Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 457

Search results for: photonics on silicon

457 Control of Oxide and Silicon Loss during Exposure of Silicon Waveguide

Authors: Gu Zhonghua

Abstract:

Control method of bulk silicon dioxide etching process to approach then expose silicon waveguide has been developed. It has been demonstrated by silicon waveguide of photonics devices. It is also able to generalize other applications. Use plasma dry etching to etch bulk silicon dioxide and approach oxide-silicon interface accurately, then use dilute HF wet etching to etch silicon dioxide residue layer to expose the silicon waveguide as soft landing. Plasma dry etch macro loading effect and endpoint technology was used to determine dry etch time accurately with a low wafer expose ratio.

Keywords: waveguide, etch, control, silicon loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
456 Vertically Coupled III-V/Silicon Single Mode Laser with a Hybrid Grating Structure

Authors: Zekun Lin, Xun Li

Abstract:

Silicon photonics has gained much interest and extensive research for a promising aspect for fabricating compact, high-speed and low-cost photonic devices compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. Despite the remarkable progress made on the development of silicon photonics, high-performance, cost-effective, and reliable silicon laser sources are still missing. In this work, we present a 1550 nm III-V/silicon laser design with stable single-mode lasing property and robust and high-efficiency vertical coupling. The InP cavity consists of two uniform Bragg grating sections at sides for mode selection and feedback, as well as a central second-order grating for surface emission. A grating coupler is etched on the SOI waveguide by which the light coupling between the parallel III-V and SOI is reached vertically rather than by evanescent wave coupling. Laser characteristic is simulated and optimized by the traveling-wave model (TWM) and a Green’s function analysis as well as a 2D finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the coupling process. The simulation results show that single-mode lasing with SMSR better than 48dB is achievable, and the threshold current is less than 15mA with a slope efficiency of around 0.13W/A. The coupling efficiency is larger than 42% and possesses a high tolerance with less than 10% reduction for 10 um horizontal or 15 um vertical dislocation. The design can be realized by standard flip-chip bonding techniques without co-fabrication of III-V and silicon or precise alignment.

Keywords: III-V/silicon integration, silicon photonics, single mode laser, vertical coupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
455 Electrotechnology for Silicon Refining: Plasma Generator and Arc Furnace Installations and Theoretical Base

Authors: Ashot Navasardian, Mariam Vardanian, Vladik Vardanian

Abstract:

The photovoltaic and the semiconductor industries are in growth and it is necessary to supply a large amount of silicon to maintain this growth. Since silicon is still the best material for the manufacturing of solar cells and semiconductor components so the pure silicon like solar grade and semiconductor grade materials are demanded. There are two main routes for silicon production: metallurgical and chemical. In this article, we reviewed the electrotecnological installations and systems for semiconductor manufacturing. The main task is to design the installation which can produce SOG Silicon from river sand by one work unit.

Keywords: metallurgical grade silicon, solar grade silicon, impurity, refining, plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
454 Humidity Sensing Behavior of Graphene Oxide on Porous Silicon Substrate

Authors: Amirhossein Hasani, Shamin Houshmand Sharifi

Abstract:

In this work, we investigate humidity sensing behavior of the graphene oxide with porous silicon substrate. By evaporation method, aluminum interdigital electrodes have been deposited onto porous silicon substrate. Then, by drop-casting method graphene oxide solution was deposited onto electrodes. The porous silicon was formed by electrochemical etching. The experimental results showed that using porous silicon substrate, we obtained two times larger sensitivity and response time compared with the results obtained with silicon substrate without porosity.

