Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 166

Search results for: shrinkage

166 Restrained Shrinkage Behavior of Self Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Boudjelthia Radhwane

Abstract:

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) developed in Japan in the late 80s has enabled the construction industry to reduce demand on the resources, improve the work condition and also reduce the impact of environment by elimination of the need for compaction. The shrinkage of concrete is the main cause of cracking in bridge decks. Bridge decks tend to be restrained from shrinkage, and this restraint along with other factors causes the bridge to crack. The characteristics of SCC under restrained shrinkage are important to understand in order to predict the cracking behavior in actual structures. Restrained shrinkage testing is done in accordance to AASHTO testing protocol. The free shrinkage performance and cracking behavior were reported and compared when changing the sand to aggregate ratio and the water to cement ratio. The results of free shrinkage show that when a mix design has higher free shrinkage, it will crack in restrained shrinkage earlier than a mix with lower free shrinkage.

Keywords: concrete mix, cracking behavior, restrained shrinkage, self compacting concrete

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165 Softener Washes Affecting the Shrinkage and Appearance of Knitted Garments

Authors: Ezza Nasir, Babar Ramzan

Abstract:

Silicon washes on altered knitted fabrics will provide diverse shrinkage trends. The expectation on shrinkage for various apparel products are also changed. However, the effect of shrinkage in garment is still ambiguous. As a result, analysis of shrinkage after different concentrations of silicon washes can provide a more realistic study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the shrinkage with commercial sewing threads in knitted fabric. Study focuses on the effect of different washes on garment measurement and to study the effect of washes on fabric shrinkage. Four different types of knitted fabric were sewn with same length and width measurements. To study the effect of softener washes on shrinkage of garment through subjective ranking, there were critical dimensions for measurements done on body length and width garment appearance and shrinkage.

Keywords: shrinkage, dimensions, knitted fabric, silicon

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
164 Effect of Shrinkage on Heat and Mass Transfer Parameters of Solar Dried Potato Samples of Variable Diameter

Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Shanker L. Shrivastava

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Potato is chosen as the food product for carrying out the natural convection mixed-mode solar drying experiments since they are easily available and globally consumed. The convective heat and mass transfer coefficients along with effective diffusivity were calculated considering both shrinkage and without shrinkage for the potato cylinders of different geometry (8, 10 and 13 mm diameters and a constant length of 50 mm). The convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) without considering shrinkage effect were 24.28, 18.69, 15.89 W/m2˚C and hc considering shrinkage effect were 37.81, 29.21, 25.72 W/m2˚C for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Similarly, the effective diffusivity (Deff) without considering shrinkage effect were 3.20×10-9, 4.82×10-9, 2.48×10-8 m2/s and Deff considering shrinkage effect were 1.68×10-9, 2.56×10-9, 1.34×10-8 m2/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively and the mass transfer coefficient (hm) without considering the shrinkage effect were 5.16×10-7, 2.93×10-7, 2.59×10-7 m/s and hm considering shrinkage effect were 3.71×10-7, 2.04×10-7, 1.80×10-7 m/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Increased values of hc were obtained by considering shrinkage effect in all diameter samples because shrinkage results in decreasing diameter with time achieving in enhanced rate of water loss. The average values of Deff determined without considering the shrinkage effect were found to be almost double that with shrinkage effect. The reduction in hm values is due to the fact that with increasing sample diameter, the exposed surface area per unit mass decreases, resulting in a slower moisture removal. It is worth noting that considering shrinkage effect led to overestimation of hc values in the range of 55.72-61.86% and neglecting the shrinkage effect in the mass transfer analysis, the values of Deff and hm are overestimated in the range of 85.02-90.27% and 39.11-45.11%, respectively, for the range of sample diameter investigated in the present study.

Keywords: shrinkage, convective heat transfer coefficient, effectivive diffusivity, convective mass transfer coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
163 Prediction of Deformations of Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma

Abstract:

Drying is a phenomenon that accompanies the hardening of hydraulic materials. It can, if it is not prevented, lead to significant spontaneous dimensional variations, which the cracking is one of events. In this context, cracking promotes the transport of aggressive agents in the material, which can affect the durability of concrete structures. Drying shrinkage develops over a long period almost 30 years although most occurred during the first three years. Drying shrinkage stabilizes when the material is water balance with the external environment. The drying shrinkage of cementitious materials is due to the formation of capillary tensions in the pores of the material, which has the consequences of bringing the solid walls of each other. Knowledge of the shrinkage characteristics of concrete is a necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable shrinkage movement in reinforced or prestressed concrete and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. This study is concerned the modelling of drying shrinkage of the hydraulic materials and the prediction of the rate of spontaneous deformations of hydraulic materials during hardening. The model developed takes in consideration the main factors affecting drying shrinkage. There was agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the developed model and experimental results. In last we show that developed model describe the evolution of the drying shrinkage of high performances concretes correctly.

