Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 727

Search results for: films

727 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

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726 CuO Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Precursor Solution Properties

Authors: M. Lamri Zeggar, F. Bourfaa, A. Adjimi, F. Boutebakh, M. S. Aida, N. Attaf

Abstract:

CuO thin films were deposited by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis with different precursor solution. Two staring solution slats were used namely: Copper acetate and copper chloride. The influence of these solutions on CuO thin films proprieties of is instigated. The X rays diffraction (XDR) analysis indicated that the films deposed with copper acetate are amorphous however the films elaborated with copper chloride have monoclinic structure. UV- Visible transmission spectra showed a strong absorbance of the deposited CuO thin films in the visible region. Electrical characterization has shown that CuO thin films prepared with copper acetate have a higher electrical conductivity.

Keywords: thin films, cuprous oxide, spray pyrolysis, precursor solution

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725 Effect of Deposition Time on Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Deposited by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi, A. Attaf

Abstract:

Tin sulfide thin films on glass substrate were prepared by spray ultrasonic technique, at different experimental conditions. The influence of deposition time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) on different properties of thin films, such us, (XRD) and (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. X-ray diffraction showing that thin films crystallized in SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3 phases. The results of (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 4 min are large transmittance 60% in the visible region.

Keywords: SnS, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

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724 Lesbian Stereotype Representation in Cinema in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Gürkan, Rengin Ozan

Abstract:

Cinema, as a popular mass media tool, affects the general perception of the society against sexual identity. By establishing on interaction relationship with cinema and social reality, the study also tries to answer what the importance of lesbian identity in social life in films in Turkey is. This article focus on representing the description of the women characters who call their selves lesbian in Turkey cinema. The study tries to answer these three questions: First, how the lesbian characters are represented in films in Turkey? Second, what is the reality of the lesbian sexual identity in the films? Third, what are the differences and similarities between the lesbian characters in films in Turkey before 2000s and after 2000s? The films are analysed by the sociological film interpretation in this study. When comparing the films before 2000 and after 2000, it is possible to say that there have been no lesbian characters in many films. Especially almost all of the films (Haremde Dört Kadın, Ver Elini İstanbul, Dul Bir Kadın, Gramofon Avrat, Lola and Billidikid), during 1960s, just threw looks indirect the lesbian sex identity. Just in the films Düş Gezginleri, İki Genç Kız and Nar, the women character (also called them as lesbian) are the leading role and the plot of the films is progressing over these characters.

Keywords: cinema in Turkey, lesbian identity, representation, stereotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
723 Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: Bourfaa Fouzia, Meryem Lamri Zeggar, Adjimi Amel, Mohammed Salah Aida, Nadir Attaf

Abstract:

Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: Acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV–visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: precursor, thins films, spray pyrolysis, zinc oxide

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722 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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721 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property

Authors: Zue-Chin Chang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.

Keywords: aging, films, microstructure, photoelectric property

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720 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
719 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal

Abstract:

Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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718 Composition Dependence of Exchange Anisotropy in PtₓMn₁₋ₓ/Co₇₀Fe₃₀ Films

Authors: Sina Ranjbar, Masakiyo Tsunoda, Mikihiko Oogane, Yasuo Ando

Abstract:

We systematically investigated the exchange anisotropy for ferromagnetic Co70Fe30 and antiferromagnetic PtMn bilayer films. We focused on the relevance between the exchange bias and the composition of the Ptₓ Mn₁₋ₓ (14 < x < 22 and 45 < x < 56 at %) films, and we successfully optimized the composition. The crystal structure of the Ptₓ Mn₁₋ₓ films was FCC for 14 < x < 22 at % and FCT for 45 < x < 56 at % after annealing at 370 ◦C for 6 hours. The unidirectional anisotropy constant (Jₖ) for fcc-Pt₁₅Mn₈₅ (20 nm) and fct-Pt₄₈Mn₅₂ (20 nm) prepared under optimum conditions in composition were 0.16 and 0.20 erg/cm², respectively. Both Pt₁₅Mn₈₅ and Pt₄₈Mn₅₂ films showed a larger unidirectional anisotropy constant (Jₖ) than in other reports. They also showed a flatter surface than that of other antiferromagnetic materials. The obtained PtMn films with a large exchange anisotropy and slight roughness are useful as an antiferromagnetic layer in spintronic applications.

