Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2516

Search results for: zinc oxide nanoparticles

2516 Studies on Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Potential Drug Carrier

Authors: Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Olga Dlugosz, Marcin Banach


The toxicity of bare zinc oxide nanoparticles used as drug carriers may be the result of releasing zinc ions. Thus, zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with galactose were obtained. The process of their formation was conducted in the microwave field. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were studied. The size and electrokinetic potential were defined by using dynamic light scattering technique. The crystalline properties were assessed by X-ray diffractometry. In order to confirm the formation of the desired products, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used. The releasing of zinc ions from the prepared products when comparing to the bare oxide was analyzed. It was found out that modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles with galactose limits the releasing of zinc ions which are responsible for the toxic effect of the whole carrier-drug conjugate.

Keywords: nanomaterials, zinc oxide, drug delivery system, toxicity

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2515 Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 in Fresh Tomato and Carrot with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Faith Semwayo


Preference for consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables continues to be on the upward trend however food-borne outbreaks related to them have also been on the increase. In this study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on controlling Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 in tomatoes and carrots during storage was investigated. Nutrient broth was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and thereafter inoculated with 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 1.2mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 200ppm chlorine was used as a control. Whole tomatoes and carrots were also inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 after which they were dipped into zinc oxide nanoparticle solutions and chlorine solutions. 1.2 mg/ml had a 2.40 log reduction; 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution had a log reduction of 2.15 in the broth solution. There was however a 4.89 log and 4.46 reduction by 200 ppm chlorine in tomato and carrot respectively. Control with 0.3 mg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles resulted in a log reduction of 5.19 in tomato and 3.66 in carrots. 1.2 mg/ml nanozinc oxide solution resulted in a 5.53 log reduction in tomato and a 4.44 log reduction in carrots. A combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml nanozinc oxide was also used and resulted in log reductions of 5.76 and 4.84 respectively in tomatoes and carrots. Treatments were more effective in tomatoes than in carrots and the combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml ZnO resulted in the highest log reductions in both vegetables. Statistical analysis however showed that there was no significant difference between treatments with Chlorine and nanoparticle solutions. This study therefore indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles have the potential for use as a control agent in the fresh produce industry.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, nanoparticles, tomato, carrot

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2514 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi


In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterial

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2513 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Humaira Khan, Mohsin Javed, Sammia Shahid


The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: degradation, graphene oxide, photocatalysis, ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles

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2512 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari


In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.

Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxide

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2511 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Support for Classical Anti-cancer Therapies

Authors: Nadine Wiesmann, Melanie Viel, Christoph Buhr, Rachel Tanner, Wolfgang Tremel, Juergen Brieger


Recidivation of tumors and the development of resistances against the classical anti-tumor approaches represent a major challenge we face when treating cancer. In order to master this challenge, we are in desperate need of new treatment options beyond the beaten tracks. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) represent such an innovative approach. Zinc oxide is characterized by a high level of biocompatibility, concurrently ZnO NPs are able to exert anti-tumor effects. By concentration of the nanoparticles at the tumor site, tumor cells can specifically be exposed to the nanoparticles while low zinc concentrations at off-target sites are tolerated well and can be excreted easily. We evaluated the toxicity of ZnO NPs in vitro with the help of immortalized tumor cell lines and primary cells stemming from healthy tissue. Additionally, the Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay (CAM Assay) was employed to gain insights into the in vivo behavior of the nanoparticles. We could show that ZnO NPs interact with tumor cells as nanoparticulate matter. Furthermore, the extensive release of zinc ions from the nanoparticles nearby and within the tumor cells results in overload with zinc. Beyond that, ZnO NPs were found to further the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We were able to show that tumor cells were more prone to the toxic effects of ZnO NPs at intermediate concentrations compared to fibroblasts. With the help of ZnO NPs covered by a silica shell in which FITC dye was incorporated, we were able to track ZnO NPs within tumor cells as well as within a whole organism in the CAM assay after injection into the bloodstream. Depending on the applied concentrations, selective tumor cell killing seems feasible. Furthermore, the combinational treatment of tumor cells with radiotherapy and ZnO NPs shows promising results. Still, further investigations are needed to gain a better understanding of the interaction between ZnO NPs and the human body to be able to pave the way for their application as an innovative anti-tumor agent in the clinics.