Keywords: graphene oxide, porous silicon, humidity sensor, electrochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 518
453 Microstructure Characterization on Silicon Carbide Formation from Natural Wood

Authors: Noor Leha Abdul Rahman, Koay Mei Hyie, Anizah Kalam, Husna Elias, Teng Wang Dung

Abstract:

Dark Red Meranti and Kapur, kinds of important type of wood in Malaysia were used as a precursor to fabricate porous silicon carbide. A carbon template is produced by pyrolysis at 850°C in an oxygen free atmosphere. The carbon template then further subjected to infiltration with silicon by silicon melt infiltration method. The infiltration process was carried out in tube furnace in argon flow at 1500°C, at two different holding time; 2 hours and 3 hours. Thermo gravimetric analysis was done to investigate the decomposition behavior of two species of plants. The resulting silicon carbide was characterized by XRD which was found the formation of silicon carbide and also excess silicon. The microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the density was determined by the Archimedes method. An increase in holding time during infiltration will increased the density as well as formation of silicon carbide. Dark Red Meranti precursor is likely suitable for production of silicon carbide compared to Kapur.

Keywords: density, SEM, silicon carbide, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
452 Process for Separating and Recovering Materials from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Tarik Ouslimane, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Mouna Hecini, Ouahiba Bouchelaghem, Nadjib Drouiche

Abstract:

Slurry waste is a byproduct generated from the slicing process of multi-crystalline silicon ingots. This waste can be used as a secondary resource to recover high purity silicon which has a great economic value. From the management perspective, the ever increasing generation of kerf slurry waste loss leads to significant challenges for the photovoltaic industry due to the current low use of slurry waste for silicon recovery. Slurry waste, in most cases, contains silicon, silicon carbide, metal fragments and mineral-oil-based or glycol-based slurry vehicle. As a result, of the global scarcity of high purity silicon supply, the high purity silicon content in slurry has increasingly attracted interest for research. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for high purity silicon recovery from kerf slurry waste. Hydrometallurgy is continuously a matter of study and research. However, in this review paper, several new techniques about the process of high purity silicon recovery from slurry waste are introduced. The purpose of the information presented is to improve the development of a clean and effective recovery process of high purity silicon from slurry waste.

Keywords: Kerf-loss, slurry waste, silicon carbide, silicon recovery, photovoltaic, high purity silicon, polyethylen glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
451 Monocrystalline Silicon Surface Passivation by Porous Silicon

Authors: Mohamed Ben Rabha

Abstract:

In this paper, we report on the effect of porous silicon (PS) treatment on the surface passivation of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si). PS film with a thickness of 80 nm was deposited by stain etching. It was demonstrated that PS coating is a very interesting solution for surface passivation. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance and FTIR. As a results, the effective minority carrier lifetime increase from 2 µs to 7 µs at ∆n=1015 cm-3 and the reflectivity reduce from 28 % to about 7 % after PS coating.

Keywords: porous silicon, effective minority carrier lifetime, reflectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
450 Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells Using All Sputtering Process

Authors: Ching-Hua Li, Sheng-Hui Chen

Abstract:

Sputtering is a popular technique with many advantages for thin film deposition. To fabricate a hydrogenated silicon thin film using sputtering process for solar cell applications, the ion bombardment during sputtering will generate microstructures (voids and columnar structures) to form silicon dihydride bodings as defects. The properties of heterojunction silicon solar cells were studied by using boron grains and silicon-boron targets. Finally, an 11.7% efficiency of solar cell was achieved by using all sputtering process.

Keywords: solar cell, sputtering process, pvd, alloy target

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449 Efficiently Silicon Metasurfaces at Visible Light

Authors: Juntao Li

Abstract:

The metasurfaces for beam deflecting with gradient silicon posts in the square lattices were fabricated on the thin film crystal silicon with quartz substrate. By using the crystals silicon with high refractive index and high transmission to control the phase over 2π coverage, we demonstrated the polarization independent beam deflecting at wavelength of 532nm with 45% transmission in experiment and 70% in simulation into the desired angle. This simulation efficiency is almost close to the TiO2 metasurfaces but has higher refractive index and lower aspect ratio to reduce fabrication complexity. The result can extend the application of silicon metalsurfaces from 700 nm to 500 nm hence open a new way to use metasurfaces efficiently in visible light regime.

