Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: flaps

22 Optimal Design of Wind Turbine Blades Equipped with Flaps

Authors: I. Kade Wiratama


As a result of the significant growth of wind turbines in size, blade load control has become the main challenge for large wind turbines. Many advanced techniques have been investigated aiming at developing control devices to ease blade loading. Amongst them, trailing edge flaps have been proven as effective devices for load alleviation. The present study aims at investigating the potential benefits of flaps in enhancing the energy capture capabilities rather than blade load alleviation. A software tool is especially developed for the aerodynamic simulation of wind turbines utilising blades equipped with flaps. As part of the aerodynamic simulation of these wind turbines, the control system must be also simulated. The simulation of the control system is carried out via solving an optimisation problem which gives the best value for the controlling parameter at each wind turbine run condition. Developing a genetic algorithm optimisation tool which is especially designed for wind turbine blades and integrating it with the aerodynamic performance evaluator, a design optimisation tool for blades equipped with flaps is constructed. The design optimisation tool is employed to carry out design case studies. The results of design case studies on wind turbine AWT 27 reveal that, as expected, the location of flap is a key parameter influencing the amount of improvement in the power extraction. The best location for placing a flap is at about 70% of the blade span from the root of the blade. The size of the flap has also significant effect on the amount of enhancement in the average power. This effect, however, reduces dramatically as the size increases. For constant speed rotors, adding flaps without re-designing the topology of the blade can improve the power extraction capability as high as of about 5%. However, with re-designing the blade pretwist the overall improvement can be reached as high as 12%.

Keywords: flaps, design blade, optimisation, simulation, genetic algorithm, WTAero

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21 Reconstruction of Complex Post Oncologic Maxillectomy Defects

Authors: Vinay Kant Shankhdhar


Purpose: Maxillary defects are three dimensional and require complex bone and soft tissue reconstruction. Maxillary reconstruction using fibula osteocutaneous flaps in situation requiring orbital floor, orbital wall, palatal defects, and external skin, all at the same time require special planning and multiple osteotomies. We tried to improvise our reconstruction using multiple osteotomies and skin paddle designs for fibula and Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle. This study aims at discussing the planning and outcome in complex maxillary reconstructions using fibula flaps and soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. Material and Methods: From 2011 to 2017 a total of 129 Free fibula flaps were done, 67 required two or more struts, 164 Anterolateral Thigh Flaps, 11 Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery perforator flaps and 3 vertical rectus abdominis muscle flaps with iliac crest bone graft. The age range was 2 to 70 years. The reconstruction was evaluated based on the post-operative rehabilitation including orbital support (prevention of diplopia), oral diet, speech and cosmetic appearance. Results: The follow- up is from 5 years to 1 year. In this series, we observed that the common complications were the de-vascularisation of most distal segment of osteotomised fibula and native skin necrosis. Commonest area of breakdown is the medial canthal region. Plate exposure occurs most commonly at the pyriform sinus. There was extrusion of one non-vascularized bone graft. All these complications were noticed post-radiotherapy. Conclusions: The use of free fibula osteocutaneous flap gives very good results when only alveolar reconstruction is required. The reconstruction of orbital floor with extensive skin loss with post operative radiotherapy has maximum complication rate in long term follow up. A soft tissue flap with non vascularized bone graft may be the best option in such cases.

Keywords: maxilla reconstruction, fibula maxilla, post cancer maxillary reconstruction

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20 Lateral Sural Artery Perforators: A Cadaveric Dissection Study to Assess Perforator Surface Anatomy Variability and Average Pedicle Length for Flap Reconstruction

Authors: L. Sun, O. Bloom, K. Anderson


The medial and lateral sural artery perforator flaps (MSAP and LSAP, respectively) are two recently described flaps that are less commonly used in lower limb trauma reconstructive surgeries compared to flaps such as the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap or the gastrocnemius flap. The LSAP flap has several theoretical benefits over the MSAP, including the ability to be sensate and being more easily manoeuvred into position as a local flap for coverage of lateral knee or leg defects. It is less commonly used in part due to a lack of documented studies of the anatomical reliability of the perforator, and an unquantified average length of the pedicle used for microsurgical anastomosis (if used as a free flap) or flap rotation (if used as a pedicled flap). It has been shown to have significantly lower donor site morbidity compared to other flaps such as the ALT, due to the decreased need for intramuscular dissection and resulting in less muscle loss at the donor site. 11 cadaveric lower limbs were dissected, with a mean of 1.6 perforators per leg, with an average pedicle length of 45mm to the sural artery and 70mm to the popliteal artery. While the majority of perforating arteries lay close to the midline (average of 19mm lateral to the midline), there were patients whose artery was significantly lateral and would have been likely injured by the initial incision during an operation. Adding to the literature base of documented LSAP dissections provides a greater understanding of the anatomical basis of these perforator flaps, and the authors hope this will establish them as a more commonly used and discussed option when managing complicated lower limb trauma requiring soft tissue reconstruction.