Keywords: drying, hydraulic concretes, shrinkage, modeling, prediction

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162 Long-Term Deformations of Concrete Structures

Authors: Abdelmalk Brahma

Abstract:

Drying is a phenomenon that accompanies the hardening of hydraulic materials. It can, if it is not prevented, lead to significant spontaneous dimensional variations, which the cracking is one of events. In this context, cracking promotes the transport of aggressive agents in the material, which can affect the durability of concrete structures. Drying shrinkage develops over a long period almost 30 years although most occurred during the first three years. Drying shrinkage stabilizes when the material is water balance with the external environment. The drying shrinkage of cementitious materials is due to the formation of capillary tensions in the pores of the material, which has the consequences of bringing the solid walls of each other. Knowledge of the shrinkage characteristics of concrete is a necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable shrinkage movement in reinforced or prestressed concrete and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. This study is concerned the modelling of drying shrinkage of the hydraulic materials and the prediction of the rate of spontaneous deformations of hydraulic materials during hardening. The model developed takes in consideration the main factors affecting drying shrinkage. There was agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the developed model and experimental results. In last we show that developed model describe the evolution of the drying shrinkage of high performances concretes correctly.

Keywords: drying, hydraulic concretes, shrinkage, modeling, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
161 Effect of Drying on the Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma

Abstract:

The drying of hydraulics materials is unavoidable and conducted to important spontaneous deformations. In this study, we show that it is possible to describe the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete by a simple expression. A multiple regression model was developed for the prediction of the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete. The assessment of the proposed model has been done by a set of statistical tests. The model developed takes in consideration the main parameters of confection and conservation. There was a very good agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the multiple regression model and experimental results. The developed model adjusts easily to all hydraulic concrete types.

Keywords: hydraulic concretes, drying, shrinkage, prediction, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
160 Dry Relaxation Shrinkage Prediction of Bordeaux Fiber Using a Feed Forward Neural

Authors: Baeza S. Roberto

Abstract:

The knitted fabric suffers a deformation in its dimensions due to stretching and tension factors, transverse and longitudinal respectively, during the process in rectilinear knitting machines so it performs a dry relaxation shrinkage procedure and thermal action of prefixed to obtain stable conditions in the knitting. This paper presents a dry relaxation shrinkage prediction of Bordeaux fiber using a feed forward neural network and linear regression models. Six operational alternatives of shrinkage were predicted. A comparison of the results was performed finding neural network models with higher levels of explanation of the variability and prediction. The presence of different reposes are included. The models were obtained through a neural toolbox of Matlab and Minitab software with real data in a knitting company of Southern Guanajuato. The results allow predicting dry relaxation shrinkage of each alternative operation.

Keywords: neural network, dry relaxation, knitting, linear regression

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159 Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage and Expansion Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Concrete and Its Comparison with the Control Concrete

Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Moghadam, Omolbanin Arasteh Khoshbin

Abstract:

The possibility of using of rice husk ash (RHA) of Guilan (a province located in the north of Iran) (RHA) in concrete was studied by performing experiments. Mechanical properties and shrinkage and expansion of concrete containing different percentage of RHA and the control concrete consisting of cement type II were investigated. For studying, a number of cube and prism concrete specimens containing of 5 to 30% of RHA with constant water to binder ratio of 0.4 were casted and the compressive strength, tensile strength, shrinkage and expansion for water curing conditions up to 360 days were measured. The tests results show that the cement replacement of rice husk ash (RHA) caused both the quality and mechanical properties alterations. It is shown that the compressive strength, tensile strength increase also shrinkage and expansion of specimens were increased that should be controlled in mass concrete structures.

Keywords: rice husk ash, mechanical properties, shrinkage and expansion, Pozzolan

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
158 Drying Shrinkage of Magnesium Silicate Hydrate Gel Cements

Authors: T. Zhang, X. Liang, M. Lorin, C. Cheeseman, L. J. Vandeperre

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Cracks were observed when the magnesium silicate hydrate gel cement (prepared by 40% MgO/ 60% silica fume) was dried. This drying cracking is believed to be caused when unbound water evaporates from the binder. The shrinkage upon forced drying to 200 °C of mortars made up from a reactive magnesium oxide, silica fume and sand was measured using dilatometry. The magnitude of the drying shrinkage was found to decrease when more sand or less water was added to the mortars and can be as low as 0.16% for a mortar containing 60 wt% sand and a water to cement ratio of 0.5, which is of a similar order of magnitude as observed in Portland cement based mortars and concretes. A simple geometrical interpretation based on packing of the particles in the mortar can explain the observed drying shrinkages and based on this analysis the drying shrinkage of the hydration products at zero added solid is estimated to be 7.3% after 7 days of curing.