Keywords: metal oxide nanoparticles, nanomedicine, overcome resistances against classical treatment options, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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2510 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Using Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Extract and Its Application for Solar Cell

Authors: Prasanta Sutradhar, Mitali Saha


With an increasing awareness of green and clean energy, zinc oxide based solar cells were found to be suitable candidates for cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. In this work, we have reported the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) by thermal method and under microwave irradiation using the aqueous extract of tomatoes as non-toxic and ecofriendly reducing material. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), particle size analyser (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X- ray diffraction study (XRD). A series of ZnO nanocomposites with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared for photovoltaic application. Structural and morphological studies of these nanocomposites were carried out using UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and AFM. The current-voltage measurements of the nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.18% in case of ZnO/GO/TiO2 nanocomposite.

Keywords: ZnO, green synthesis, microwave, nanocomposites, I-V characteristics

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2509 Nanoparticle Based Green Inhibitor for Corrosion Protection of Zinc in Acidic Medium

Authors: Neha Parekh, Divya Ladha, Poonam Wadhwani, Nisha Shah


Nano scaled materials have attracted tremendous interest as corrosion inhibitor due to their high surface area on the metal surfaces. It is well known that the zinc oxide nanoparticles have higher reactivity towards aqueous acidic solution. This work presents a new method to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles with white sesame seeds extract (nano-green inhibitor) for corrosion protection of zinc in acidic medium. The morphology of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by TEM and DLS. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor was determined by Gravimetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Gravimetric measurements suggested that nano-green inhibitor is more effective than green inhibitor. Furthermore, with the increasing temperature, inhibition efficiency increases for both the inhibitors. In addition, it was established the Temkin adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data for both the inhibitors. The effect of temperature and Temkin adsorption isotherm revealed Chemisorption mechanism occurring in the system. The activation energy (Ea) and other thermodynamic parameters for inhibition process were calculated. The data of EIS showed that the charge transfer controls the corrosion process. The surface morphology of zinc metal (specimen) in absence and presence of green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The outcomes indicated a formation of a protective layer over zinc metal (specimen).

Keywords: corrosion, green inhibitor, nanoparticles, zinc

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2508 Antibacterial Property of ZnO Nanoparticles: Effect of Intrinsic Defects

Authors: Suresh Kumar Verma, Jugal Kishore Das, Ealisha Jha, Mrutyunjay Suar, SKS Parashar


In recent years nanoforms of inorganic metallic oxides has attracted a lot of interest due to their small size and significantly improved physical, chemical and biological properties compared to their molecular precursor. Some of the inorganic materials such as TiO2, ZnO, MgO, CaO, Al2O3 have been extensively used in biological applications. Zinc Oxide is a Wurtzite-type semiconductor and piezo-electric material exhibiting excellent electrical, optical and chemical properties with a band energy gap of 3.1-3.4 eV. Nanoforms of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) are increasingly recognised for their utility in biological application. The significant physical parameters such as surface area, particle size, surface charge and Zeta potential of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles makes it suitable for the uptake, persistance, biological, and chemical activities inside the living cells. The present study shows the effect of intrinsic defects of ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by high energy ball milling (HEBM) technique in their antibacterial activities. Bulk Zinc oxide purchased from market were ball milled for 7 h, 10 h, and 15 h respectively to produce nanosized Zinc Oxide. The structural and optical modification of such synthesized particles were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antibacterial property of synthesized Zinc Oxide nanoparticles was tested using well diffusion, minimum inhibitory Concentration, minimum bacteriocidal concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) estimation and membrane potential determination methods. In this study we observed that antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles is because of the intrinsic defects that exist as a function of difference in size and milling time.