Keywords: cadaveric, dissection, lateral, perforator flap, sural artery, surface anatomy

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19 Structural Morphing on High Performance Composite Hydrofoil to Postpone Cavitation

Authors: Fatiha Mohammed Arab, Benoit Augier, Francois Deniset, Pascal Casari, Jacques Andre Astolfi


For the top high performance foiling yachts, cavitation is often a limiting factor for take-off and top speed. This work investigates solutions to delay the onset of cavitation thanks to structural morphing. The structural morphing is based on compliant leading and trailing edge, with effect similar to flaps. It is shown here that the commonly accepted effect of flaps regarding the control of lift and drag forces can also be used to postpone the inception of cavitation. A numerical and experimental study is conducted in order to assess the effect of the geometric parameters of hydrofoil on their hydrodynamic performances and in cavitation inception. The effect of a 70% trailing edge and a 30% leading edge of NACA 0012 is investigated using Xfoil software at a constant Reynolds number 106. The simulations carried out for a range flaps deflections and various angles of attack. So, the result showed that the lift coefficient increase with the increase of flap deflection, but also with the increase of angle of attack and enlarged the bucket cavitation. To evaluate the efficiency of the Xfoil software, a 2D analysis flow over a NACA 0012 with leading and trailing edge flap was studied using Fluent software. The results of the two methods are in a good agreement. To validate the numerical approach, a passive adaptive composite model is built and tested in the hydrodynamic tunnel at the Research Institute of French Naval Academy. The model shows the ability to simulate the effect of flap by a LE and TE structural morphing due to hydrodynamic loading.

Keywords: cavitation, flaps, hydrofoil, panel method, xfoil

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18 Application of Pedicled Perforator Flaps in Large Cavities of the Breast

Authors: Neerja Gupta


Objective-Reconstruction of large cavities of the breast without contralateral symmetrisation Background- Reconstruction of breast includes a wide spectrum of procedures from displacement to regional and distant flaps. The pedicled Perforator flaps cover a wide spectrum of reconstruction surgery for all quadrants of the breast, especially in patients with comorbidities. These axial flaps singly or adjunct are based on a near constant perforator vessel, a ratio of 2:1 at its entry in a flap is good to maintain vascularity. The perforators of lateral chest wall viz LICAP, LTAP have overlapping perfurosomes without clear demarcation. LTAP is localized in the narrow zone between the lateral breast fold and anterior axillary line,2.5-3.8cm from the fold. MICAP are localized at 1-2 cm from sternum. Being 1-2mm in diameter, a Single perforator is good to maintain the flap. LICAP has a dominant perforator in 6th-11th spaces, while LTAP has higher placed dominant perforators in 4th and 5th spaces. Methodology-Six consecutive patients who underwent reconstruction of the breast with pedicled perforator flaps were retrospectively analysed. Selections of the flap was done based on the size and locations of the tumour, anticipated volume loss, willingness to undergo contralateral symmetrisation, cosmetic expectations, and finances available.3 patients underwent vertical LTAP, the distal limit of the flap being the inframammary crease. 3 patients underwent MICAP, oriented along the axis of rib, the distal limit being the anterior axillary line. Preoperative identification was done using a unidirectional hand held doppler. The flap was raised caudal to cranial, the pivot point of rotation being the vessel entry into the skin. The donor area is determined by the skin pinch. Flap harvest time was 20-25 minutes. Intra operative vascularity was assessed with dermal bleed. The patient immediate pre, post-operative and follow up pics were compared independently by two breast surgeons. Patients were given a breast Q questionnaire (licensed) for scoring. Results-The median age of six patients was 46. Each patient had a hospital stay of 24 hours. None of the patients was willing for contralateral symmetrisation. The specimen dimensions were from 8x6.8x4 cm to 19x16x9 cm. The breast volume reconstructed range was 30 percent to 45 percent. All wide excision had free margins on frozen. The mean flap dimensions were 12x5x4.5 cm. One LTAP underwent marginal necrosis and delayed wound healing due to seroma. Three patients were phyllodes, of which one was borderline, and 2 were benign on final histopathology. All other 3 patients were invasive ductal cancer and have completed their radiation. The median follow up is 7 months the satisfaction scores at median follow of 7 months are 90 for physical wellbeing and 85 for surgical results. Surgeons scored fair to good in Harvard score. Conclusion- Pedicled perforator flaps are a valuable option for 3/8th volume of breast defects. LTAP is preferred for tumours at the Central, upper, and outer quadrants of the breast and MICAP for the inner and lower quadrant. The vascularity of the flap is dependent on the angiosomalterritories; adequate venous and cavity drainage.