Keywords: metasurfaces, crystal silicon, light deflection, visible light

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
448 The Synergistic Effects of Using Silicon and Selenium on Fruiting of Zaghloul Date Palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.)

Authors: M. R. Gad El- Kareem, A. M. K. Abdel Aal, A. Y. Mohamed

Abstract:

During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Zaghloul date palms received four sprays of silicon (Si) at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium (Se) at 0.01 to 0.02%. Growths, nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in response to application of silicon and selenium were investigated. Single and combined applications of silicon at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium at 0.01 to 0.02% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, percentages of N, P, and K in the leaves, yield, bunch weight as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to the check treatment. Silicon was superior to selenium in this respect. Combined application was favourable than using each alone in this connection. Treating Zaghloul date palms four times with a mixture of silicon at 0.05% + selenium at 0.01% resulted in an economical yield and producing better fruit quality.

Keywords: date palms, Zaghloul, silicon, selenium, leaf area

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
447 Memristive Properties of Nanostructured Porous Silicon

Authors: Madina Alimova, Margulan Ibraimov, Ayan Tileu

Abstract:

The paper describes methods for obtaining porous structures with the properties of a silicon-based memristor and explains the electrical properties of porous silicon films. Based on the results, there is a positive shift in the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) after each measurement, i.e., electrical properties depend not only on the applied voltage but also on the previous state. After 3 minutes of rest, the film returns to its original state (reset). The method for obtaining a porous silicon nanofilm with the properties of a memristor is simple and does not require additional effort. Based on the measurement results, the typical memristive behavior of the porous silicon nanofilm is analyzed.

Keywords: porous silicon, current-voltage characteristics, memristor, nanofilms

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446 Design of an Electric Arc Furnace for the Production of Metallurgical Grade Silicon

Authors: M. Barbouche, M. Hajji, H. Ezzaouia

Abstract:

This project is a step to manufacture solar grade silicon. It consists in designing an electrical arc furnace in order to produce metallurgical silicon Mg-Si with mutually carbon and high purity of silica. It concerns, first, the development of a functional analysis, a mechanical design and thermodynamic study. Our study covers also, the design of the temperature control system and the design of the electric diagrams. The furnace works correctly. A Labview interface was developed to control all parameters and to supervise the operation of furnace. Characterization tests with X-ray technique and Raman spectroscopy allow us to confirm the metallurgical silicon production.

Keywords: arc furnace, electrical design, silicon manufacturing, regulation, x-ray characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
445 Investigation of Mesoporous Silicon Carbonization Process

Authors: N. I. Kargin, G. K. Safaraliev, A. S. Gusev, A. O. Sultanov, N. V. Siglovaya, S. M. Ryndya, A. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of the processes of mesoporous silicon carbonization during the formation of buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxy of 3C-SiC films and related wide-band-gap semiconductors is performed. Experimental samples were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Analytic expressions were obtained for the effective diffusion factor and carbon atoms diffusion length in a porous system. The proposed model takes into account the processes of Knudsen diffusion, coagulation and overgrowing of pores during the formation of a silicon carbide layer.

Keywords: silicon carbide, porous silicon, carbonization, electrochemical etching, diffusion

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444 Surface Passivation of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cell via Combination of LiBr/Porous Silicon and Grain Boundaies Grooving

Authors: Dimassi Wissem

Abstract:

In this work, we investigate the effect of combination between the porous silicon (PS) layer passivized with Lithium Bromide (LiBr) and grooving of grain boundaries (GB) in multi crystalline silicon. The grain boundaries were grooved in order to reduce the area of these highly recombining regions. Using optimized conditions, grooved GB's enable deep phosphorus diffusion and deep metallic contacts. We have evaluated the effects of LiBr on the surface properties of porous silicon on the performance of silicon solar cells. The results show a significant improvement of the internal quantum efficiency, which is strongly related to the photo-generated current. We have also shown a reduction of the surface recombination velocity and an improvement of the diffusion length after the LiBr process. As a result, the I–V characteristics under the dark and AM1.5 illumination were improved. It was also observed a reduction of the GB recombination velocity, which was deduced from light-beam-induced-current (LBIC) measurements. Such grooving in multi crystalline silicon enables passivization of GB-related defects. These results are discussed and compared to solar cells based on untreated multi crystalline silicon wafers.