Keywords: magnesium silicate hydrate, shrinkage, dilatometry, gel cements

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
157 Effects of Dimensional Sizes of Mould on the Volumetric Shrinkage Strain of Lateric Soil

Authors: John E. Sani, Moses George

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The paper presents the result of a laboratory study carried out on lateritic soil to determine the effects of dimensional size on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) using three mould sizes i.e. split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio (CBR) mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL), West African standard (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH) respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2 % to +6 % optimum moisture content (OMC). At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS value.

Keywords: lateritic soil, volumetric shrinkage strain, molding water content, compactive effort

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
156 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana

Abstract:

Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: moisture content, shrinkage, swelling, void volume

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155 Time-Dependent Analysis of Composite Steel-Concrete Beams Subjected to Shrinkage

Authors: Rahal Nacer, Beghdad Houda, Tehami Mohamed, Souici Abdelaziz

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Although the shrinkage of the concrete causes undesirable parasitic effects to the structure, it can then harm the resistance and the good appearance of the structure. Long term behaviourmodelling of steel-concrete composite beams requires the use of the time variable and the taking into account of all the sustained stress history of the concrete slab constituting the cross section. The work introduced in this article is a theoretical study of the behaviour of composite beams with respect to the phenomenon of concrete shrinkage. While using the theory of the linear viscoelasticity of the concrete, and on the basis of the rate of creep method, in proposing an analytical model, made up by a system of two linear differential equations, emphasizing the effects caused by shrinkage on the resistance of a steel-concrete composite beams. Results obtained from the application of the suggested model to a steel-concrete composite beam are satisfactory.

Keywords: composite beams, shrinkage, time, rate of creep method, viscoelasticity theory

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154 Crack Width Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members under Shrinkage Effect by Pseudo-Discrete Crack Model

Authors: F. J. Ma, A. K. H. Kwan

Abstract:

Crack caused by shrinkage movement of concrete is a serious problem especially when restraint is provided. It may cause severe serviceability and durability problems. The existing prediction methods for crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement are mainly numerical methods under simplified circumstances, which do not agree with each other. To get a more unified prediction method applicable to more sophisticated circumstances, finite element crack width analysis for shrinkage effect should be developed. However, no existing finite element analysis can be carried out to predict the crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement because of unsolved reasons of conventional finite element analysis. In this paper, crack width analysis implemented by finite element analysis is presented with pseudo-discrete crack model, which combines traditional smeared crack model and newly proposed crack queuing algorithm. The proposed pseudo-discrete crack model is capable of simulating separate and single crack without adopting discrete crack element. And the improved finite element analysis can successfully simulate the stress redistribution when concrete is cracked, which is crucial for predicting crack width, crack spacing and crack number.

Keywords: crack queuing algorithm, crack width analysis, finite element analysis, shrinkage effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
153 Characterization of Shrinkage-Induced Cracking of Clay Soils

Authors: Ahmad El Hajjar, Joanna Eid, Salima Bouchemella, Tariq Ouahbi, Benoit Duchemin, Said Taibi

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In our present society, raw earth presents an alternative as an energy-saving building material for dealing with climate and environmental issues. Nevertheless, it has a sensitivity to water, due to the presence of fines, which has a direct effect on its consistency. This can be expressed during desiccation, by shrinkage deformations resulting in cracking that begins once the internal tensile stresses developed, due to suction, exceed the tensile strength of the material. This work deals with the evolution of the strain of clay samples, from the beginning of shrinkage until the initiation of crack, using the DIC (Digital Image Correlation) technique. In order to understand the origin of cracking, desiccation is studied for different boundary conditions and depending on the intrinsic characteristics of the material. On the other hand, a study of restrained shrinkage is carried out on the ring test to investigate the ultimate tensile strength from which the crack begins in the dough of clay. The purpose of this test is to find the type of reinforcement adapted to thwart in the cracking of the material. A microscopic analysis of the damaged area is necessary to link the macroscopic mechanisms of cracking to the various physicochemical phenomena at the microscopic scale in order to understand the different microstructural mechanisms and their impact on the macroscopic shrinkage.

Keywords: clayey soil, shrinkage, strain, cracking, digital image correlation

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152 Study of Influencing Factors of Shrinking Cities Based on Factor Analysis: The Example of Halle Germany

Authors: Fang Yao, Minglei Chen

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City shrinkage is one of the thorny problems that many European cities have to face with nowadays. It is mainly expressed as the decrease of population in these cities. Eastern Germany is one of the pioneers of European shrinking cities with long shrinking history. Selecting one representative shrinking city Halle(Saale) in eastern Germany as research objective, collecting and investigating nearly 20 years (1993-2010) municipal data after the reunification of Germany. These data based on five dimensions, which are demographic, economic, social, spatial and environmental and total 16 eligible variables. Using Factor Analysis to dealing with these variables in order to assess the most important factors affecting shrinking Halle. The Factor Analysis shows that there are three main factors determine the shrinkage of Halle, namely demographical and economical factor, social stability factor, and city vitality factor. Three factors acts at different period of Halle’s shrinkage: from 1993 to 1997 the demographical and economical factor played an important role; from 1997 to 2004 the social stability is significant to city shrinkage; since 2005 city vitality factors determines the shrinkage of Halle. In recent years, the shrinkage in Halle mitigates that shows the sign of growing population. Thus the city Halle should focus on attaching more importance on the city vitality factor to prevent the city from shrinkage. Meanwhile, the city should possess a positive perspective that to shift the growth-oriented development to tap the potential of shrinking cities. This method is expected to apply to further research and other shrinking cities.