Keywords: antiferromagnetic material, PtMn thin film, exchange anisotropy, composition dependence

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717 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Gd Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method

Authors: S. M. AL-Shomar, N. B. Ibrahim, Sahrim Hj. Ahmad

Abstract:

ZnO thin films with various Gd doping concentration (0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 mol/L) have been synthesized by sol–gel method on quartz substrates at annealing temperature of 600 ºC. X-ray analysis reveals that ZnO(Gd) films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. No peaks that correspond to Gd metal clusters or gadolinium acetylacetonate are detected in the patterns. The position of the main peak (101) shifts to higher angles after doping. The surface morphologies studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed that the grain size and the films thickness reduced gradually with the increment of Gd concentration. The roughness of ZnO film investigated by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the films are smooth and high dense grain. The roughness of doped films decreased from 6.05 to 4.84 rms with the increment of dopant concentration.The optical measurements using a UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy showed that the Gd doped ZnO thin films have high transmittance (above 80%) in the visible range and the optical band gap increase with doping concentration from 3.13 to 3.39 eV. The doped films show low electrical resistivity 2.6 × 10-3Ω.cm.at high doping concentration.

Keywords: Gd doped ZnO, electric, optics, microstructure

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716 Effects of Copper and Cobalt Co-Doping on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tio2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol Gel Method

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreeddine Toubal

Abstract:

Un-doped TiO2, Co single doped TiO2 and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 thin films have been growth on silicon substrates by the sol-gel dip coating technique. We mainly investigated both effects of the dopants and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of Co-doped and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films were confirmed by XRD, Raman and FTIR studies. The average grain sizes of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites were increased with annealing temperature. AFM and SEM reveal a completely the various nanostructures of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites thin films. The films exhibit a high optical reflectance with a large band gap. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films. The polyhedral surface morphology might possibly improve the surface contact between particle sizes and then contribute to better electron mobility as well as conductivity. The obtained results suggest that the prepared TiO2 films can be used for optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, TiO2 thin films, CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites films, Electrical conductivity

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715 Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition

Authors: A. S. Obaid, K. H. T. Hassan, A. M. Asij, B. M. Salih, M. Bououdina

Abstract:

Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirms the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.

Keywords: nanostructured CdO, solid-vapor deposition, quantum size effect, cadmium oxide

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714 Elaboration and Characterization of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf, I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Hexagonal tin disulfide (SnS2) films were deposited by spray ultrasonic technique on glass substrates at different experimental conditions. The effect of deposition time (2, 4, 6, and 7 min) on different properties of SnS2 thin films was investigated by XRD and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum. X-ray diffraction study detected the preferential orientation growth of SnS2 compound having structure along (001) plane increased with the deposition time. The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum showed that films deposited at 4 min have high transmittance, up to 60%, in the visible region.

Keywords: structural and optical properties, tin sulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray

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713 Structural Determination of Nanocrystalline Si Films Using Raman Spectroscopy and the Ellipsometry

Authors: K. Kefif, Y. Bouizem, A. Belfedal, D. J. Sib, K. Zellama, l. Chahed

Abstract:

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at relatively low growth temperatures (Ts=100 °C). The films grown on glass substrate in order to use the new generation of substrates sensitive to elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of the argon gas diluted in hydrogen, on the structural properties and the evolution of the micro structure in the films. Raman peak position, intensity and line width were used to characterize the quality and the percentage of the crystallites in the films. The results of this investigation suggest the existence of a threshold dilution around a gas mixture of argon (40%) and hydrogen (60%) for which the crystallization occurs, even at low deposition temperatures. The difference between the amorphous and the crystallized structures is well confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique.

Keywords: Silicon, Thin films, Structural properties, Raman spectroscopy, Ellipsometry

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712 Theoretical and Experimental Study of Iron Oxide Thin Film

Authors: Fahima Djefaflia, M. Loutfi Benkhedir

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to development and characterisation of iron oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis technique. Influences of deposition parameters pile temperature on structural and optical properties have been studied Thin films are analysed by various techniques of materials. The structural characterization of films by analysis of spectra of X-ray diffraction showed that the films prepared at T=350,400,450 are crystalline and amorphous at T=300C. For particular condition, two phases hematiteFe2O3 and magnetite Fe3O4 have been observed.The UV-Visible spectrophotometer of this films confirms that it is possible to obtain films with a transmittance of about 15-30% in the visible range. In addition, this analysis allowed us to determine the optical gap and disorder of films. We conclude that the increase in temperature is accompanied by a reduction in the optical gap with increasing in disorder. An ab initio calculation for this phase shows that the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: spray pyrolysis technique, iron oxide, ab initio calculation, optical properties