Keywords: breast, oncoplasty, pedicled, perforator

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17 Numerical Investigations on the Coanda Effect

Authors: Florin Frunzulica, Alexandru Dumitrache, Octavian Preotu


The Coanda effect consists of the tendency of a jet to remain attached to a sufficiently long/large convex surface. Flows deflected by a curved surface have caused great interest during last fifty years a major interest in the study of this phenomenon is caused by the possibility of using this effect to aircraft with short take-off and landing, for thrust vectoring. It is also used in applications involving mixing two of more fluids, noise attenuation, ventilation, etc. The paper proposes the numerical study of an aerodynamic configuration that can passively amplify the Coanda effect. On a wing flaps with predetermined configuration, a channel is applied between two particular zones, a low-pressure one and a high-pressure another one, respectively. The secondary flow through this channel yields a gap between the jet and the convex surface, maintaining the jet attached on a longer distance. The section altering-based active control of the secondary flow through the channel controls the attachment of the jet to the surface and automatically controls the deviation angle of the jet. The numerical simulations have been performed in Ansys Fluent for a series of wing flaps-channel configurations with varying jet velocity. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: blowing jet, CFD, Coanda effect, circulation control

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16 The Aesthetic Reconstruction of Post-Burn Eyebrow Alopecia with Bilateral Superficial Temporal Artery Island Scalp Flap

Authors: Kumar Y., Suman D., Sumathi


Introduction: Burns to the face account for between one-fourth and one-third of all burns. The loss of an eyebrow due to a burn or infection can have negative physical and psychological consequences for patients because eyebrows have a critical functional and aesthetic role on the face. Plastic surgeons face unique challenges in reconstructing eyebrows due to their complex anatomy and variations within genders. As a general rule, there are three techniques for reconstructing the eyebrow: superficial temporal artery island flap, a composite graft from the scalp, and mini or micro follicular grafts from the scalp. In situations where a sufficient amount of subcutaneous tissue is not available and the defect is big such as the case of burns, flaps like the superficial temporal artery scalp flap remain reliable options. In 2018, a 17-year-old female patient presented to the department of Burns Plastic and reconstructive Surgery of Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India. A scald-burn injury to the face occurred two years before admission, resulting in bilateral eyebrow loss. We reconstructed the bilateral eyebrows using bilateral scalp island flaps based on the posterior branch of the superficial temporal artery. The reconstructed eyebrows successfully assumed a desirable shape and exhibited a natural appearance, which was consistent with preoperative expectations and the patient stated that she was more comfortable with her social relationships. Among the current treatment procedures, the superficial temporal artery island flap continues to be a versatile option for reconstructing the eyebrows after alopecia, especially in cases of burns. Results: During the 30 days follow-up period, the scalp island flap remained vascularised with normal hair growth, without complications. The reconstructed eyebrows successfully assumed a desirable shape and exhibited a natural appearance; the patient stated that she was more comfortable with her social relationships. Conclusion: In this case report, we demonstrated how scalp island flaps pedicled by the superficial temporal artery could be performed very safely and reliably to create new eyebrows.

Keywords: alopecia, burns, eyebrow, flap, superficial temporal artery

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15 Risk Factors and Outcome of Free Tissue Transfer at a Tertiary Care Referral Center

Authors: Majid Khan


Introduction: In this era of microsurgery, free flap holds a remarkable spot in reconstructive surgery. A free flap is well suited for composite defects as it provides sufficient and well-vascularized tissue for coverage. We report our experience with the use of the free flaps for the reconstruction of composite defects. Methods: This is a retrospective case series (chart review) of patients who underwent reconstruction of composite defects with a free flap at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan) from January 01, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Data were collected for patient demographics, size of the defect, size of flap, recipient vessels, postoperative complications, and outcome of the free flap. Results: Over this period, 532 free flaps are included in this study. The overall success rate is 95.5%. The mean age of the patient was 44.86 years. In 532 procedures, there were 448 defects from tumor ablation of head and neck cancer. The most frequent free flap was the anterolateral thigh flap in 232 procedures. In this study, the risk factor hypertension (p=0.004) was found significant for wound dehiscence, preop radiation/chemotherapy (p=0.003), and malnutrition (p=0.005) were found significant for fistula formation. Malnutrition (p=0.02) and use of vein grafts (p=0.025) were significant factors for flap failure. Conclusion: Free tissue transfer is a reliable option for the reconstruction of large and composite defects. Hypertension, malnutrition, and preoperative radiotherapy can cause significant morbidity.