Keywords: Multicrystalline silicon, LiBr, porous silicon, passivation

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443 The Manufacturing of Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Diatomaceous Silica by an Induction Furnace

Authors: Shahrazed Medeghri, Saad Hamzaoui, Mokhtar Zerdali

Abstract:

The metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) is obtained from the reduction of silica (SiO2) in an induction furnace or an electric arc furnace. Impurities inherent in reduction process also depend on the quality of the raw material used. Among the applications of the silicon, it is used as a substrate for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy and this conversion is wider as the purity of the substrate is important. Research is being done where the purpose is looking for new methods of manufacturing and purification of silicon, as well as new materials that can be used as substrates for the photovoltaic conversion of light energy. In this research, the technique of production of silicon in an induction furnace, using a high vacuum for fusion. Diatomaceous Silica (SiO2) used is 99 mass% initial purities, the carbon used is 6N of purity and the particle size of 63μm as starting materials. The final achieved purity of the material was above 50% by mass. These results demonstrate that this method is a technically reliable, and allows obtaining a better return on the amount 50% of silicon.

Keywords: induction furnaces, amorphous silica, carbon microstructure, silicon

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442 Utilization of Silicon for Sustainable Rice Yield Improvement in Acid Sulfate Soil

Authors: Bunjirtluk Jintaridth

Abstract:

Utilization of silicon for sustainable rice cultivation in acid sulfate soils was studied for 2 years. The study was conducted on Rungsit soils in Amphoe Tanyaburi, Pathumtani Province. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of high quality organic fertilizer in combination with silicon and chemical fertilizer on rice yield, chemical soil properties after using soil amendments, and also to assess the economic return. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 10 treatments and 3 replications were employed. The treatments were as follows: 1) control 2) chemical fertilizer (recommended by Land Development Department, LDD 3) silicon 312 kg/ha 4) high quality organic fertilizer at 1875 kg/ha (the recommendation rate by LDD) 5) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha 6) silicon at the 312 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha 7) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer 8) silicon at the 312 kg/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer 9) silicon 156 kg/ha in combination with ½ chemical fertilizer rate, and 10) silicon 312 kg/ha in combination with ½ chemical fertilizer rate. The results of 2 years indicated the treatment tended to increase soil pH (from 5.1 to 4.7-5.5), percentage of organic matter (from 2.43 to 2.54 - 2.94%); avail. P (from 7.5 to 7-21 mg kg-1 P; ext. K (from 616 to 451-572 mg kg-1 K), ext Ca (from 1962 to 2042.3-4339.7 mg kg-1 Ca); ext Mg (from 1586 to 808.7-900 mg kg-1 Mg); but decrease the ext. Al (from 2.56 to 0.89-2.54 cmol kg-1 Al. Two years average of rice yield, the highest yield was obtained from silicon 156 kg/ha application in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 300 kg/rai (3770 kg/ha), or using silicon at the 312 kg/ha combination with high quality organic fertilizer 300 kg/rai. (3,750 kg/ha). It was noted that chemical fertilizer application with 156 and 312 kg/ha silicon gave only 3,260 และ 3,133 kg/ha, respectively. On the other hand, half rate of chemical fertilizer with 156 and 312 kg/ha with silicon gave the yield of 2,934 และ 3,218 kg/ha, respectively. While high quality organic fertilizer only can produce 3,318 kg/ha as compare to rice yield of 2,812 kg/ha from control. It was noted that the highest economic return was obtained from chemical fertilizer treated plots (886 dollars/ha). Silicon application at the rate of 156 kg/ha in combination with high quality organic fertilizer 1875 kg/ha gave the economic return of 846 dollars/ha, while 312 kg/ha of silicon with chemical fertilizer gave the lowest economic return (697 dollars/ha).