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711 Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2: Ti Thin Films Spray-Deposited on Optical Glass

Authors: Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

Abstract:

In this study, we have newly developed titanium-tin oxide (TiSnO) thin films as the transparent conducting oxides materials by the spray pyrolysis technique. Tin oxide thin films doped with different Ti content were successfully grown by spray pyrolysis and they were characterized as a function of Ti content. The effect of Ti contents on the crystalline structure and optical properties of the as-deposited SnO2:Ti films was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectrometer and photoluminecenc spectrophotometer. The X-ray diffraction patterns taken at room temperature showed that the films are polycrystalline. The preferred directions of crystal growth appeared in the difractogram of SnO2: Ti (TiTO) films were correspond to the reflections from the (110), (200), (211) and (301) planes. The grain size varies from 21.8 to 27.8 nm for (110) preferred plane. SEM and AFM study reveals the surface of TiTO to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The highest visible transmittance (570 nm) of the deposited films is 80 % for 20 wt % titanium doped tin oxide films. The obtained results revealed that the structures and optical properties of the films were greatly affected by doping levels. These films are useful as conducting layers in electro chromic and photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: transparent conducting oxide, gas sensors, SnO2, Ti, optoelectronic, spray pyrolysis

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710 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal

Abstract:

We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2, ferromagnetic, sol-gel method, thin films

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709 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by CBD at Different Bath pH

Authors: Lynda Beddek, Nadhir Attaf, Mohamed Salah Aida

Abstract:

PbS thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The precursor aqueous bath contained 1 mole of lead nitrate, 1 mole of Thiourea and complexing agents (triethanolamine (TEA) and NaOH). Bath temperature and deposition time were fixed at 60°C and 3 hours, respectively. However, the PH of bath was varied from 10.5 to 12.5. Structural properties of the deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The preferred direction was revealed to be along (111) and the PbS crystal structure was confirmed. Strains and grains sizes were also calculated. Optical studies showed that films thicknesses do not exceed 600nm. Energy band gap values of films decreases with increase in pH and reached a value ~ 0.4eV at pH equal 12.5. The small value of the energy band gap makes PbS one of the most interesting candidate for solar energy conversion near the infrared ray.

Keywords: CBD, PbS, pH, thin films, x-ray diffraction

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708 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials

Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao

Abstract:

In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.

Keywords: phase change magnetic materials, transmittance, absorbance, extinction coefficients

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707 Production and Characterization of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

Authors: C. L Popa, C.S. Ciobanu, S. L. Iconaru, P. Chapon, A. Costescu, P. Le Coustumer, D. Predoi

Abstract:

In this paper, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films and their antimicrobial activity characterized is reported. The resultant Ag: HAp films coated on commercially pure Si disks substrates were systematically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detector (X-EDS), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). GDOES measurements show that a substantial Ag content has been deposited in the films. The X-EDS and GDOES spectra revealed the presence of a material composed mainly of phosphate, calcium, oxygen, hydrogen and silver. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag:HAp thin films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated. Ag:HAp thin films could lead to a decrease of infections especially in the case of bone and dental implants by surface modification of implantable medical devices.

Keywords: silver, hydroxyapatite, thin films, GDOES, SEM, FTIR, antimicrobial effect

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706 Women Characters in Pakistani Films: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Ali Arshad

Abstract:

The study examines the depiction of women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films. It is a critical evaluation of forty-eight Pakistani films. It explores the characters of women portrays in Urdu and Punjabi film of Pakistan. Using content analysis as methodology with feminist research that helps to investigate the phenomena and supports the study. Finding of the study shows that women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films are not the reflection of true Pakistani women rather this picture represents a negative image of Pakistani women in viewers mind. These characters don’t address the women’s issues nor do they present the solutions to these problems faced by Pakistani women. The characters of Pakistani women are not free from male prejudice, and these films do not portray the social and political role perform by actual Pakistani women. The analysis shows that the characters of women in Urdu and Punjabi films are based on the assumptions.

