Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Henri J. Boulouis

17 Molecular Survey and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae Strains Infecting Stray Cats from Algeria

Authors: Naouelle Azzag, Nadia Haddad, Benoit Durand, Elisabeth Petit, Ali Ammouche, Bruno Chomel, Henri J. Boulouis


Bartonella henselae is a small, gram negative, arthropod-borne bacterium that has been shown to cause multiple clinical manifestations in humans including cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, and bacteremia. In this research, we report the results of a cross sectional study of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in stray cats from Algiers. Whole blood of 227 stray cats from Algiers was tested for the presence of Bartonella species by culture and for the evaluation of the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats assay (MLVA). Bacteremia prevalence was 17% and only B. henselae was identified. Type I was the predominant type (64%). MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles. 51 of these profiles were specific to Algerian cats/identified for the first time. 20/30 cats (67%) harbored 2 to 7 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering showed that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain.

Keywords: Bartonella, cat, MLVA, genetic

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16 The Ontological Memory in Bergson as a Conceptual Tool for the Analysis of the Digital Conjuncture

Authors: Douglas Rossi Ramos


The current digital conjuncture, called by some authors as 'Internet of Things' (IoT), 'Web 2.0' or even 'Web 3.0', consists of a network that encompasses any communication of objects and entities, such as data, information, technologies, and people. At this juncture, especially characterized by an "object socialization," communication can no longer be represented as a simple informational flow of messages from a sender, crossing a channel or medium, reaching a receiver. The idea of communication must, therefore, be thought of more broadly in which it is possible to analyze the process communicative from interactions between humans and nonhumans. To think about this complexity, a communicative process that encompasses both humans and other beings or entities communicating (objects and things), it is necessary to constitute a new epistemology of communication to rethink concepts and notions commonly attributed to humans such as 'memory.' This research aims to contribute to this epistemological constitution from the discussion about the notion of memory according to the complex ontology of Henri Bergson. Among the results (the notion of memory in Bergson presents itself as a conceptual tool for the analysis of posthumanism and the anthropomorphic conjuncture of the new advent of digital), there was the need to think about an ontological memory, analyzed as a being itself (being itself of memory), as a strategy for understanding the forms of interaction and communication that constitute the new digital conjuncture, in which communicating beings or entities tend to interact with each other. Rethinking the idea of communication beyond the dimension of transmission in informative sequences paves the way for an ecological perspective of the digital dwelling condition.

Keywords: communication, digital, Henri Bergson, memory

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15 Design of a Dietetic Food: Case of Lebanese Kishk

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Dona Shalhoub, Elias Atallah, Jessica Koura


Due to the increase of demand on dietetic food and the need for more types of diet food, the production of dietetic food is increasing and improving. This demand on dietetic food has triggered us to study the market in which we found that Kishk (Lebanese dairy product) diet is not available. Production of a low fat product which is diet Kishk was our concern. A strategy was followed to choose the right idea that will satisfy the need of the market. The whole process was studied and explained thoroughly. The percentage of fat was found to be 32.52 % in regular Kishk and 3.84 % in the diet Kishk produced. The new product has the advantage to be high in protein, low in fat.

Keywords: design and industrialization, dietetic, diet Kishk, fat

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14 Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Christina Romanos, Charlie Bakhos, Hassan Chahal, Jessica Koura


Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. The techniques performed are the Fractional Crystallization, the Soxhlet and the Esterification. By comparing the results, it is found that the Lebanese oil contains squalene and Soxhlet method is the most effective between the three methods extracting about 6.5E-04 grams of Squalene per grams of olive oil.

Keywords: squalene, extraction, crystallization, Soxhlet

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13 Urban Life on the Go: Urban Transformation of Public Space

Authors: E. Zippelius


Urban design aims to provide a stage for public life that, when once brought to life, is right away subject to subtle but continuous transformation. This paper explores such transformations and searches for ways how public life can be reinforced in the case of a housing settlement for the displaced in Nicosia, Cyprus. First, a sound basis of theoretical knowledge is established through literature review, notably the theory of the Production of Space by Henri Lefebvre, exploring its potential and defining key criteria for the following empirical analysis. The analysis is pinpointing the differences between spatial practice, representation of space and spaces of representation as well as their interaction, alliance, or even conflict. In doing so uncertainties, chances and challenges are unraveled that will be consequently linked to practice and action and lead to the formulation of a design strategy. A strategy, though, that does not long for achieving an absolute, finite certainty but understands the three dimensions of space formulated by Lefebvre as equal and space as continuously produced, hence, unfinished.