Keywords: free flap, free flap failure, risk factors for flap failure, free flap outcome

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14 Comparison of the Curvizigzag Incision with Transverse Stewart Incision in Women Undergoing Modified Radical Mastectomy for Carcinoma Breast

Authors: John Joseph S. Martis, Rohanchandra R. Gatty, Aaron Jose Fernandes, Rahul P. Nambiar


Introduction: Surgery for breast cancer is either mastectomy or breast conservation surgery. The most commonly used incision for modified radical mastectomy is the transverse Stewart incision. But this incision may have the disadvantage of causing disparity between the closure lines of superior and inferior skin flaps in mastectomy and can cause overhanging of soft tissue below and behind the axilla. The curvizigzag incision, on principle, may help in this regard and can prevent scar migration beyond the anterior axillary line. This study aims to compare the two incisions in this regard. Methods: 100 patients with cancer of breast were included in the study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. They underwent surgery at Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, India, between November 2019 to September 2021. The patients were divided into two groups. Group A patients were subjected to modified radical mastectomy with curvizigzag incision and group B patients with transverse Stewart incision. Results: Seroma on postoperative day1, day 2 was 0% in both the groups. Seroma on postoperative day 30 was present in 14% of patients in group B. 60% of patients in group B had sag of soft tissue below and behind the axilla, and none of the patients in group A had this problem. In 64% of the patients in group B, the incision crossed the anterior axillary fold, 64% of the patients in group B had tension in the incision site while approximation of the skin flaps. Conclusion: Curvizigzag incision is statistically better with lesser complications when compared to the transverse Stewart incision for modified radical mastectomy for carcinoma breast.

Keywords: breast cancer, curvizigzag incision, transverse Stewart incision, seroma, modified radical mastectomy

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13 Salvage Reconstruction of Intraoral Dehiscence following Free Fibular Flap with a Superficial Temporal Artery Islandized Flap (STAIF)

Authors: Allyne Topaz


Intraoral dehiscence compromises free fibula flaps following mandibular reconstruction. Salivary contamination risks thrombosis of microvascular anastomosis and hardware infection. The superficial temporal artery islandized flap (STAIF) offers an efficient, non-microsurgical reconstructive option for regaining intraoral competency for a time sensitive complication. Methods: The STAIF flap is based on the superficial temporal artery coursing along the anterior hairline. The flap is mapped with assistance of the doppler probe. The width of the skin paddle is taken based on the ability to close the donor site. The flap is taken down to the level of the zygomatic arch and tunneled into the mouth. Results: We present a case of a patient who underwent mandibular reconstruction with a free fibula flap after a traumatic shotgun wound. The patient developed repeated intraoral dehiscence following failed local buccal and floor of mouth flaps leading to salivary contamination of the flap and hardware. The intraoral dehiscence was successfully salvaged on the third attempt with a STAIF flap. Conclusions: Intraoral dehiscence creates a complication requiring urgent attention to prevent loss of free fibula flap after mandibular reconstruction. The STAIF is a non-microsurgical option for restoring intraoral competency. This robust, axially vascularized skin paddle may be split for intra- and extra-oral coverage, as needed and can be an important tool in the reconstructive armamentarium.

Keywords: free fibula flap, intraoral dehiscence, mandibular reconstruction, superficial temporal artery islandized flap

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12 Ulnar Parametacarpal Flap for Coverage of Fifth Finger Defects: Propeller Flap Concept