Keywords: demography, factor analysis, Halle, shrinking cities

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151 Early-Age Cracking of Low Carbon Concrete Incorporating Ferronickel Slag as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Mohammad Khan, Arnaud Castel

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Concrete viscoelastic properties such as shrinkage, creep, and associated relaxation are important in assessing the risk of cracking during the first few days after placement. This paper investigates the early-age mechanical and viscoelastic properties, restrained shrinkage-induced cracking and time to cracking of concrete incorporating ferronickel slag (FNS) as supplementary cementitious material. Compressive strength, indirect tensile strength and elastic modulus were measured. Tensile creep and drying shrinkage was measured on dog-bone shaped specimens. Restrained shrinkage induced stresses and concrete cracking age were assessed by using the ring test. Results revealed that early-age strength development of FNS blended concrete is lower than that of the corresponding ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. FNS blended concrete showed significantly higher tensile creep. The risk of early-age cracking for the restrained specimens depends on the development of concrete tensile stress considering both restrained shrinkage and tensile creep and the development of the tensile strength. FNS blended concrete showed only 20% reduction in time to cracking compared to reference OPC concrete, and this reduction is significantly lower compared to fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag blended concretes at similar replacement level.

Keywords: ferronickel slag, restraint shrinkage, tensile creep, time to cracking

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150 Risk of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: M. Eckert, M. Oliveira

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The intensive use of natural aggregates, near cities and towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and takes up space. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete preparation would contribute to mitigate the problem. However, it arises the problem that the high water absorption of recycled aggregate decreases the bleeding rate of concrete, and when this gets lower than the evaporation rate, plastic shrinkage cracking occurs. This phenomenon can be particularly problematic in hot and windy curing environments. Cracking facilitates the flow of liquid and gas into concrete which attacks the reinforcement and degrades the concrete. These factors reduce the durability of concrete structures and consequently the lifetime of buildings. A ring test was used, cured in a wind tunnel, to evaluate the plastic shrinkage cracking sensitivity of recycled aggregate concrete, in order to implement preventive means to control this phenomenon. The role of several aggregate properties on the concrete segregation and cracking mechanisms were also discussed.

Keywords: recycled aggregate, plastic shrinkage cracking, wind tunnel, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
149 Soil-Geopolymer Mixtures for Pavement Base and Subbase Layers

Authors: Mohammad Khattak, Bikash Adhikari, Sambodh Adhikari

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This research deals with the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and shrinkage characteristics of flyash-based soil-geopolymer mixtures. Medium and high plastic soils were obtained from local construction projects. Class F flyash was used with a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution to develop soil-geopolymer mixtures. Several mixtures were compacted, cured at different curing conditions, and tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS), linear shrinkage, and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the study demonstrated that the soil-geopolymer mixtures fulfilled the UCS criteria of cement treated design (CTD) and cement stabilized design (CSD) as recommended by the department of transportation for pavement base and subbase layers. It was found that soil-geopolymer demonstrated either similar or better UCS and shrinkage characteristics relative to conventional soil-cement mixtures. The SEM analysis revealed that microstructure of soil-geopolymer mixtures exhibited development and steady growth of geopolymerization during the curing period. Based on mechanical, shrinkage, and microstructural characteristics it was suggested that the soil-geopolymer mixtures, has an immense potential to be used as pavement subgrade, subbase, and base layers.

Keywords: soil-geopolymer, pavement base, soil stabilization, unconfined compressive strength, shrinkage, microstructure, and morphology

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148 Drying Shrinkage of Concrete: Scale Effect and Influence of Reinforcement