Keywords: women, Pakistani, film, characters

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705 Effect of Precursors Aging Time on the Photocatalytic Activity of Zno Thin Films

Authors: N. Kaneva, A. Bojinova, K. Papazova

Abstract:

Thin ZnO films are deposited on glass substrates via sol–gel method and dip-coating. The films are prepared from zinc acetate dehydrate as a starting reagent. After that the as-prepared ZnO sol is aged for different periods (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days). Nanocrystalline thin films are deposited from various sols. The effect ZnO sols aging time on the structural and photocatalytic properties of the films is studied. The films surface is studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The effect of the aging time of the starting solution is studied inrespect to photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments are conducted upon UV-light illumination and in complete darkness. The variation of the absorption spectra shows the degradation of RB5 dissolved in water, as a result of the reaction acurring on the surface of the films, and promoted by UV irradiation. The initial concentrations of dye (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and the effect of the aging time are varied during the experiments. The results show, that the increasing aging time of starting solution with respect to ZnO generally promotes photocatalytic activity. The thin films obtained from ZnO sol, which is aged 30 days have best photocatalytic degradation of the dye (97,22%) in comparison with the freshly prepared ones (65,92%). The samples and photocatalytic experimental results are reproducible. Nevertheless, all films exhibit a substantial activity in both UV light and darkness, which is promising for the development of new ZnO photocatalysts by sol-gel method.

Keywords: ZnO thin films, sol-gel, photocatalysis, aging time

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704 Superhydrophobic Behavior of SnO₂-TiO₂ Composite Thin Films

Authors: Debarun Dhar Purkayastha, Talinungsang

Abstract:

SnO₂-TiO₂ nanocomposite thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method on borosilicate glass substrate. The films were annealed at a temperature of 300ᵒC, 400ᵒC, and 500ᵒC respectively for 2h in the air. The films obtained were further modified with stearic acid in order to decrease the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction patterns for the SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films after annealing at different temperatures can be indexed to the mixture of TiO₂ (rutile and anatase) and SnO₂ (tetragonal) phases. The average crystallite size calculated from Scherrer’s formula is found to be 6 nm. The SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films were hydrophilic which on modification with stearic acid exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. The increase in hydrophobicity of SnO₂ film with stearic acid modification is attributed to the change in surface energy of the film. The films exhibit superhydrophilic behavior under UV irradiation for 1h. Thus, it is observed that stearic acid modified surfaces are superhydrophobic but convert into superhydrophilic on being subjected to UV irradiation. SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films have potential for self-cleaning applications because of photoinduced hydrophilicity under UV irradiation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, self-cleaning, superhydrophobic, surface energy

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703 Morphological and Optical Properties of (Al, In) Doped ZnO Thin ‎Films Textured (103) by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: S. Benzitouni, M. Zaabat, A. Mahdjoub, A. Benaboud, T.Saidani ‎

Abstract:

To improve the physical properties of ZnO nanostructures textured (103) by sol-gel ‎dip coating method, Al and In are used as dopant with different weight ratios (5%, 10%). ‎The comparative study between Al doped ZnO thin films (AZO) and In doped ZnO (IZO) ‎are made by different analysis technic. XRD showed that the films are Pollycristallins with ‎hexagonal wûrtzite structure and preferred orientation (002) and (103). UV-Vis ‎spectroscopy showed that all films have a high transmission (> 85%); the interference ‎fringes are only observed for IZO. The optical gap is reduced due to the introduction of In ‎‎(minimum value is 3.12 eV), but increased in the presence of Al (maximum value is 3.34 ‎eV). The thickness of the layers was obtained by modeling (using Forouhi Bloomer ‎method). AFM used to observe the surface texture of the films and determined grain size ‎and surface roughness (RMS) which varies in a small range [3.14 to 1.25] nm‎.

Keywords: ZnO, optical gap, roughness (RMS), nanostructures‎

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702 Fabrication of Pure and Doped MAPbI3 Thin Films by One Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: S. V. N. Pammi, Soon-Gil Yoon

Abstract:

In the present study, we report a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for Perovskite MAPbI3 thin films by doping with Br and Cl. We performed a systematic optimization of CVD parameters such as deposition temperature, working pressure and annealing time and temperature to obtain high-quality films of CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction pattern showed that the perovskite films have a large grain size when compared to traditional spin coated thin films. To the best of our knowledge, there are very few reports on highly quality perovskite thin films by various doping such as Br and Cl using one step CVD and there is scope for significant improvement in device efficiency. In addition, their band-gap can be conveniently and widely tuned via doping process. This deposition process produces perovskite thin films with large grain size, long diffusion length and high surface coverage. The enhancement of the output power, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films when compared to spin coated films and enhancement in output power by doping in doped films was demonstrated in detail. The facile one-step method for deposition of perovskite thin films shows a potential candidate for photovoltaic and energy harvesting applications.

