pipelined Circuit Using Reconfigurable Technique

Authors: Adhinarayanan Venkatasubramanian

Abstract:

For design of high speed digital circuit wave pipeline is the best approach this can be operated at higher operating frequencies by adjusting clock periods and skews so as latch the o/p of combinational logic circuit at the stable period. In this paper, there are two methods are proposed in automation task one is BIST (Built in self test) and second method is Reconfigurable technique. For the above two approaches dedicated AND gate (multiplier) by applying wave pipeline technique. BIST approach is implemented by Xilinx Spartan-II device. In reconfigurable technique done by ASIC. From the results, wave pipeline circuits are faster than nonpipeline circuit and area, power dissipation are reduced by reconfigurable technique.

Keywords: SOC, wave-pipelining, FPGA, self-testing, reconfigurable, ASIC

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
5486 Thread Lift: Classification, Technique, and How to Approach to the Patient

Authors: Panprapa Yongtrakul, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pakjira Siriphan

Abstract:

Background: The thread lift technique has become popular because it is less invasive, requires a shorter operation, less downtime, and results in fewer postoperative complications. The advantage of the technique is that the thread can be inserted under the skin without the need for long incisions. Currently, there are a lot of thread lift techniques with respect to the specific types of thread used on specific areas, such as the mid-face, lower face, or neck area. Objective: To review the thread lift technique for specific areas according to type of thread, patient selection, and how to match the most appropriate to the patient. Materials and Methods: A literature review technique was conducted by searching PubMed and MEDLINE, then compiled and summarized. Result: We have divided our protocols into two sections: Protocols for short suture, and protocols for long suture techniques. We also created 3D pictures for each technique to enhance understanding and application in a clinical setting. Conclusion: There are advantages and disadvantages to short suture and long suture techniques. The best outcome for each patient depends on appropriate patient selection and determining the most suitable technique for the defect and area of patient concern.

Keywords: thread lift, thread lift method, thread lift technique, thread lift procedure, threading

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
5485 Application of Remote Sensing Technique on the Monitoring of Mine Eco-Environment

Authors: Haidong Li, Weishou Shen, Guoping Lv, Tao Wang

Abstract:

Aiming to overcome the limitation of the application of traditional remote sensing (RS) technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring, in this paper, we first classified the eco-environmental damages caused by mining activities and then introduced the principle, classification and characteristics of the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technique. The potentiality of LiDAR technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring was analyzed, particularly in extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation, through comparing the feasibility and applicability of traditional RS method and LiDAR technique in monitoring different types of indicators. The application situation of LiDAR technique in extracting typical mine indicators, such as land destruction in mining areas, damage of ecological integrity and natural soil erosion. The result showed that the LiDAR technique has the ability to monitor most of the mine eco-environmental indicators, and exhibited higher accuracy comparing with traditional RS technique, specifically speaking, the applicability of LiDAR technique on each indicator depends on the accuracy requirement of mine eco-environmental monitoring. In the item of large mine, LiDAR three-dimensional point cloud data not only could be used as the complementary data source of optical RS, Airborne/Satellite LiDAR could also fulfill the demand of extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation in large areas.

Keywords: LiDAR, mine, ecological damage, monitoring, traditional remote sensing technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
5484 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: O. Kahraman, M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil

Abstract:

In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test, standardization

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5483 Implementation of 4-Bit Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor DAC with Mismatch Shaping Technique

Authors: Anuja Askhedkar, G. H. Agrawal, Madhu Gudgunti

Abstract:

Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor (DCT-SC) DAC is the internal DAC used in Delta-Sigma (∆∑) DAC which works on Over-Sampling concept. The Switched Capacitor DAC mainly suffers from mismatch among capacitors. Mismatch among capacitors in DAC, causes non linearity between output and input. Dynamic Element Matching (DEM) technique is used to match the capacitors. According to element selection logic there are many types. In this paper, Data Weighted Averaging (DWA) technique is used for mismatch shaping. In this paper, the 4 bit DCT-SC-DAC with DWA-DEM technique is implemented using WINSPICE simulation software in 180nm CMOS technology. DNL for DAC with DWA is ±0.03 LSB and INL is ± 0.02LSB.

Keywords: ∑-Δ DAC, DCT-SC-DAC, mismatch shaping, DWA, DEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
5482 Imp_hist-Si: Improved Hybrid Image Segmentation Technique for Satellite Imagery to Decrease the Segmentation Error Rate

Authors: Neetu Manocha

Abstract:

Image segmentation is a technique where a picture is parted into distinct parts having similar features which have a place with similar items. Various segmentation strategies have been proposed as of late by prominent analysts. But, after ultimate thorough research, the novelists have analyzed that generally, the old methods do not decrease the segmentation error rate. Then author finds the technique HIST-SI to decrease the segmentation error rates. In this technique, cluster-based and threshold-based segmentation techniques are merged together. After then, to improve the result of HIST-SI, the authors added the method of filtering and linking in this technique named Imp_HIST-SI to decrease the segmentation error rates. The goal of this research is to find a new technique to decrease the segmentation error rates and produce much better results than the HIST-SI technique. For testing the proposed technique, a dataset of Bhuvan – a National Geoportal developed and hosted by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) is used. Experiments are conducted using Scikit-image & OpenCV tools of Python, and performance is evaluated and compared over various existing image segmentation techniques for several matrices, i.e., Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR).

Keywords: satellite image, image segmentation, edge detection, error rate, MSE, PSNR, HIST-SI, linking, filtering, imp_HIST-SI

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5481 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Dilip K. De, Olukunle C. Olawole, Emmanuel S. Joel, Moses Emetere

Abstract:

A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: charge carrier density, nano materials, new technique, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
5480 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

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5479 Independent Encryption Technique for Mobile Voice Calls

Authors: Nael Hirzalla

Abstract:

The legality of some countries or agencies’ acts to spy on personal phone calls of the public became a hot topic to many social groups’ talks. It is believed that this act is considered an invasion to someone’s privacy. Such act may be justified if it is singling out specific cases but to spy without limits is very unacceptable. This paper discusses the needs for not only a simple and light weight technique to secure mobile voice calls but also a technique that is independent from any encryption standard or library. It then presents and tests one encrypting algorithm that is based of frequency scrambling technique to show fair and delay-free process that can be used to protect phone calls from such spying acts.

Keywords: frequency scrambling, mobile applications, real-time voice encryption, spying on calls

Procedia PDF Downloads 389