Authors: Qier Wu, Issam Takla, Thomas Rougelot, Nicolas Burlion

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In the framework of French underground disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes, concrete is widely used as a construction material for containers and tunnels. Drying shrinkage is one of the most disadvantageous phenomena of concrete structures. Cracks generated by differential shrinkage could impair the mechanical behavior, increase the permeability of concrete and act as a preferential path for aggressive species, hence leading to an overall decrease in durability and serviceability. It is of great interest to understand the drying shrinkage phenomenon in order to predict and even to control the strains of concrete. The question is whether the results obtained from laboratory samples are in accordance with the measurements on a real structure. Another question concerns the influence of reinforcement on drying shrinkage of concrete. As part of a global project with Andra (French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency), the present study aims to experimentally investigate the scale effect as well as the influence of reinforcement on the development of drying shrinkage of two high performance concretes (based on CEM I and CEM V cements, according to European standards). Various sizes of samples are chosen, from ordinary laboratory specimens up to real-scale specimens: prismatic specimens with different volume-to-surface (V/S) ratios, thin slices (thickness of 2 mm), cylinders with different sizes (37 and 160 mm in diameter), hollow cylinders, cylindrical columns (height of 1000 mm) and square columns (320×320×1000 mm). The square columns have been manufactured with different reinforcement rates and can be considered as mini-structures, to approximate the behavior of a real voussoir from the waste disposal facility. All the samples are kept, in a first stage, at 20°C and 50% of relative humidity (initial conditions in the tunnel) in a specific climatic chamber developed by the Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille. The mass evolution and the drying shrinkage are monitored regularly. The obtained results show that the specimen size has a great impact on water loss and drying shrinkage of concrete. The specimens with a smaller V/S ratio and a smaller size have a bigger drying shrinkage. The correlation between mass variation and drying shrinkage follows the same tendency for all specimens in spite of the size difference. However, the influence of reinforcement rate on drying shrinkage is not clear based on the present results. The second stage of conservation (50°C and 30% of relative humidity) could give additional results on these influences.

Keywords: concrete, drying shrinkage, mass evolution, reinforcement, scale effect

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147 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Controlling the Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy

Abstract:

Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete. The results indicate that recycled plastic RP fiber of 50 mm length is capable of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete to some extent, but are not as effective as polypropylene PP fibers when added at the same volume fraction. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was The increase in flexural strength of RP fibers and PP fibers concrete were 12.34% and 40.30%, respectively in comparison to plain concrete. RP fiber showed a substantial increase in toughness and a slight decrease in flexural strength of concrete at a fiber volume fraction of 1.00% compared to PP fibers at fiber volume fraction of 0.50%. RP fibers caused a significant increase in compressive strengths up to 13.02% compared to concrete without fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: concrete, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, RF recycled fibers, polypropylene PP fibers

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146 Properties of Preplaced Aggregate Concrete with Modified Binder

Authors: Kunal Krishna Das, Eddie S. S. Lam

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Preplaced Aggregate Concrete (PAC) is produced by first placing the coarse aggregate into the formwork, followed by injection of grout to fill in the voids in between the coarse aggregates. In this study, tests were carried out to determine the effects of supplementary cementitious materials on the properties of PAC. Cement was partially replaced by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF) at different proportions. Grout properties were determined by the flow cone test and compressive strength test. Grout proportion was optimized statistically. It was applied to form PAC. Hardened properties of PAC, comprising compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, chloride-ion penetration and drying shrinkage, were evaluated. GGBS enhanced the flowability of the grout, whereas SF enhanced the strength of PAC. Both GGBS and SF improved the resistance to chloride-ion penetration with the drawback of increased drying shrinkage. Nevertheless, drying shrinkage was within the range to be classified as low shrinkage concrete.

Keywords: factorial design, ground granulated blast furnace slag, preplaced aggregate concrete, silica fume

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145 Six Sigma-Based Optimization of Shrinkage Accuracy in Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Sky Chou, Joseph C. Chen

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This paper focuses on using six sigma methodologies to reach the desired shrinkage of a manufactured high-density polyurethane (HDPE) part produced by the injection molding machine. It presents a case study where the correct shrinkage is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an injection molding process. To improve this process and keep the product within specifications, the six sigma methodology, design, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) approach, was implemented in this study. The six sigma approach was paired with the Taguchi methodology to identify the optimized processing parameters that keep the shrinkage rate within the specifications by our customer. An L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of the cooling time, melt temperature, holding time, and metering stroke. The noise factor is the difference between material brand 1 and material brand 2. After the confirmation run was completed, measurements verify that the new parameter settings are optimal. With the new settings, the process capability index has improved dramatically. The purpose of this study is to show that the six sigma and Taguchi methodology can be efficiently used to determine important factors that will improve the process capability index of the injection molding process.

Keywords: injection molding, shrinkage, six sigma, Taguchi parameter design

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
144 Reduction Shrinkage of Concrete without Use Reinforcement

Authors: Martin Tazky, Rudolf Hela, Lucia Osuska, Petr Novosad

Abstract:

Concrete’s volumetric changes are natural process caused by silicate minerals’ hydration. These changes can lead to cracking and subsequent destruction of cementitious material’s matrix. In most cases, cracks can be assessed as a negative effect of hydration, and in all cases, they lead to an acceleration of degradation processes. Preventing the formation of these cracks is, therefore, the main effort. Once of the possibility how to eliminate this natural concrete shrinkage process is by using different types of dispersed reinforcement. For this application of concrete shrinking, steel and polymer reinforcement are preferably used. Despite ordinarily used reinforcement in concrete to eliminate shrinkage it is possible to look at this specific problematic from the beginning by itself concrete mix composition. There are many secondary raw materials, which are helpful in reduction of hydration heat and also with shrinkage of concrete during curing. The new science shows the possibilities of shrinkage reduction also by the controlled formation of hydration products, which could act by itself morphology as a traditionally used dispersed reinforcement. This contribution deals with the possibility of controlled formation of mono- and tri-sulfate which are considered like degradation minerals. Mono- and tri- sulfate's controlled formation in a cementitious composite can be classified as a self-healing ability. Its crystal’s growth acts directly against the shrinking tension – this reduces the risk of cracks development. Controlled formation means that these crystals start to grow in the fresh state of the material (e.g. concrete) but stop right before it could cause any damage to the hardened material. Waste materials with the suitable chemical composition are very attractive precursors because of their added value in the form of landscape pollution’s reduction and, of course, low cost. In this experiment, the possibilities of using the fly ash from fluidized bed combustion as a mono- and tri-sulphate formation additive were investigated. The experiment itself was conducted on cement paste and concrete and specimens were subjected to a thorough analysis of physicomechanical properties as well as microstructure from the moment of mixing up to 180 days. In cement composites, were monitored the process of hydration and shrinkage. In a mixture with the used admixture of fluidized bed combustion fly ash, possible failures were specified by electronic microscopy and dynamic modulus of elasticity. The results of experiments show the possibility of shrinkage concrete reduction without using traditionally dispersed reinforcement.

Keywords: shrinkage, monosulphates, trisulphates, self-healing, fluidized fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
143 Correlation Volumic Shrinkage, Conversion Degree of Dental Composites

Authors: A. Amirouche, M. Mouzali, D. C. Watts

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During polymerization of dental composites, the volumic shrinkage is related to the conversion degree. The variation of the volumic shrinkage (S max according to the degree of conversion CD.), was examined for the experimental composites: (BisGMA/TEGDMA): (50/50), (75/25), (25/75) mixed with seven radiopac fillers: La2O3, BaO, BaSO4, SrO, ZrO2 , SrZrO3 and BaZrO 3 with different contents in weight, from 0 to 80%. We notice that whatever the filler and the composition in monomers, Smax increases with the increase in CD. This variation is, linear in particular in the case of the fillers containing only one heavy metal, and that whatever the composition in monomers. For a given salt, the increase of BisGMA composition leads to significant increase of S max more pronounced than the increase in CD. The variation of ratio (S max / CD.) with the increase of filler content is negligible. However the fillers containing two types of heavy metals have more effect on the volumic shrinkage than on the degree of conversion. Whatever the composition in monomer, and the content of filler containing only one heavy atom, S max increases with the increase in CD. Nevertheless, S max is affected by the viscosity of the medium compared with CD. For high percentages of mineral fillers (≥ 70% in weight), the diagrams S max according to CD are deviated of the linearity, owing to the fact that S max is affected by the high percentage of fillers compared with CD. The number of heavy atoms influences directly correlation (S max / CD.). In the case of the two mineral fillers: SrZrO3 and BaZrO3 ratio (S max / CD) moves away from the proportionality. The linearity of the diagrams Smax according to CD is less regular, due to the viscosity of high content of BisGMA. The study of Smax and DC of four commercial composites are presented and compared to elaborate experimental composites.

Keywords: Dental composites, degree of conversion, volumic shrinkage, photopolymerization

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142 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Minimizing Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Cement Based Mortar

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy

Abstract:

The development of new construction materials using recycled plastic is important to both the construction and the plastic recycling industries. Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or post-consumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of ordinary cement based mortar. Parameters investigated include: Fiber length ranging from 20 to 50 mm, and fiber volume fraction ranging from 0% to 1.5% by volume. The test results showed significant improvement in crack arresting mechanism and substantial reduction in the surface area of cracks for the mortar reinforced with recycled plastic fibers compared to plain mortar. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was a slight decrease in compressive strength of mortar reinforced with different lengths and contents of recycled fibers compared to plain mortar. This study suggests that adding more than 1% of RP fibers to mortar, can be used effectively for controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of cement based mortar, and thus results in waste reduction and resources conservation.