Keywords: production of space, public space, urban life, urban transformation

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12 Machine Learning Approach for Anomaly Detection in the Simulated Iec-60870-5-104 Traffic

Authors: Stepan Grebeniuk, Ersi Hodo, Henri Ruotsalainen, Paul Tavolato


Substation security plays an important role in the power delivery system. During the past years, there has been an increase in number of attacks on automation networks of the substations. In spite of that, there hasn’t been enough focus dedicated to the protection of such networks. Aiming to design a specialized anomaly detection system based on machine learning, in this paper we will discuss the IEC 60870-5-104 protocol that is used for communication between substation and control station and focus on the simulation of the substation traffic. Firstly, we will simulate the communication between substation slave and server. Secondly, we will compare the system's normal behavior and its behavior under the attack, in order to extract the right features which will be needed for building an anomaly detection system. Lastly, based on the features we will suggest the anomaly detection system for the asynchronous protocol IEC 60870-5-104.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, IEC-60870-5-104, Machine learning, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, Substation security

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11 Dependence of the Electro-Stimulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Pulsed Electric Field at the Yeast Growth Phase

Authors: Jessy Mattar, Mohamad Turk, Maurice Nonus, Nikolai Lebovka, Henri El Zakhem, Eugene Vorobiev


The effects of electro-stimulation of S. cerevisiae cells in colloidal suspension by Pulsed Electric Fields ‎‎(PEF) with electric field strength E = 20 – 2000 and effective PEF treatment time tPEF = 10^−5 – 1 s were ‎investigated. The applied experimental procedure includes variations in the preliminary fermentation time and ‎electro-stimulation by PEF-treatment. Plate counting was performed.‎ At relatively high electric fields (E ≥ 1000 and moderate PEF treatment time (tPEF > 100 µs), the ‎extraction of ionic components from yeast was observed by conductivity measurements, which can be related to ‎electroporation of cell membranes. Cell counting revealed a dependency of the colonies’ size on the time of ‎preliminary fermentation tf and the power consumption W, however no dependencies were noticeable by varying the initial yeast concentration in the treated suspensions.‎

Keywords: intensification, yeast, fermentation, electroporation, biotechnology

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10 A Comparative Study of Malware Detection Techniques Using Machine Learning Methods

Authors: Cristina Vatamanu, Doina Cosovan, Dragos Gavrilut, Henri Luchian


In the past few years, the amount of malicious software increased exponentially and, therefore, machine learning algorithms became instrumental in identifying clean and malware files through semi-automated classification. When working with very large datasets, the major challenge is to reach both a very high malware detection rate and a very low false positive rate. Another challenge is to minimize the time needed for the machine learning algorithm to do so. This paper presents a comparative study between different machine learning techniques such as linear classifiers, ensembles, decision trees or various hybrids thereof. The training dataset consists of approximately 2 million clean files and 200.000 infected files, which is a realistic quantitative mixture. The paper investigates the above mentioned methods with respect to both their performance (detection rate and false positive rate) and their practicability.

Keywords: ensembles, false positives, feature selection, one side class algorithm

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9 Experimental Technique to Study Colloid Deposition in Porous Media

Authors: Abdelkader Djehiche, Mostefa Gafsi, Henri Bertin, Aziz Omari


The flows of colloidal suspensions in porous media find many applications in fields such as Petroleum, Hydraulic engineering, deep-bed filtration. For each application, the scientific problems can be summarized the flow in porous medium of a colloidal suspension whose particles having characteristic dimension is considerable in comparison with the pores dimension. In certain cases, one can observe a deposit of particles on the surface of the pores which results in a significant modification in the physical properties of the porous medium. The objective of our study is to use a non-destructive experimental method, the attenuation of g-rays, to study the influence of the number of Peclet on the deposit of latex particles in a consolidated porous medium. The first results obtained show a good agreement between local and global measurements of the deposit of the particles in porous medium. The deposit takes place in a progressive way along the porous medium and leads to a monolayer deposit of which the average thickness is of about the size diameter of the colloidal particles.