Keywords: rice, high quality organic fertilizer, acid sulfate soil, silicon

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441 Electrochemical Studies of Si, Si-Ge- and Ge-Air Batteries

Authors: R. C. Sharma, Rishabh Bansal, Prajwal Menon, Manoj K. Sharma

Abstract:

Silicon-air battery is highly promising for electric vehicles due to its high theoretical energy density (8470 Whkg⁻¹) and its discharge products are non-toxic. For the first time, pure silicon and germanium powders are used as anode material. Nickel wire meshes embedded with charcoal and manganese dioxide powder as cathode and concentrated potassium hydroxide is used as electrolyte. Voltage-time curves have been presented in this study for pure silicon and germanium powder and 5% and 10% germanium with silicon powder. Silicon powder cell assembly gives a stable voltage of 0.88 V for ~20 minutes while Si-Ge provides cell voltage of 0.80-0.76 V for ~10-12 minutes, and pure germanium cell provides cell voltage 0.80-0.76 V for ~30 minutes. The cell voltage is higher for concentrated (10%) sodium hydroxide solution (1.08 V) and it is stable for ~40 minutes. A sharp decrease in cell voltage beyond 40 min may be due to rapid corrosion.

Keywords: Silicon-air battery, Germanium-air battery, voltage-time curve, open circuit voltage, Anodic corrosion

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440 Predicting the Effect of Silicon Electrode Design Parameters on Thermal Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery

Authors: Harika Dasari, Eric Eisenbraun

Abstract:

The present study models the role of electrode structural characteristics on the thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries. Preliminary modeling runs have employed a 1D lithium-ion battery coupled to a two-dimensional axisymmetric model using silicon as the battery anode material. The two models are coupled by the heat generated and the average temperature. Our study is focused on the silicon anode particle sizes and it is observed that silicon anodes with nano-sized particles reduced the temperature of the battery in comparison to anodes with larger particles. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between particle size and thermal transport properties in the electrode.

Keywords: particle size, NMC, silicon, heat generation, separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
439 Thermoelectric Properties of Doped Polycrystalline Silicon Film

Authors: Li Long, Thomas Ortlepp

Abstract:

The transport properties of carriers in polycrystalline silicon film affect the performance of polycrystalline silicon-based devices. They depend strongly on the grain structure, grain boundary trap properties, and doping concentration, which in turn are determined by the film deposition and processing conditions. Based on the properties of charge carriers, phonons, grain boundaries, and their interactions, the thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline silicon are analyzed with the relaxation time approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. With this approach, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient as a function of grain size, trap properties, and doping concentration can be determined. An experiment on heavily doped polycrystalline silicon is carried out, and measurement results are compared with the model.

Keywords: conductivity, polycrystalline silicon, relaxation time approximation, Seebeck coefficient, thermoelectric property

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438 Streptavidin-Biotin Attachment on Modified Silicon Nanowires

Authors: Shalini Singh, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Govind, Mukhtar. A. Khan, P. K. Singh

Abstract:

Nanotechnology is revolutionizing the development of biosensors. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication technologies are increasingly being used to design novel biosensors. Sensitivity and other attributes of biosensors can be improved by using nanomaterials with unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties in their construction. Silicon is a promising biomaterial that is non-toxic and biodegradable and can be exploited in chemical and biological sensing. Present study demonstrated the streptavidin–biotin interaction on silicon surfaces with different topographies such as flat and nanostructured silicon (nanowires) surfaces. Silicon nanowires with wide range of surface to volume ratio were prepared by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer. The large specific surface of silicon nanowires can be chemically modified to link different molecular probes (DNA strands, enzymes, proteins and so on), which recognize the target analytes, in order to enhance the selectivity and specificity of the sensor device. The interaction of streptavidin with biotin was carried out on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) functionalized silicon surfaces. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been performed to characterize the surface characteristics to ensure the protein attachment. Silicon nanowires showed the enhance protein attachment, as compared to flat silicon surface due to its large surface area and good molecular penetration to its surface. The methodology developed herein could be generalized to a wide range of protein-ligand interactions, since it is relatively easy to conjugate biotin with diverse biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, peptides, and nucleotides.