Authors: Ahmed M. Gad, Ahmed S. Hweidi


Background: Defects of the little finger and adjacent areas are not uncommon. It could be a traumatic, post-burn, or after contracture release. Different options could be used for resurfacing these defect, including skin grafts, local or regional flaps. Ulnar para-metacarpal flap described by Bakhach in 1995 based on the distal division of the dorsal branch of the ulnar artery considered a good option for that. In this work, we applied the concept of propeller flap for better mobilization and in-setting of the ulnar para-metacarpal flap. Methods: The study included 15 cases with 4 females and 11 male patients. 10 of the patients had severe post-burn contractures of little finger, and 5 had post-traumatic little finger defects. Contractures were released and resulting soft tissue defects were reconstructed with propeller ulnar para-metacarpal artery flap. The flap based on two main perforators communicating with the palmar system, it was raised based on one of them depending on the extent of the defect and rotated 180 degrees after judicious dissection of the perforator. Results: 13 flaps survived completely, one of the cases developed partial skin loss, which healed by dressing, another flap was completely lost and covered later by a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusion: Ulnar para-metacarpal flap is a reliable option to resurface the little finger as well as adjacent areas. The application of the propeller flap concept based on whether the proximal or distal communicating branch makes the rotation and in-setting of the flap easier.

Keywords: little finger defects, propeller flap, regional hand defects, ulnar parametacarpal flap

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11 The Benefits of a Totally Autologous Breast Reconstruction Technique Using Extended Latissimus Dorsi Flap with Lipo-Modelling: A Seven Years United Kingdom Tertiary Breast Unit Results

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Brendan Wooler, Penelope McManus


Introduction: The public perception of implants has been damaged in the wake of recent negative publicity and increasingly we are finding patients wanting to avoid them. Planned lipo-modelling to enhance the volume of a Latissimus dorsi flap is a viable alternative to silicone implants and maintains a Totally Autologous Technique (TAT). Here we demonstrate that when compared to an Implant Assisted Technique (IAT), a TAT offers patients many benefits that offset the requirement of more operations initially, with reduced short and long term complications, reduced symmetrisation surgery and reduced revision rates. Methods. Data was collected prospectively over 7 years. The minimum follows up was 3 years. The technique was generally standardized in the hand of one surgeon. All flaps were extended LD flaps (ELD). Lipo-modelling was performed using standard techniques. Outcome measures were unplanned secondary procedures, complication rates, and contralateral symmetrisation surgery rates. Key Results Were: Lower complication rates in the TAT group (18.5% vs. 33.3%), despite higher radiotherapy rates (TAT=49%, IAT=36.8%), TAT was associated with lower subsequent symmetrisation rates (30.6% vs. 50.9%), IAT had a relative risk of 3.1 for subsequent unplanned procedure, Autologous patients required an average of 1.76 sessions of lipo-modelling, Conclusions: Using lipo-modelling to enable totally autologous LD reconstruction offers significant advantages over an implant assisted technique. We have shown a lower subsequent unplanned procedure rate, lower revision surgery, and less contralateral symmetrisation surgery. We anticipate that a TAT will be supported by patient satisfaction surveys and long-term patient-reported cosmetic outcome data and intended to study this.

Keywords: breast, Latissimus dorsi, lipomodelling, reconstruction

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10 Outcomes of the Gastrocnemius Flap Performed by Orthopaedic Surgeons in Salvage Revision Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Study at a Tertiary Orthopaedic Centre

Authors: Amirul Adlan, Robert McCulloch, Scott Evans, Michael Parry, Jonathan Stevenson, Lee Jeys


Background and Objectives: The gastrocnemius myofascial flap is used to manage soft-tissue defects over the anterior aspect of the knee in the context of a patient presenting with a sinus and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) or extensor mechanism failure. The aim of this study was twofold: firstly, to evaluate the outcomes of gastrocnemius flaps performed by appropriately trained orthopaedic surgeons in the context of PJI and, secondly, to evaluate the infection-free survival of this patient group. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients who underwent gastrocnemius flap reconstruction during staged revision total knee arthroplasty for prosthetic joint infection (PJI). All flaps were performed by an orthopaedic surgeon with orthoplastics training. Patients had a mean age of 68.9 years (range 50–84) and were followed up for a mean of 50.4 months (range 2–128 months). A total of 29 patients (97 %) were categorized into Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) local extremity grade 3 (greater than two compromising factors), and 52 % of PJIs were polymicrobial. The primary outcome measure was flap failure, and the secondary outcome measure was a recurrent infection. Results: Flap survival was 100% with no failures or early returns to theatre for flap problems such as necrosis or haematoma. Overall infection-free survival during the study period was 48% (13 of 27 infected cases). Using limb salvage as the outcome, 77% (23 of 30 patients) retained the limb. Infection recurrence occurred in 48% (10 patients) in the type B3 cohort and 67% (4 patients) in the type C3 cohort (p = 0.65). Conclusion: The surgical technique for a gastrocnemius myofascial flap is reliable and reproducible when performed by appropriately trained orthopaedic surgeons, even in high-risk groups. However, the risks of recurrent infection and amputation remain high within our series due to poor host and extremity factors.