Keywords: colloid, gamma ray, Peclet number, permeability, porous medium

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8 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Authors: Henri Champliaud, Zhengkun Feng, Ngan Van Lê, Javad Gholipour


In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.

Keywords: deformation, kriging, fifth order spline interpolation, first, second and third order derivatives, C3 continuity, line heating, plate forming, thermal forming

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7 The Intersection of Masculinity and Disability in the Spatial Experience of Visually Impaired Men

Authors: Lucie Pospíšilová, Robert Osman, Hana Porkertová


The scholarly literature demonstrates disability and masculinity in conflict with each other. While disability is associated with dependence, weakness, or helplessness, masculinity is associated with independence, strength, and power. Thus, disabled masculinity might be a dilemma experienced on a personal level. The relationship between masculinity and disability is also interesting from a geographical point of view because the conception of space is gendered. In our society, the skills like spatial orientation, working with the maps, and navigation technologies as same as with scale are associated with masculinity. And because these skills are related to the visual imagination, it is the blindness that is associated with the limitation or even the absence of them. Thus, the conflict of masculinity and disability in the spatial experience is very well apparent in the case of visually impaired men. To study this conflict can tell us a lot not only about the experience of visually impaired men but also about the conception of space in geography and in our society. The paper uses Henri Lefebvre's theory of space based on a triad of spatial practice, representations of space, and representational space. It answers the question: How masculinity and disability intersect in the spatial experience of visually impaired men? The data come from research conducted in Brno and Prague (Czechia) in 2020 and 2021 and include 7 interviews and 6 go-alongs with visually impaired men.

Keywords: disability, masculinity, abstract space, spatial experience, visually impaired men

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6 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of an Extensive Green Roof with a Traditional Gravel-Asphalted Roof: An Application for the Lebanese Context

Authors: Makram El Bachawati, Rima Manneh, Thomas Dandres, Carla Nassab, Henri El Zakhem, Rafik Belarbi


A vegetative roof, also called a garden roof, is a "roofing system that endorses the growth of plants on a rooftop". Garden roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as embellishing the roofing system, enhancing the water management, and reducing the energy consumption and heat island effects. Lebanon is a Middle East country that lacks the use of a sustainable energy system. It imports 98% of its non-renewable energy from neighboring countries and suffers flooding during heavy rains. The objective of this paper is to determine if the implementation of vegetative roofs is effectively better than the traditional roofs for the Lebanese context. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in order to compare an existing extensive green roof to a traditional gravel-asphalted roof. The life cycle inventory (LCI) was established and modeled using the SimaPro 8.0 software, while the environmental impacts were classified using the IMPACT 2002+ methodology. Results indicated that, for the existing extensive green roof, the waterproofing membrane and the growing medium were the highest contributors to the potential environmental impacts. When comparing the vegetative to the traditional roof, results showed that, for all impact categories, the extensive green roof had the less environmental impacts.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, green roofs, vegatative roof, environmental impact

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5 Resonant Auxetic Metamaterial for Automotive Applications in Vibration Isolation

Authors: Adrien Pyskir, Manuel Collet, Zoran Dimitrijevic, Claude-Henri Lamarque


During the last decades, great efforts have been made to reduce acoustic and vibrational disturbances in transportations, as it has become a key feature for comfort. Today, isolation and design have neutralized most of the troublesome vibrations, so that cars are quieter and more comfortable than ever. However, some problems remain unsolved, in particular concerning low-frequency isolation and the frequency-dependent stiffening of materials like rubber. To sum it up, a balance has to be found between a high static stiffness to sustain the vibration source’s mass, and low dynamic stiffness, as wideband as possible. Systems meeting these criteria are yet to be designed. We thus investigated solutions inspired by metamaterials to control efficiently low-frequency wave propagation. Structures exhibiting a negative Poisson ratio, also called auxetic structures, are known to influence the propagation of waves through beaming or damping. However, their stiffness can be quite peculiar as well, as they can present regions of zero stiffness on the stress-strain curve for compression. In addition, auxetic materials can be easily adapted in many ways, inducing great tuning potential. Using finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, a resonant design has been tested through statics and dynamics simulations. These results are compared to experimental results. In particular, the bandgaps featured by these structures are analyzed as a function of design parameters. Great stiffness properties can be observed, including low-frequency dynamic stiffness loss and broadband transmission loss. Such features are very promising for practical isolation purpose, and we hope to adopt this kind of metamaterial into an effective industrial damper.