Keywords: high energy ball milling, ZnO nanoparticles, EPR, Antibacterial properties

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2507 Synthesis, Characterization, and Physico–Chemical Properties of Nano Zinc Oxide and PVA Composites

Authors: S. H. Rashmi, G. M. Madhu, A. A. Kittur, R. Suresh


Polymer nanocomposites represent a new class of materials in which nanomaterials act as the reinforcing material in composites, wherein small additions of nanomaterials lead to large enhancements in thermal, optical, and mechanical properties. A boost in these properties is due to the large interfacial area per unit volume or weight of the nanoparticles and the interactions between the particle and the polymer. Micro-sized particles used as reinforcing agents scatter light, thus, reducing light transmittance and optical clarity. Efficient nanoparticle dispersion combined with good polymer–particle interfacial adhesion eliminates scattering and allows the exciting possibility of developing strong yet transparent films, coatings and membranes. This paper aims at synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles which are reinforced in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength of the PVA nanocomposites increases with the increase in the amount of nanoparticles.

Keywords: glutaraldehyde, polymer nanocomposites, poly vinyl alcohol, zinc oxide

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2506 Sonochemical Zinc Oxide and Layered Hydroxy Zinc Acetate Synthesis in Fenton-Like Reactions

Authors: Durata Haciu, Ozgur Birer


Zinc acetate solution is sonicated at high power in water and in ethanol in the absence and presence of various peroxides. In the absence of peroxides, the products are zinc oxide and layered hydroxy zinc acetate in water and in ethanol, respectively. Layered basic zinc acetate are prepared for the first time using sonochemical methods. The addition of peroxides alters the reaction mechanisms. In water, insoluble peroxides produce zinc oxides while the water soluble peroxide, i.e.hydrogen peroxide, completely destroyed the structure and casted a doubt on the accepted peroxide initiated mechanism of reactions. In ethanol,peroxide addition caused the reaction mechanism to change and some oxide formation is observed. The reaction mechanism is sensitive to water/ethanol amounts as well as the peroxide to zinc ion mole ratio.Thin zinc oxide wafers (ca. 30 nm) with band gaps of 3.24 eV were obtained.

Keywords: ultrasound, zinc oxide, hydroxy zinc acetate, fenton, peroxide initiation

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2505 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali


The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: nanoparticle, zinc oxide, cotton fabric, antibacterial activity, binder

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2504 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif


The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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2503 Spectroscopic Characterization Approach to Study Ablation Time on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesis by Laser Ablation Technique

Authors: Suha I. Al-Nassar, K. M. Adel, F. Zainab


This work was devoted for producing ZnO nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of Zn metal plate in the aqueous environment of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser with wavelength= 1064 nm, Rep. rate= 10 Hz, Pulse duration= 6 ns and laser energy 50 mJ. Solution of nanoparticles is found stable in the colloidal form for a long time. The effect of ablation time on the optical and structure of ZnO was studied is characterized by UV-visible absorption. UV-visible absorption spectrum has four peaks at 256, 259, 265, 322 nm for ablation time (5, 10, 15, and 20 sec) respectively, our results show that UV–vis spectra show a blue shift in the presence of CTAB with decrease the ablation time and blue shift indicated to get smaller size of nanoparticles. The blue shift in the absorption edge indicates the quantum confinement property of nanoparticles. Also, FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared in these states show a characteristic ZnO absorption at 435–445cm^−1.

Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticles, CTAB solution, pulsed laser ablation technique, spectroscopic characterization

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2502 Green Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Zinc Oxide and Silver Oxide Nonparticipants

Authors: Nassima Khanfri, Ali Boucenna


As metallic nanoparticles are increasingly used in many economic sectors, there is interest in the biological and environmental safety of their production. The main methods of synthesizing nanoparticales are chemical and physical approaches that are often expensive and potentially harmful to the environment. The present study is devoted to the possibility of the synthesis of silver nanoparticales and zinc oxide from silver nitrate and zinc acetate using basilica plant extracts. The products obtained are characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV/V, XRD, MEB-EDX, FTIR, and RAMAN. These analyzes confirm the crystalline nature of AgNps and ZnONps. These crystalline powders having effective biological activities regarding the antioxidant and antibacterial, which could be used in several biological applications.