Keywords: gastrocnemius flap, limb salvage, revision arthroplasty, outcomes

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9 Optimal Trailing Edge Flap Positions of Helicopter Rotor for Various Thrust Coefficient to Solidity (Ct/σ) Ratios

Authors: K. K. Saijaand, K. Prabhakaran Nair


This study aims to determine change in optimal lo-cations of dual trailing-edge flaps for various thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratios of helicopter to achieve minimum hub vibration levels, with low penalty in terms of required trailing-edge flap control power. Polynomial response functions are used to approximate hub vibration and flap power objective functions. Single objective and multi-objective optimization is carried with the objective of minimizing hub vibration and flap power. The optimization results shows that the inboard flap location at low Ct/σ ratio move farther from the baseline value and at high Ct/σ ratio move towards the root of the blade for minimizing hub vibration.

Keywords: helicopter rotor, trailing-edge flap, thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratio, optimization

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8 Aerodynamic Brake Study of Reducing Braking Distance for High-Speed Trains

Authors: Phatthara Surachon, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong


This paper presents an aerodynamic brake study of reducing braking distance for high-speed trains (HST) using aerodynamic brakes as inspiration from the applications on the commercial aircraft wings. In case of emergency, both braking distance and stopping time are longer than the usual situation. Therefore, the passenger safety and the HST driving control management are definitely obtained by reducing the time and distance of train braking during emergency situation. Due to the limited study and implementation of the aerodynamic brake in HST, the possibility in use and the effectiveness of the aerodynamic brake to the train dynamic movement during braking are analyzed and considered. Regarding the aircraft’s flaps that applied in the HST, the areas of the aerodynamic brake acted as an additional drag force during train braking are able to vary depending on the operating angle and the required dynamic braking force. The HST with a varying speed of 200 km/h to 350 km/h is taken as a case study of this paper. The results show that the stopping time and the brake distance are effectively reduced by the aerodynamic brakes. The mechanical brake and its maintenance are effectively getting this benefit by extending its lifetime for longer use.

Keywords: high-speed train, aerodynamic brake, brake distance, drag force

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7 Evolution and Parameter of Gravity Flap Structures In The Southern Central Atlas of Tunisia. Example: Northern Of Orbata Anticline in Gafsa Basin (Ben Zannouch Structure)

Authors: Soulef Amamria, Mohamed Sadok Bensalem, Mohamed Ghanmi


Several works found in the fold-and-thrust belt area of the southern central atlas of Tunisia, which were often related with tectonic shortening, are in fact related to superficial gravity structures. These gravitational collapse structures have developed in the northern flank of jebelOrbata. These include rock-slides, rock falls, wrinkle folds, slip sheets, and flaps. The Gravity collapse structures of ben zannouchare parallel to the major thrust of BouOmrane between Orbata and El Ong structures. The thrust activity of BouOmrane associated to the important paleo-slope to the south, and plastic lithology (incompetent marly and gypsum layers) facilitates the development of the Ben Zannouch Flap structure. The definition in the first time of gravitional collapse structures in Tunisia, particularly in the northern flank of Jebel Orbata, is controlled by three principal structural conditions: the fragmentation of the landslide surfaces, the lithology, and the topography. Other regional factors can be distinguished in the southern-central Tunisian Atlas as the seismity activity of the Gafsa fault and the wetter conditions during the postglacial period.

Keywords: collapse structure, flap structure, gravity structures, thrust activity

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6 Difficulties in Pronouncing the English Bilabial Plosive Sounds among EFL Students

Authors: Ali Mohammed Saleh Al-Hamzi


This study aims at finding out the most difficult position in pronouncing the bilabial plosive sounds at the fourth level of English foreign language students of the Faculty of Education, Mahweet, Sana’a University in Yemen. The subject of this study were 50 participants from English foreign language students aged 22-25. In describing sounds according to their place of articulation, sounds are classified as bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, palato-alveolar retroflex, palatal, velar, uvular, and glottal. In much the same way, sounds can be described in their manner of articulation as plosives, nasals, affricates, flaps, taps, rolls, fricatives, laterals, frictionless continuants, and semi-vowels. For English foreign language students in Yemen, there are some articulators that are difficult to pronounce. In this study, the researcher focuses on difficulties in pronouncing the English bilabial plosive sounds among English foreign language students. It can be in the initial, medial, and final positions. The problem discussed in this study was: which position is the most difficult in pronouncing the English bilabial plosive sounds? To solve the problem, a descriptive qualitative method was conducted in this study. The data were collected from each English bilabial plosive sounds produced by students. Finally, the researcher reached that the most difficult position in pronouncing the English bilabial plosive sounds is when English bilabial plosive /p/ and /b/ occur word-finally, where both are voiceless.