Keywords: auxetics, metamaterials, structural dynamics, vibration isolation

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4 Relationship among Teams' Information Processing Capacity and Performance in Information System Projects: The Effects of Uncertainty and Equivocality

Authors: Ouafa Sakka, Henri Barki, Louise Cote


Uncertainty and equivocality are defined in the information processing literature as two task characteristics that require different information processing responses from managers. As uncertainty often stems from a lack of information, addressing it is thought to require the collection of additional data. On the other hand, as equivocality stems from ambiguity and a lack of understanding of the task at hand, addressing it is thought to require rich communication between those involved. Past research has provided weak to moderate empirical support to these hypotheses. The present study contributes to this literature by defining uncertainty and equivocality at the project level and investigating their moderating effects on the association between several project information processing constructs and project performance. The information processing constructs considered are the amount of information collected by the project team, and the richness and frequency of formal communications among the team members to discuss the project’s follow-up reports. Data on 93 information system development (ISD) project managers was collected in a questionnaire survey and analyzed it via the Fisher Test for correlation differences. The results indicate that the highest project performance levels were observed in projects characterized by high uncertainty and low equivocality in which project managers were provided with detailed and updated information on project costs and schedules. In addition, our findings show that information about user needs and technical aspects of the project is less useful to managing projects where uncertainty and equivocality are high. Further, while the strongest positive effect of interactive use of follow-up reports on performance occurred in projects where both uncertainty and equivocality levels were high, its weakest effect occurred when both of these were low.

Keywords: uncertainty, equivocality, information processing model, management control systems, project control, interactive use, diagnostic use, information system development

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3 Design of New Baby Food Product Using Whey

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Anthony Dahdah, Lara Frangieh, Jessica Koura


Nowadays, the removal of whey produced in the dairy processes has been the most important problem in the dairy industry. Every year, about 47% of the 115 million tons of whey produced world-wide are disposed in the environment. Whey is a nutritious liquid, containing whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin-G, proteose pepton), lactose, vitamins (B5, B2, C, and B6), minerals (Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Chloride, and Sodium), and trace elements (Zinc, Iron, Iodine, and Copper). The first objective was to increase the economical and commercial value of whey which is considered as by-product. The second objective of this study was to formulate a new baby food with good nutritional, sensory and storage properties and acceptable to consumers using the cheese whey. The creation of the new product must pass through the following stages: idea stage, development stage which includes the business planning and the product development prototype, packaging stage, production stage, test marketing stage, quality control/sanitation. Three types of whey-based food were selected and prepared by mixing whey and apple, whey and banana as well as whey, apple, and banana.To compile with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and adequate intakes (AI) for vitamins and minerals, each sample is formed from 114g of sliced and smashed fruits mixed with 8 mL of whey. Mixtures are heated to 72oC for 15 seconds, and filled in pasteurized jars. Jars were conserved at 4oC. Following the experimental part, sensory evaluation made by an experienced panel took place. Hedonic tests results show that the mixture of whey, apple, and banana has the most delicious and sweetness taste followed by the mixture of whey and banana, and finally the mixture of whey and apple. This study was concluded with a managerial and engineering study that reveals that the project is economically profitable to be executed in Lebanon.