Keywords: green synthesis, bio-reduction, metals nan Oparticales, Plants extracts

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2501 Highly Transparent, Hydrophobic and Self-Cleaning ZnO-Durazane Based Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings

Authors: Abderrahmane Hamdi, Julie Chalon, Benoit Dodin, Philippe Champagne


In this report, we present a simple route to realize robust, hydrophobic, and highly transparent coatings using organic polysilazane (durazane) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). These coatings were deposited by spraying the mixture solution on glass slides. Thus, the properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and water contact angle method. This sprayable polymer mixed with ZnO nanoparticles shows high transparency for visible light > 90%, a hydrophobic character (CA > 90°), and good mechanical and chemical stability. The coating also demonstrates excellent self-cleaning properties, which makes it a promising candidate for commercial use.

Keywords: coatings, durability, hydrophobicity, organic polysilazane, self-cleaning, transparence, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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2500 Anion Exchange Nanocomposite Membrane Doped with ZnO-Nanoparticles for Direct Methanol Alkaline Fuel Cell

Authors: Phumlani Msomi, Patrick Nonjola, Patrick Ndungu, James Ramontja


A series of quaternized poly (2.6 dimethyl – 1.4 phenylene oxide)/ polysulfone (QPPO/PSF) blend anion exchange membrane (AEM) were successfully fabricated and characterized for methanol alkaline fuel cell application. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were introduced in the polymer matrix to enhance the intrinsic properties of the AEM. To confirm successful fabrication, FT-IR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR and HMBC ¹⁵N NMR) were used. The membrane properties were enhanced by the addition of ZnO nanoparticles. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles resulted to a higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 3.72 mmol.g⁻¹and a 30-fold ion conductivity (IC) increase of the nanocomposite due to no (zero (0)) methanol permeability at 30 °C and increased water uptake. The QPPO/PSF/2% ZnO composite retained over 80 % of its initial IC when evaluated for alkaline stability at room temperature. The maximum power output reached for the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) constructed with QPPO/PSF/2%ZnO is 69⁻², which is about three times more than the parent QPPO membrane. The above results indicate that QPPO/PSF-ZnO is a good candidate as an anion exchange membrane for fuel cell application.

Keywords: anion exchange membrane, fuel cell, zinc oxide, nanocomposite

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2499 Effect of Various Capping Agents on Photocatalytic, Antibacterial and Antibiofilm of ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: K. Akhil, J. Jayakumar, S. Sudheer Khan


Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are extensively used in a wide variety of commercial products including sunscreen, textile and paints. The present study evaluated the effect of surface capping agents including polyethylene glycol (EG), gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone(PVP) on photocatalytic activity of ZnO NPs. The particles were also tested for its antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688). Preliminary characterization was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Electron microscopic analysis showed that the particles were hexagonal in shape. The hydrodynamic size distribution was analyzed by using dynamic light scattering method and crystalline nature was determined by X-Ray diffraction method.

Keywords: antibacterial, antibiofilm, capping agents, photodegradation, surface coating, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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2498 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property

Authors: Zue-Chin Chang


RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.