Keywords: difficulty, EFL students’ pronunciation, bilabial sounds, plosive sounds

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5 Preoperative 3D Planning and Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects for Patients with Oral Cavity Tumors

Authors: Janis Zarins, Kristaps Blums, Oskars Radzins, Renars Deksnis, Atis Svare, Santa Salaka


Wide tumor resection remains the first choice method for tumors of the oral cavity. Nevertheless, remained tissue defect impacts patients functional and aesthetical outcome, which could be improved using microvascular tissue transfers. Mandibular reconstruction is challenging due to the complexity of composite tissue defects and occlusal relationships for normal eating, chewing, and pain free jaw motions. Individual 3-D virtual planning would provide better symmetry and functional outcome. The main goal of preoperative planning is to develop a customized surgical approach with patient specific cutting guides of the mandible, osteotomy guides of the fibula, pre-bended osteosynthesis plates to perform more precise reconstruction, to decrease the surgery time and reach the best outcome. Our study is based on the analysis of 32 patients operated on between 2019 to 2021. All patients underwent mandible reconstruction with vascularized fibula flaps. Patients characteristics, surgery profile, survival, functional outcome, and quality of life was evaluated. Preoperative planning provided a significant decrease of surgery time and the best arrangement of bone closely similar as before the surgery. In cases of bone asymmetry, deformity and malposition, a new mandible was created using 3D planning to restore the appearance of lower jaw anatomy and functionality.

Keywords: mandibular, 3D planning, cutting guides, fibula flap, reconstruction

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4 A Case Report of Aberrant Vascular Anatomy of the Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap

Authors: Karissa Graham, Andrew Campbell-Lloyd


The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (DIEP) is used to reconstruct large volumes of tissue. The DIEP flap is based on the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and vein. Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of these vessels allows for efficient dissection of the flap, minimal damage to surrounding tissue, and a well vascularized flap. A 54 year old lady was assessed for bilateral delayed autologous reconstruction with DIEP free flaps. The right DIEA was consistent with the described anatomy. The left DIEA had a vessel branching shortly after leaving the external iliac artery and before entering the muscle. This independent branch entered the muscle and had a long intramuscular course to the largest perforator. The main DIEA vessel demonstrated a type II branching pattern but had perforators that were too small to have a viable DIEP flap. There were no communicating arterial branches between the independent vessel and DIEA, however, there was one venous communication between them. A muscle sparing transverse rectus abdominis muscle flap was raised using the main periumbilical perforator from the independent vessel. Our case report demonstrated an unreported anatomical variant of the DIEA. A few anatomical variants have been described in the literature, including a unilateral absent DIEA and peritoneal-cutaneous perforators that had no connection to the DIEA. Doing a pre-operative CTA helps to identify these rare anatomical variations, which leads to safer, more efficient, and effective operating.

Keywords: aberrant anatomy, CT angiography, DIEP anatomy, free flap

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3 Design and Analysis of Hybrid Morphing Smart Wing for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Chetan Gupta, Ramesh Gupta


Unmanned aerial vehicles, of all sizes, are prime targets of the wing morphing concept as their lightweight structures demand high aerodynamic stability while traversing unsteady atmospheric conditions. In this research study, a hybrid morphing technology is developed to aid the trailing edge of the aircraft wing to alter its camber as a monolithic element rather than functioning as conventional appendages like flaps. Kinematic tailoring, actuation techniques involving shape memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectrics – individually fall short of providing a simplistic solution to the conundrum of morphing aircraft wings. On the other hand, the feature of negligible hysteresis while actuating using compliant mechanisms has shown higher levels of applicability and deliverability in morphing wings of even large aircrafts. This research paper delves into designing a wing section model with a periodic, multi-stable compliant structure requiring lower orders of topological optimization. The design is sub-divided into three smaller domains with external hyperelastic connections to achieve deflections ranging from -15° to +15° at the trailing edge of the wing. To facilitate this functioning, a hybrid actuation system by combining the larger bandwidth feature of piezoelectric macro-fibre composites and relatively higher work densities of shape memory alloy wires are used. Finite element analysis is applied to optimize piezoelectric actuation of the internal compliant structure. A coupled fluid-surface interaction analysis is conducted on the wing section during morphing to study the development of the velocity boundary layer at low Reynold’s numbers of airflow.