Keywords: baby food, by-product, cheese whey, formulation

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2 Verification of a Simple Model for Rolling Isolation System Response

Authors: Aarthi Sridhar, Henri Gavin, Karah Kelly


Rolling Isolation Systems (RISs) are simple and effective means to mitigate earthquake hazards to equipment in critical and precious facilities, such as hospitals, network collocation facilities, supercomputer centers, and museums. The RIS works by isolating components acceleration the inertial forces felt by the subsystem. The RIS consists of two platforms with counter-facing concave surfaces (dishes) in each corner. Steel balls lie inside the dishes and allow the relative motion between the top and bottom platform. Formerly, a mathematical model for the dynamics of RISs was developed using Lagrange’s equations (LE) and experimentally validated. A new mathematical model was developed using Gauss’s Principle of Least Constraint (GPLC) and verified by comparing impulse response trajectories of the GPLC model and the LE model in terms of the peak displacements and accelerations of the top platform. Mathematical models for the RIS are tedious to derive because of the non-holonomic rolling constraints imposed on the system. However, using Gauss’s Principle of Least constraint to find the equations of motion removes some of the obscurity and yields a system that can be easily extended. Though the GPLC model requires more state variables, the equations of motion are far simpler. The non-holonomic constraint is enforced in terms of accelerations and therefore requires additional constraint stabilization methods in order to avoid the possibility that numerical integration methods can cause the system to go unstable. The GPLC model allows the incorporation of more physical aspects related to the RIS, such as contribution of the vertical velocity of the platform to the kinetic energy and the mass of the balls. This mathematical model for the RIS is a tool to predict the motion of the isolation platform. The ability to statistically quantify the expected responses of the RIS is critical in the implementation of earthquake hazard mitigation.

Keywords: earthquake hazard mitigation, earthquake isolation, Gauss’s Principle of Least Constraint, nonlinear dynamics, rolling isolation system

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1 Epidemiological Data of Schistosoma haematobium Bilharzia in Rural and Urban Localities in the Republic of Congo

Authors: Jean Akiana, Digne Merveille Nganga Bouanga, Nardiouf Sjelin Nsana, Wilfrid Sapromet Ngoubili, Chyvanelle Ndous Akiridzo, Vishnou Reize Ampiri, Henri-Joseph Parra, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov, Cheikh Sadhibou Sokhna


Schistosoma haematobium schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in which the level of human exposure, incidence, and fatality attributed to it remains, unfortunately, high worldwide. The erection of hydroelectric infrastructures constitute a major factor in the emergence of this disease. In the context of the Republic of the Congo, which considers industrialization and modernization as two essential pillars of development, building the hydroelectric dams of Liouesso (19 Mw) and the feasibility studies of the dams of Chollet (600MW) in the Sangha, of Sounda (1000MW) in Kouilou and Kouembali (150MW) on Lefini is necessary to increase the country's energy capacities. Likewise, the urbanization of former endemic localities should take into account the maintenance of contamination points. However, health impact studies on schistosomiasis epidemiology in general and urinary bilharzia, in particular, have never been carried out in these areas, neither before nor after the erection of those dams. Participants benefited from an investigative questionnaire, urinalysis both by dipstick and urine filtrate examined under a microscope. Assessment of the genetic diversity of schistosoma species populations was considered as well as PCR analysis to confirm the test strip and microscopy tests. 405 participants were registered in five localities. The sampling was made up of a balanced population in terms of male/female ratio, which is around 1. The prevalence rate was 45% (55/123) in Nkayi, 10.40% (11/106) in Loudima, 1 case in Mbomo (West Cuvette), which would probably be imported, zero in Liouesso and Kabo. The highest oviuria (number of eggs per volume of urine) is 150 S. haematobium eggs/10ml in Nkayi, apart from the case of imported Mbomo, imported from Gabon, which has 160 S. haematobium eggs/10ml. The lowest oviuria was 2 S. haematobium eggs/10ml. Prevalence rates are still high in semi-urban areas (Nkayi). As praziquantel treatments are available and effective, it is important to step up mass treatment campaigns in high risk areas already largely initiated by the National Schistosomiasis Control Program. Prevalence rates are still high in semi-urban areas (Nkayi). As praziquantel treatments are available and effective, it is important to step up mass treatment campaigns in high risk areas already largely initiated by the National Schistosomiasis Control Program.

Keywords: Bilharzia, Schistosoma haematobium, oviuria, urbanization, Congo

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