Keywords: FTIR, silicon nanowires, streptavidin-biotin, XPS

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437 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-Silicon Raman Laser, FTTH, GE-PON, Quasi-Phase-Matched Structure, resonator

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436 Effect of Silicon on Tritrophic Interaction of Cotton, Whitefly and Chrysoperla carnea

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan

Abstract:

The present experiment was carried out to examine the effects of silicon dioxide on tritrophic interaction of cotton, whitefly, and the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Population of whitefly was maintained on silicon treated and non-treated cotton for two generations in greenhouse net cages exposed to outside temperature and luminosity. The cotton was treated with silicon dioxide twice after 15 days intervals with 200 ppm concentration. A stock rearing of the natural predator was developed in the laboratory conditions. In the bioassay eggs of the predator all at the same age were individualized in glass petri plates that will be pierced with a pin to allow aeration and maintained in an incubator at 28 ± 2°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12h photo phase. Population of whitefly stayed on silicon treated, and non-treated cotton were offered to newly hatched chrysopid larvae until the end of the larval stage, assuring a permanent supply. Feeding preference of C. carnea along with longevity, survival of each instar larvae, pupation, adult emergence, and fecundity was checked. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the feeding preference of C. carnea among both treatments. Durations of 1st and 2nd larval instar were also at par in both treatments. However overall longevity and adult emergence were a bit lower in silicon treated whitefly treatment. This may be due to the fact that silicon reduces the nutritional quality of host because of reduced whitefly feeding on silicon treated cotton. No significant difference in 1st and 2nd larval instars and then increased larval duration in later instars suggested that the effect of silicon treated host should be checked on more than 1 generation of C. carnea to get better findings.

Keywords: Chrysoperla carnea, silicon, tritrophic, whitefly

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435 Ultra-High Precision Diamond Turning of Infrared Lenses

Authors: Khaled Abou-El-Hossein

Abstract:

The presentation will address the features of two IR convex lenses that have been manufactured using an ultra-high precision machining centre based on single-point diamond turning. The lenses are made from silicon and germanium with a radius of curvature of 500 mm. Because of the brittle nature of silicon and germanium, machining parameters were selected in such a way that ductile regime was achieved. The cutting speed was 800 rpm while the feed rate and depth cut were 20 mm/min and 20 um, respectively. Although both materials comprise a mono-crystalline microstructure and are quite similar in terms of optical properties, machining of silicon was accompanied with more difficulties in terms of form accuracy compared to germanium machining. The P-V error of the silicon profile was 0.222 um while it was only 0.055 um for the germanium lens. This could be attributed to the accelerated wear that takes place on the tool edge when turning mono-crystalline silicon. Currently, we are using other ranges of the machining parameters in order to determine their optimal range that could yield satisfactory performance in terms of form accuracy when fabricating silicon lenses.

Keywords: diamond turning, optical surfaces, precision machining, surface roughness

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434 Effect of Oxidation on Wetting Behavior between Silicon and Silicon Carbide

Authors: Zineb Benouahmane, Zhang Lifeng

Abstract:

Experimental oxidation tests at high temperature (1300°C-1500°C) on α-SiC samples have been performed with different holding times and atmosphere (air, argon). Oxidized samples were then analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to SEM and DAKTEK surface profiler verification. The oxidation rate and the mas gain were found to increase with temperature and holding times, corresponding to a passive oxidation regime which lead to the formation of SiO2 layer. The sessile drop method is employed in order to measure the wetting angles between Si/SiC system at high temperature (1430°C-1550°C). Contact angle can be varied between 44 °C to 85°C, by controlling the oxygen content in α-SiC. Increasing the temperature occurred the infiltration of liquid silicon and deoxidation of the coating.