Keywords: aging, films, microstructure, photoelectric property

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2497 Impact of Emerging Nano-Agrichemicals on the Simultaneous Control of Arsenic and Cadmium in Rice Paddies

Authors: Xingmao Ma, Wenjie Sun


Rice paddies are frequently co-contaminated by arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), both of which demonstrate a high propensity for accumulation in rice grains and cause global food safety and public health concern. Even though different agricultural management strategies have been explored for their simultaneous control in rice grains, a viable solution is yet to be developed. Interestingly, several nanoagrichemicals, such as the zinc nanofertilizer and copper nanopesticide have displayed strong potential to reduce As or Cd accumulation in rice tissues. In order to determine whether these nanoagrichemicals can lower the accumulation of both As and Cd in rice, a series of bench studies were performed. Our results show that zinc oxide nanoparticles at 100 mg/Kg significantly lowered both As, and Cd in rice roots and shoots in flood irrigated rice seedlings, while equivalent amount of zinc ions only reduced As concentration in rice shoots. Zinc ions significantly increased Cd concentration in rice shoots by almost 30%. The results demonstrate a unique 'nano-effect' of zinc oxide nanoparticles, which is ascribed to the slow releasing of zinc ions from nanoparticles and the formation of different transformation products in these two treatments. We also evaluated the effect of nanoscale soil amendment, silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiO₂NPs) on the simultaneous reduction in both flooding and alternate wet and dry irrigation scheme. The effect of SiO₂NPs on As and Cd accumulation in rice tissues was strongly affected by the irrigation scheme. While 2000 mg/kg of SiO₂NPs significantly reduced As in rice roots and insignificantly reduced As in rice shoots in flooded rice, it increased As concentration in rice shoots in alternate wet and dry irrigation. In both irrigation scenarios, SiO₂NPs significantly reduced Cd concentration in rice roots, but only reduced Cd concentration in rice shoots in alternate wet and dry irrigation. Our results demonstrate a marked effect of nanoagrichemicals on the accumulation of As and Cd in rice and can be a potential solution to simultaneously control both in certain conditions.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, rice, nanoagrichemicals

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2496 Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide

Authors: Roya Razavizadeh, Razieh Soltaninejad, Hakimeh Oloumi


Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.

Keywords: zinc oxide, copper oxide, phenolic compounds, licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra L.), glycyrrhizin

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2495 Nano-Zinc Oxide: A Powerful and Recyclable Catalyst for Chemospecific Synthesis of Dicoumarols Based on Aryl Glyoxals

Authors: F. Jafari, S. GharehzadehShirazi, S. Khodabakhshi


An efficient, simple, and environmentally benign procedure for the one-pot synthesis of dicoumarols was reported. The reaction entails the condensation of aryl glyoxals and 4-hydroxyxoumarin in the presence of catalytic amount of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as recyclable catalyst in aqueous media. High product yields and use of clean conditions are important factors of green chemistry.Part of our continued interest to achieve high atom economic reactions by the use safe catalysts. The reaction mixture was refluxed with catalytic amount (3 mol%) of zinc oxide nanoparticles.Reducing the amount of toxic waste and byproducts arising from chemical reactions is an important issue in the context of green chemistry. In comparison with commonly organic solvents, the aqueous media is cheaper and more environmentally friendly. Avoiding the use of organic solvents is an important way to prevent waste in chemical processes. In the context of green and sustainable chemistry, one ofthe most promising approaches is the use of water as the reaction media. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition that water is an attractive media for manyorganic reactions. Using water continues to attract wide attention among synthetic chemists in the design of new synthetic methods.

Keywords: zinc oxide, dicoumarol, aryl glyoxal, green chemistry, catalyst

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2494 The Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Loaded with Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on in vitro Rooting of Apple Microcuttings