Keywords: mortar, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, RF recycled fibers

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141 Effect of Addition Rate of Expansive Additive on Autogenous Shrinkage and Delayed Expansion of Ultra-High Strength Mortar

Authors: Yulu Zhang, Atushi Teramoto, Taka-Aki Ohkubo

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In this study, the effect of expansive additives on autogenous shrinkage and delayed expansion of ultra-high strength mortar was explored. The specimens made for the study were composed of ultra-high strength mortar, which was mixed with ettringite-lime composite type expansive additive. Two series of experiments were conducted with the specimens. The experimental results confirmed that the autogenous shrinkage of specimens was effectively decreased by increasing the proportion of the expansive additive. On the other hand, for the specimens, which had 7% expansive additive, and were cured for seven days at a constant temperature of 20°C, and then cured for a long time in either in an underwater, moist (Relative humidity: 100%) or dry air (Relative humidity: 60%) environment, excessively large expansion strain occurred. Specifically, typical turtle shell-like swelling expansion cracks were confirmed in the specimens that underwent long-term curing in an underwater and moist environment. According to the result of hydration analysis, the formation of expansive substances, calcium hydroxide and alumina, ferric oxide, tri-sulfate contribute to the occurrence of delayed expansion.

Keywords: ultra-high strength mortar, expansive additive, autogenous shrinkage, delayed expansion

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140 Evaluation of Polymerisation Shrinkage of Randomly Oriented Micro-Sized Fibre Reinforced Dental Composites Using Fibre-Bragg Grating Sensors and Their Correlation with Degree of Conversion

Authors: Sonam Behl, Raju, Ginu Rajan, Paul Farrar, B. Gangadhara Prusty

Abstract:

Reinforcing dental composites with micro-sized fibres can significantly improve the physio-mechanical properties of dental composites. The short fibres can be oriented randomly within dental composites, thus providing quasi-isotropic reinforcing efficiency unlike unidirectional/bidirectional fibre reinforced composites enhancing anisotropic properties. Thus, short fibres reinforced dental composites are getting popular among practitioners. However, despite their popularity, resin-based dental composites are prone to failure on account of shrinkage during photo polymerisation. The shrinkage in the structure may lead to marginal gap formation, causing secondary caries, thus ultimately inducing failure of the restoration. The traditional methods to evaluate polymerisation shrinkage using strain gauges, density-based measurements, dilatometer, or bonded-disk focuses on average value of volumetric shrinkage. Moreover, the results obtained from traditional methods are sensitive to the specimen geometry. The present research aims to evaluate the real-time shrinkage strain at selected locations in the material with the help of optical fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Due to the miniature size (diameter 250 µm) of FBG sensors, they can be easily embedded into small samples of dental composites. Furthermore, an FBG array into the system can map the real-time shrinkage strain at different regions of the composite. The evaluation of real-time monitoring of shrinkage values may help to optimise the physio-mechanical properties of composites. Previously, FBG sensors have been able to rightfully measure polymerisation strains of anisotropic (unidirectional or bidirectional) reinforced dental composites. However, very limited study exists to establish the validity of FBG based sensors to evaluate volumetric shrinkage for randomly oriented fibres reinforced composites. The present study aims to fill this research gap and is focussed on establishing the usage of FBG based sensors for evaluating the shrinkage of dental composites reinforced with randomly oriented fibres. Three groups of specimens were prepared by mixing the resin (80% UDMA/20% TEGDMA) with 55% of silane treated BaAlSiO₂ particulate fillers or by adding 5% of micro-sized fibres of diameter 5 µm, and length 250/350 µm along with 50% of silane treated BaAlSiO₂ particulate fillers into the resin. For measurement of polymerisation shrinkage strain, an array of three fibre Bragg grating sensors was embedded at a depth of 1 mm into a circular Teflon mould of diameter 15 mm and depth 2 mm. The results obtained are compared with the traditional method for evaluation of the volumetric shrinkage using density-based measurements. Degree of conversion was measured using FTIR spectroscopy (Spotlight 400 FT-IR from PerkinElmer). It is expected that the average polymerisation shrinkage strain values for dental composites reinforced with micro-sized fibres can directly correlate with the measured degree of conversion values, implying that more C=C double bond conversion to C-C single bond values also leads to higher shrinkage strain within the composite. Moreover, it could be established the photonics approach could help assess the shrinkage at any point of interest in the material, suggesting that fibre-Bragg grating sensors are a suitable means for measuring real-time polymerisation shrinkage strain for randomly fibre reinforced dental composites as well.

Keywords: dental composite, glass fibre, polymerisation shrinkage strain, fibre-Bragg grating sensors

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139 Comparative Study of Natural Coarse Aggregate Concrete with Recycled Concrete Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Ahmad Saadiq, Neeraj Sahu

Abstract:

The partial or full replacement of natural coarse aggregate by recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is of great benefit to the environment, as the demand of natural coarse aggregate reduces. In the modern construction and practice, the use of RCA is limited to backfilling and road construction. The establishment of RCA for its wide application can only be done after having an understanding of the use of RCA in conventional concrete. To have an insight to this, various tests to determine the compressive strength, elastic strength, workability, durability and drying shrinkage tests can be done and the test results may be different from that obtained from natural coarse aggregates, by using natural coarse aggregate in concrete. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the said tests done on RCA concrete. The results obtained from the tests indicate that RCA concrete gives comparable compressive strength, stiffness, and workability relative to the corresponding results obtained from the natural coarse aggregates. However, the durability and drying shrinkage had more variance but well within recommended limits.