Keywords: oxidation, wettability, silicon, SiC

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433 Development of 420 mm Diameter Silicon Crystal Growth Using Continuous Czochralski Process

Authors: Ilsun Pang, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik

Abstract:

Large diameter Si wafer is used as semiconductor substrate. Large diameter Si crystal ingot should be needed in order to increase wafer size. To make convection of large silicon melt stable, magnetic field is normally applied, but magnetic field is expensive and it is not proper to stabilize the large Si melt. To solve the problem, we propose a continuous Czochralski process which can be applied to small melt without magnetic field. We used granule poly, which has size distribution of 1~3 mm and is easily supplied in double crucible during silicon ingot growth. As the result, we produced 420 mm diameter ingot. In this paper, we describe an experimental study on crystal growth of large diameter silicon by Continuous Czochralski process.

Keywords: Czochralski, ingot, silicon crystal, wafer

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432 Processes for Valorization of Valuable Products from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Nadjib Drouiche, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Tarik Ouslimane

Abstract:

Although solar cells manufacturing is a conservative industry, economics drivers continue to encourage innovation, feedstock savings and cost reduction. Kerf slurry waste is a complex product containing both valuable substances as well as contaminants. The valuable substances are: i) high purity silicon, ii) polyethylene glycol, and iii) silicon carbide. The contaminants mainly include metal fragments and organics. Therefore, recycling of the kerf slurry waste is an important subject not only from the treatment of waste but also from the recovery of valuable products. The present paper relates to processes for the recovery of valuable products from the kerf slurry waste in which they are contained, such products comprising nanoparticles, polyethylene glycol, high purity silicon, and silicon carbide.

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, Kerf slurry waste, recycling, silicon carbide

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431 4-Channel CWDM Optical Transceiver Applying Silicon Photonics Ge-Photodiode and MZ-Modulator

Authors: Do-Won Kim, Andy Eu Jin Lim, Raja Muthusamy Kumarasamy, Vishal Vinayak, Jacky Wang Yu-Shun, Jason Liow Tsung Yang, Patrick Lo Guo Qiang

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate 4-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) optical transceiver based on silicon photonics integrated circuits (PIC) of waveguide Ge-photodiode (Ge-PD) and Mach Zehnder (MZ)-modulator. 4-channel arrayed PICs of Ge-PD and MZ-modulator are verified to operate at 25 Gbps/ch achieving 4x25 Gbps of total data rate. 4 bare dies of single-channel commercial electronics ICs (EICs) of trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) for Ge-PD and driver IC for MZ-modulator are packaged with PIC on printed circuit board (PCB) in a chip-on-board (COB) manner. Each single-channel EIC is electrically connected to the one channel of 4-channel PICs by wire bonds to trace. The PICs have 4-channel multiplexer for MZ-modulator and 4-channel demultiplexer for Ge-PD. The 4-channel multiplexer/demultiplexer have echelle gratings for4 CWDM optic signals of which center wavelengths are 1511, 1531, 1553, and 1573 nm. Its insertion loss is around 4dB with over 15dB of extinction ratio.The dimension of 4-channel Ge-PD is 3.6x1.4x0.3mm, and its responsivity is 1A/W with dark current of less than 20 nA.Its measured 3dB bandwidth is around 20GHz. The dimension of the 4-channel MZ-modulator is 3.6x4.8x0.3mm, and its 3dB bandwidth is around 11Ghz at -2V of reverse biasing voltage. It has 2.4V•cmbyVπVL of 6V for π shift to 4 mm length modulator.5x5um of Inversed tapered mode size converter with less than 2dB of coupling loss is used for the coupling of the lensed fiber which has 5um of mode field diameter.The PCB for COB packaging and signal transmission is designed to have 6 layers in the hybrid layer structure. 0.25 mm-thick Rogers Duroid RT5880 is used as the first core dielectric layer for high-speed performance over 25 Gbps. It has 0.017 mm-thick of copper layers and its dielectric constant is 2.2and dissipation factor is 0.0009 at 10 GHz. The dimension of both single ended and differential microstrip transmission lines are calculated using full-wave electromagnetic (EM) field simulator HFSS which RF industry is using most. It showed 3dB bandwidth at around 15GHz in S-parameter measurement using network analyzer. The wire bond length for transmission line and ground connection from EIC is done to have less than 300 µm to minimize the parasitic effect to the system.Single layered capacitors (SLC) of 100pF and 1000pF are connected as close as possible to the EICs for stabilizing the DC biasing voltage by decoupling. Its signal transmission performance is under measurement at 25Gbps achieving 100Gbps by 4chx25Gbps. This work can be applied for the active optical cable (AOC) and quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP) for high-speed optical interconnections. Its demands are quite large in data centers targeting 100 Gbps, 400 Gbps, and 1 Tbps. As the demands of high-speed AOC and QSFP for the application to intra/inter data centers increase, this silicon photonics based high-speed 4 channel CWDM scheme can have advantages not only in data throughput but also cost effectiveness since it reduces fiber cost dramatically through WDM.