Authors: Shabnam Alizadeh, Hatice Dumanoglu


Plant tissue culture is a substantial plant propagation technique for mass clonal production throughout the year, regardless of time in fruit species. However, the rooting achievement must be enhanced in the difficult-to-root genotypes. Classical auxin applications in clonal propagation of these genotypes are inadequate to solve the rooting problem. Nanoparticles having different physical and chemical properties from bulk material could enhance the rooting success of controlled release of these substances when loaded with auxin due to their ability to reach the active substance up to the target cells as a carrier system.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-nZnO) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA-nZnO) on in vitro rooting of microcuttings in a difficult-to-root apple genotype (Malus domestica Borkh.). Rooting treatments consisted of IBA or IAA at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/L; nZnO, IAA-nZnO and IBA-nZnO at doses of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 mg/L were used. All components were added to the Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium at strength ½ with 2% sucrose and 0.7% agar before autoclaving. In the study, no rooting occurred in control and nZnO applications. Especially, 1.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L IBA-nZnO nanoparticle applications (containing 0.5 mg/L and 0.9 mg/L IBA), respectively with rooting rates of 40.3% and 70.4%, rooting levels of 2.0±0.4 and 2.3±0.4, 2.6±0.7 and 2.5±0.6 average root numbers and 20.4±1.6 mm and 20.2±3.4 mm average root lengths put forward as effective applications.

Keywords: Auxin, Malus, nanotechnology, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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2493 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang


RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

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2492 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio

Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiency

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2491 Effect of Doping on Band Gap of Zinc Oxide and Degradation of Methylene Blue and Industrial Effluent

Authors: V. P. Borker, K. S. Rane, A. J. Bhobe, R. S. Karmali


Effluent of dye industries contains chemicals and organic dyes. Sometimes they are thrown in the water bodies without any treatment. This leads to environmental pollution and is detrimental to flora and fauna. Semiconducting oxide zinc oxide with wide bandgap 3.37 eV is used as a photocatalyst in degrading organic dyes using UV radiations. It generates electron-hole pair on exposure to UV light. If degradation is aimed at solar radiations, bandgap of zinc oxide is to be reduced so as to utilize visible radiation. Thus, in present study, zinc oxide, ZnO is synthesized from zinc oxalate, N doped zinc oxide, ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ from hydrazinated zinc oxalate, cadmium doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ and magnesium-doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ from mixed metal oxalate and hydrazinated mixed metal oxalate. The precursors were characterized by FTIR. They were decomposed to form oxides and XRD were recorded. The compounds were monophasic. Bandgap was calculated using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrum. The bandgap of ZnO was reduced to 3.24 because of precursor method of synthesis leading large surface area. The bandgap of Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ was 3.11 eV and that of Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ 3.41 eV. The lowest value was of ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ 3.09 eV. These oxides were used to degrade methylene blue, a model dye in sunlight. ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ was also used to degrade effluent of industry manufacturing colours, crayons and markers. It was observed that ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ acts as a good photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue. It can degrade the solution within 120 minutes. Similarly, diluted effluent was decolourised using this oxide. Some colours were degraded using ZnO. Thus, the use of these two oxides could mineralize effluent. Lesser bandgap leads to more electro hole pair thus helps in the formation of hydroxyl ion radicals. These radicals attack the dye molecule, fragmentation takes place and it is mineralised.

Keywords: cadmium doped zinc oxide, dye degradation, dye effluent degradation, N doped zinc oxide, zinc oxide

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2490 Removal of Nickel and Zinc Ions from Aqueous Solution by Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide Functionalized Glycine

Authors: M. Rajabi, O. Moradi


In this study, removal of Nickel and Zinc by graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces was examined. Amino group was added to surface of graphene oxide to produced functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin. Effect of contact time and initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions were studied. Results showed that with increase of initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity was increased. After 50 min has not a large change at adsorption capacity therefore, 50 min was selected as optimaze time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy spectra used for the analysis confirmed the successful fictionalization of the Graphene oxide surface. Adsorption experiments of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces fixed at 298 K and pH=6. The Pseudo Firs-order and the Pseudo Second-order (types I, II, III and IV) kinetic models were tested for adsorption process and results showed that the kinetic parameters best fits with to type (I) of pseudo-second-order model because presented low X2 values and also high R2 values.