Keywords: aggregate, compressive strength, durability, modulus of elasticity, recycled concrete, shrinkage, workability

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138 Analysis of Shrinkage Effect during Mercerization on Himalayan Nettle, Cotton and Cotton/Nettle Yarn Blends

Authors: Reena Aggarwal, Neha Kestwal

Abstract:

The Himalayan Nettle (Girardinia diversifolia) has been used for centuries as fibre and food source by Himalayan communities. Himalayan Nettle is a natural cellulosic fibre that can be handled in the same way as other cellulosic fibres. The Uttarakhand Bamboo and Fibre Development Board based in Uttarakhand, India is working extensively with the nettle fibre to explore the potential of nettle for textile production in the region. The fiber is a potential resource for rural enterprise development for some high altitude pockets of the state and traditionally the plant fibre is used for making domestic products like ropes and sacks. Himalayan Nettle is an unconventional natural fiber with functional characteristics of shrink resistance, degree of pathogen and fire resistance and can blend nicely with other fibres. Most importantly, they generate mainly organic wastes and leave residues that are 100% biodegradable. The fabrics may potentially be reused or re-manufactured and can also be used as a source of cellulose feedstock for regenerated cellulosic products. Being naturally bio- degradable, the fibre can be composted if required. Though a lot of research activities and training are directed towards fibre extraction and processing techniques in different craft clusters villagers of different clusters of Uttarkashi, Chamoli and Bageshwar of Uttarakhand like retting and Degumming process, very little is been done to analyse the crucial properties of nettle fiber like shrinkage and wash fastness. These properties are very crucial to obtain desired quality of fibre for further processing of yarn making and weaving and in developing these fibers into fine saleable products. This research therefore is focused towards various on-field experiments which were focused on shrinkage properties conducted on cotton, nettle and cotton/nettle blended yarn samples. The objective of the study was to analyze the scope of the blended fiber for developing into wearable fabrics. For the study, after conducting the initial fiber length and fineness testing, cotton and nettle fibers were mixed in 60:40 ratio and five varieties of yarns were spun in open end spinning mill having yarn count of 3s, 5s, 6s, 7s and 8s. Samples of 100% Nettle 100% cotton fibers in 8s count were also developed for the study. All the six varieties of yarns were tested with shrinkage test and results were critically analyzed as per ASTM method D2259. It was observed that 100% Nettle has a least shrinkage of 3.36% while pure cotton has shrinkage approx. 13.6%. Yarns made of 100% Cotton exhibits four times more shrinkage than 100% Nettle. The results also show that cotton and Nettle blended yarn exhibit lower shrinkage than 100% cotton yarn. It was thus concluded that as the ratio of nettle increases in the samples, the shrinkage decreases in the samples. These results are very crucial for Uttarakhand people who want to commercially exploit the abundant nettle fiber for generating sustainable employment.

Keywords: Himalayan nettle, sustainable, shrinkage, blending

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137 A Study on the Effect of Different Climate Conditions on Time of Balance of Bleeding and Evaporation in Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete Pavements

Authors: Hasan Ziari, Hassan Fazaeli, Seyed Javad Vaziri Kang Olyaei, Asma Sadat Dabiri

Abstract:

The presence of cracks in concrete pavements is a place for the ingression of corrosive substances, acids, oils, and water into the pavement and reduces its long-term durability and level of service. One of the causes of early cracks in concrete pavements is the plastic shrinkage. This shrinkage occurs due to the formation of negative capillary pressures after the equilibrium of the bleeding and evaporation rates at the pavement surface. These cracks form if the tensile stresses caused by the restrained shrinkage exceed the tensile strength of the concrete. Different climate conditions change the rate of evaporation and thus change the balance time of the bleeding and evaporation, which changes the severity of cracking in concrete. The present study examined the relationship between the balance time of bleeding and evaporation and the area of cracking in the concrete slabs using the standard method ASTM C1579 in 27 different environmental conditions by using continuous video recording and digital image analyzing. The results showed that as the evaporation rate increased and the balance time decreased, the crack severity significantly increased so that by reducing the balance time from the maximum value to its minimum value, the cracking area increased more than four times. It was also observed that the cracking area- balance time curve could be interpreted in three sections. An examination of these three parts showed that the combination of climate conditions has a significant effect on increasing or decreasing these two variables. The criticality of a single factor cannot cause the critical conditions of plastic cracking. By combining two mild environmental factors with a severe climate factor (in terms of surface evaporation rate), a considerable reduction in balance time and a sharp increase in cracking severity can be prevented. The results of this study showed that balance time could be an essential factor in controlling and predicting plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete pavements. It is necessary to control this factor in the case of constructing concrete pavements in different climate conditions.

Keywords: bleeding and cracking severity, concrete pavements, climate conditions, plastic shrinkage

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