Keywords: compliant mechanism, hybrid morphing, piezoelectrics, shape memory alloys

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2 Calculation of the Supersonic Air Intake with the Optimization of the Shock Wave System

Authors: Elena Vinogradova, Aleksei Pleshakov, Aleksei Yakovlev


During the flight of a supersonic aircraft under various conditions (altitude, Mach, etc.), it becomes necessary to coordinate the operating modes of the air intake and engine. On the supersonic aircraft, it’s been done by changing various control factors (the angle of rotation of the wedge panels and etc.). This paper investigates the possibility of using modern optimization methods to determine the optimal position of the supersonic air intake wedge panels in order to maximize the total pressure recovery coefficient. Modern software allows us to conduct auto-optimization, which determines the optimal position of the control elements of the investigated product to achieve its maximum efficiency. In this work, the flow in the supersonic aircraft inlet has investigated and optimized the operation of the flaps of the supersonic inlet in an aircraft in a 2-D setting. This work has done using ANSYS CFX software. The supersonic aircraft inlet is a flat adjustable external compression inlet. The braking surface is made in the form of a three-stage wedge. The IOSO NM software package was chosen for optimization. Change in the position of the panels of the input device is carried out by changing the angle between the first and second steps of the three-stage wedge. The position of the rest of the panels is changed automatically. Within the framework of the presented work, the position of the moving air intake panel was optimized under fixed flight conditions of the aircraft under a certain engine operating mode. As a result of the numerical modeling, the distribution of total pressure losses was obtained for various cases of the engine operation, depending on the incoming flow velocity and the flight altitude of the aircraft. The results make it possible to obtain the maximum total pressure recovery coefficient under given conditions. Also, the initial geometry was set with a certain angle between the first and second wedge panels. Having performed all the calculations, as well as the subsequent optimization of the aircraft input device, it can be concluded that the initial angle was set sufficiently close to the optimal angle.

Keywords: optimal angle, optimization, supersonic air intake, total pressure recovery coefficient

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1 The Descending Genicular Artery Perforator Free Flap as a Reliable Flap: Literature Review

Authors: Doran C. Kalmin


The descending genicular artery (DGA) perforator free flap provides an alternative to free flap reconstruction based on a review of the literature detailing both anatomical and clinical studies. The descending genicular artery (DGA) supplies skin, muscle, tendon, and bone located around the medial aspect of the knee that has been used in several pioneering reports in reconstructing defects located in various areas throughout the body. After the success of the medial femoral condyle flap in early studies, a small number of studies have been published detailing the use of the DGA in free flap reconstruction. Despite early success in the use of the DGA flap, acceptance within the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgical community has been limited due primarily to anatomical variations of the pedicle. This literature review is aimed at detailing the progression of the DGA perforator free flap and its variations as an alternative and reliable free flap for reconstruction of composite defects with an exploration into both anatomical and clinical studies. A literature review was undertaken, and the progression of the DGA flap is explored from the early review by Acland et al. pioneering the saphenous free flap to exploring modern changes and studies of the anatomy of the DGA. An extensive review of the literature was undertaken that details the anatomy and its variations, approaches to harvesting the flap, the advantages, and disadvantages of the DGA perforator free flap as well as flap outcomes. There are 15 published clinical series of DGA perforator free flaps that incorporate cutaneous, osteoperiosteal, cartilage, osteocutaneous, osteoperiosteal and muscle, osteoperiosteal and subcutaneous and tendocutatenous. The commonest indication for using a DGA free flap was for non-union of bone, particularly that of the scaphoid whereby the medial femoral condyle could be used. In the case series, a success rate of over 90% was established, showing that these early studies have had good success with a wide range of tissue transfers. The greatest limitation is the anatomical variation of the DGA and therefore, the challenges associated with raising the flap. Despite the variation in anatomy and around 10-15% absence of the DGA, the saphenous artery can be used as well as the superior medial genicular artery if the vascular bone is required as part of the flap. Despite only a handful of anatomical and clinical studies describing the DGA perforator free flap, it ultimately provides a reliable flap that can include a variety of composite structure used for reconstruction in almost any area throughout the body. Although it has limitations, it provides a reliable option for free flap reconstruction that can routinely be performed as a single-stage procedure.

Keywords: anatomical study, clinical study, descending genicular artery, literature review, perforator free flap reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 75