Keywords: graphene oxide, gelaycin, nickel, zinc, adsorption, kinetic, graphene oxide, gelaycin, nickel, zinc, adsorption, kinetic

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2489 A Comparative Study on the Synthesis, Characterizations and Biological (Antibacterial and Antifungal) Activities of Zinc Doped Silica Oxide Nanoparticles Based on Various Solvents

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Abdul Qayyum


Zinc-doped silica oxide nanoparticles having size 7.93nm were synthesized by the deposition precipitation method by using different solvents (acetonitrile, n-hexane, isoamylalchol). Biological potential such as antibacterial activities against Bacillussubtilusand Escherichia coli, and antifungal activities against Candida parapsilosis and Aspergilusniger were also investigated by Disc diffusion method. Different characterizations techniques including Fournier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Thermo-gravimeteric Analysis (TGA), Atomic forced microscopy (AFM), and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) were used. FT-IR characterization confirmed the presence of metal oxide bond (SiO2) while XRD showed the hexagonal structure. SEM and TEM characterization showed the morphology of nanoparticles. AFM study showed good particle size distribution as depicted by a histogram. DLS study showed the gradual decease in the size of nanoparticles from 24.86nm to 13.24 nm. Highest antibacterial activities revealed by acetonitrile solvents (6%and 4.5%) followed by isoamylalchol (3% and 2.4%) while n-hexane solvent showed the lowest activity (2%and 1%) respectively. Higher antifungal activities exhibited by n-hexane (0.34 % and 0.43%) followed by isoamylalchol (0.27% and 0.19%) solvent while acetonitrile (0.21% and 0.17%) showed least activity respectively. Statistical analysis by using one-way ANOVA also indicated the significant results of both biological activities.

Keywords: nanoparticles, precipitation methods, antibacterial, antifungal, characterizations

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2488 Adsorption and Kinetic Studies on Removal of NH3-N from Wastewater onto 2 Different Nanoparticles Loaded Coconut Coir

Authors: Khushboo Bhavsar, Nisha K. Shah, Neha Parekh


The status of wastewater treatment needs a novel and quick method for treating the wastewater containing ammoniacal nitrogen. Adsorption behavior of ammoniacal nitrogen from wastewater using the nanoparticles loaded coconut coir was investigated in the present work. Manganese Oxide (MnO2) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared and used for the further adsorption study. Manganese nanoparticles loaded coconut coir (MNLCC) and Zinc nanoparticles loaded coconut coir (ZNLCC) were prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of both MNLCC and ZNLCC were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics were studied using batch technique considering various parameters like pH, adsorbent dosage, time, temperature and agitation time. The NH3-N adsorption process for MNLCC and ZNLCC was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium isotherm view-points. The results indicated that the adsorption efficiency of ZNLCC was better when compared to MNLCC. The adsorption kinetics at different experimental conditions showed that second order kinetic model best fits ensuring the monovalent binding sites existing in the present experimental system. The outcome of the entire study suggests that the ZNLCC can be a smart option for the treatment of the ammoniacal nitrogen containing wastewater.

Keywords: ammoniacal nitrogen, MnO2, Nanoparticles, ZnO

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2487 Turmeric Mediated Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nicole Nazario Bayon, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh


Cerium oxide and turmeric have antioxidant properties, which have gained interest among researchers to study their applications in the field of biomedicine, such asanti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial applications. In this study, the turmeric extract was prepared and mixed with cerium nitrate hexahydrate, stirred continuously to obtain a homogeneous solution and then heated on a hot plate to get the supernatant evaporated, then calcinated at 600°C to obtain the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Characterization of synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles through Scanning Electron Microscopy determined the particle size to be in the range of 70 nm to 250 nm. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy determined the elemental composition of cerium and oxygen. Individual particles were identified through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, in which the particles were determined to be spherical and in the size of around 70 nm. The presence of cerium oxide was assured by analyzing the spectrum obtained through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The crystal structure of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be face-centered cubic by analyzing the peaks obtained through theX-Ray Diffraction method. The crystal size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be around 13 nm by using the Debye Scherer equation. This study confirmed the synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using turmeric extract.

Keywords: antioxidant, characterization, cerium oxide, synthesis, turmeric

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