Keywords: perovskite thin films, chemical vapor deposition, energy harvesting, photovoltaics

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701 Influence of Different Thicknesses on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of a-C:H Films

Authors: S. Tunmee, P. Wongpanya, I. Toda, X. L. Zhou, Y. Nakaya, N. Konkhunthot, S. Arakawa, H. Saitoh

Abstract:

The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) were deposited on p-type Si (100) substrates at different thicknesses by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (rf-PECVD). Raman spectra display asymmetric diamond-like peaks, representative of the a-C:H films. The decrease of intensity ID/IG ratios revealed the sp3 content arise at different thicknesses of the a-C:H films. In terms of mechanical properties, the high hardness and elastic modulus values show the elastic and plastic deformation behaviors related to sp3 content in amorphous carbon films. Electro chemical properties showed that the a-C:H films exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in air-saturated 3.5 wt% NaCl solution for pH 2 at room temperature. Thickness increasing affected the small sp2 clusters in matrix, restricting the velocity transfer and exchange of electrons. The deposited a-C:H films exhibited excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.

Keywords: thickness, mechanical properties, electrochemical corrosion properties, a-C:H film

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700 Characterization the Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf A., I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Spray ultrasonic deposition technique of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films know wide application due to their adequate physicochemical properties for microelectronic applications and especially for solar cells. SnS2 film was deposited by spray ultrasonic technique, on pretreated glass substrates at well-determined conditions.The effect of SnS2 concentration on different optical properties of SnS2 Thin films, such us MEB, XRD, and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. MEB characterization technique shows that the morphology of this films is uniform, compact and granular. x-ray diffraction study detects the best growth crystallinity in hexagonal structure with preferential plan (001). The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 0.1 mol/l is large transmittance greater than 25% in the visible region.The band gap energy is 2.54 Ev for molarity 0.1 mol/l.

Keywords: MEB, thin disulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-Ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

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699 Microstructure Analysis and Multiple Photoluminescence in High Temperature Electronic Conducting InZrZnO Thin Films

Authors: P. Jayaram, Prasoon Prasannan, N. K. Deepak, P. P. Pradyumnan

Abstract:

Indium and Zirconium co doped zinc oxide (InZrZnO) thin films are prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method on pre-heated quartz substrates. The films are subjected to vacuum annealing at 400ᵒC for three hours in an appropriate air (10-5mbar) ambience after deposition. X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectra and photoluminescence are used to characterize the films. Temperature dependent electrical measurements are conducted on the films and the films exhibit exceptional conductivity at higher temperatures. XRD analysis shows that all the films prepared in this work have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average crystallite sizes of the films were calculated using Scherrer’s formula, and uniform deformation model (UDM) of Williamson-Hall method is used to establish the micro-strain values. The dislocation density is determined from the Williamson and Smallman’s formula. Intense, broad and strongly coupled multiple photoluminescence were observed from photoluminescence spectra. PL indicated relatively high concentration defective oxygen and Zn vacancies in the film composition. Strongly coupled ultraviolet near blue emissions authenticate that the dopants are capable of inducing modulated free excitonic (FX), donor accepter pair (DAP) and longitudinal optical phonon emissions in thin films.

Keywords: PL, SEM, TCOs, thin films, XRD

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698 Properties of Nanostructured MgB₂ Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

Authors: T. A. Prikhna, A. V. Shaternik, V. E. Moshchil, M. Eisterer, V. E. Shaternik

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of studying the structure, phase composition, relief, and superconducting characteristics of oxygen-containing thin films of magnesium diboride (MgB₂) deposited on a dielectric substrate by magnetron sputtering of diboride-magnesium targets. The possibility of forming films of varying degrees of crystalline perfection and phase composition in the process of precipitation and annealing is shown, depending on the conditions of deposition and annealing. In the films, it is possible to realize various combinations of the Abrikosov vortex pinning centers (in the places of fluctuations of the critical temperature of the superconducting transition (T

Keywords: critical current density, diboride, superconducting thin films, upper critical field

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