Keywords: active optical cable(AOC), 4-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM), communication system, data center, ge-photodiode, Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulator, optical interconnections, optical transceiver, photonics integrated circuits (PIC), quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP), silicon photonics

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430 Crystalline Silicon Optical Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) Resonators for Precision Measurements

Authors: Igor Bilenko, Artem Shitikov, Michael Gorodetsky

Abstract:

Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators combine very high optical quality factor (Q) with small size. Resonators made from low loss crystalline fluorites (CaF2, MgF2) may have Q as high as 1010 that make them unique devices for modern applications including ultrasensitive sensors, frequency control, and precision spectroscopy. While silicon is a promising material transparent from near infrared to terahertz frequencies, fundamental limit for Si WGM quality factor was not reached yet. In our paper, we presented experimental results on the preparation and testing of resonators at 1550 nm wavelength made from crystalline silicon grown and treated by different techniques. Q as high as 3x107 was demonstrated. Future steps need to reach a higher value and possible applications are discussed.

Keywords: optical quality factor, silicon optical losses, silicon optical resonator, whispering gallery modes

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429 Silicon Surface Treatment Effect on the Structural, Optical, and Optoelectronic Properties for Solar Cell Applications

Authors: Lotfi Hedi Khezami, Mohamed Ben Rabha, N. Sboui, Mounir Gaidi, B. Bessais

Abstract:

Metal-nano particle-assisted Chemical Etching is an extraordinary developed wet etching method of producing uniform semiconductor nano structure (nano wires) from patterned metallic film on crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and opto electronic properties was investigated. Combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and opto electronic properties are presented in this paper.

Keywords: stain etching, porous silicon, silicon nanowires, reflectivity, lifetime, solar cells

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428 Carbon Coated Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded MWCNT/Graphene Matrix Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: Ubeyd Toçoğlu, Miraç Alaf, Hatem Akbulut

Abstract:

We present a work which was conducted in order to improve the cycle life of silicon based lithium ion battery anodes by utilizing novel composite structure. In this study, carbon coated nano sized (50-100 nm) silicon particles were embedded into Graphene/MWCNT silicon matrix to produce free standing silicon based electrodes. Also, conventional Si powder anodes were produced from Si powder slurry on copper current collectors in order to make comparison of composite and conventional anode structures. Free –standing composite anodes (binder-free) were produced via vacuum filtration from a well dispersion of Graphene, MWCNT and carbon coated silicon powders. Carbon coating process of silicon powders was carried out via microwave reaction system. The certain amount of silicon powder and glucose was mixed under ultrasonication and then coating was conducted at 200 °C for two hours in Teflon lined autoclave reaction chamber. Graphene which was used in this study was synthesized from well-known Hummers method and hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide. X-Ray diffraction analysis and RAMAN spectroscopy techniques were used for phase characterization of anodes. Scanning electron microscopy analyses were conducted for morphological characterization. The electrochemical performance tests were carried out by means of galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Keywords: graphene, Li-Ion, MWCNT, silicon

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