Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Elisabeth Petit

36 Drivers of Liking: Probiotic Petit Suisse Cheese

Authors: Helena Bolini, Erick Esmerino, Adriano Cruz, Juliana Paixao

Abstract:

The currently concern for health has increased demand for low-calorie ingredients and functional foods as probiotics. Understand the reasons that infer on food choice, besides a challenging task, it is important step for development and/or reformulation of existing food products. The use of appropriate multivariate statistical techniques, such as External Preference Map (PrefMap), associated with regression by Partial Least Squares (PLS) can help in determining those factors. Thus, this study aimed to determine, through PLS regression analysis, the sensory attributes considered drivers of liking in probiotic petit suisse cheeses, strawberry flavor, sweetened with different sweeteners. Five samples in same equivalent sweetness: PROB1 (Sucralose 0.0243%), PROB2 (Stevia 0.1520%), PROB3 (Aspartame 0.0877%), PROB4 (Neotame 0.0025%) and PROB5 (Sucrose 15.2%) determined by just-about-right and magnitude estimation methods, and three commercial samples COM1, COM2 and COM3, were studied. Analysis was done over data coming from QDA, performed by 12 expert (highly trained assessors) on 20 descriptor terms, correlated with data from assessment of overall liking in acceptance test, carried out by 125 consumers, on all samples. Sequentially, results were submitted to PLS regression using XLSTAT software from Byossistemes. As shown in results, it was possible determine, that three sensory descriptor terms might be considered drivers of liking of probiotic petit suisse cheese samples added with sweeteners (p<0.05). The milk flavor was noticed as a sensory characteristic with positive impact on acceptance, while descriptors bitter taste and sweet aftertaste were perceived as descriptor terms with negative impact on acceptance of petit suisse probiotic cheeses. It was possible conclude that PLS regression analysis is a practical and useful tool in determining drivers of liking of probiotic petit suisse cheeses sweetened with artificial and natural sweeteners, allowing food industry to understand and improve their formulations maximizing the acceptability of their products.

Keywords: acceptance, consumer, quantitative descriptive analysis, sweetener

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35 Molecular Survey and Genetic Diversity of Bartonella henselae Strains Infecting Stray Cats from Algeria

Authors: Naouelle Azzag, Nadia Haddad, Benoit Durand, Elisabeth Petit, Ali Ammouche, Bruno Chomel, Henri J. Boulouis

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Bartonella henselae is a small, gram negative, arthropod-borne bacterium that has been shown to cause multiple clinical manifestations in humans including cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, and bacteremia. In this research, we report the results of a cross sectional study of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in stray cats from Algiers. Whole blood of 227 stray cats from Algiers was tested for the presence of Bartonella species by culture and for the evaluation of the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats assay (MLVA). Bacteremia prevalence was 17% and only B. henselae was identified. Type I was the predominant type (64%). MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles. 51 of these profiles were specific to Algerian cats/identified for the first time. 20/30 cats (67%) harbored 2 to 7 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering showed that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain.

Keywords: Bartonella, cat, MLVA, genetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
34 Selective Attention as a Search for the Deceased during the Mourning Process

Authors: Sonia Sirtoli Färber

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Objective: This study aims to investigate selective attention in the process of mourning, as a normal reaction to loss. Method: In order to develop this research, we used a systematic bibliographic review, following the process of investigation, cataloging, careful evaluation and synthesis of the documentation, associated with the method of thanatological hemenutics proposed by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. Conclusion: After a significant loss, especially the death of a loved one or family member, it is normal for the mourner, motivated by absence, to have a false perception of the presence of the deceased. This phenomenon happens whenever the mourner is in the middle of the crowd, because his selective attention causes him to perceive physical characteristics, tone of voice, or feel fragrance of the perfume that the deceased possessed. Details characterizing the dead are perceived by the mourner because he seeks the presence in the absence.

Keywords: Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, mourning, selective attention, thanatology

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33 Cultural Heritage, Manga, and Film: Japanese Tourism at Petit Trianon, Versailles

Authors: Denise C. I. Maior-Barron

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This conference presentation proposes to discuss the Japanese tourist perception of Marie Antoinette, at the heritage site which represents the home par excellence of the last Queen of France: Petit Trianon, Versailles. The underpinning analysis has a two-fold aim of firstly identifying the elements that contributed at the said perception and secondly of placing this in the wider context of tabi (travel) culture. The contribution of the presentation lies in its relevance to the analysis of postmodern trends of Japanese travel culture in relation to the consumption of European cultural heritage, through an insight into Japanese contemporary perception of heritage sites and their associated historical figures subject to controversy. Based upon the author’s doctoral studies field research at Petit Trianon - survey led in situ between 2010-2012, applied with the questionnaire method on a total of 307 respondents out of which 53 Japanese nationals - the media sources that were revealed to have had a direct influence on these nationals’ perception of Marie Antoinette, were Riyoko Ikeda’s shōjo manga La Rose de Versailles (1972) and Sofia Coppola’s film Marie-Antoinette (2006). The interpretation of the survey results through an assessment of visitor discourse determined the research methodology to be qualitative as opposed to quantitative, thus what confirmed the empirical hypothesis of the survey was a pattern of perception instead of percentages. Consequently, the interpretation focused on the answers to the questions relating to the image of Marie Antoinette in relation to historical knowledge, cultural background and last but not least media influences.

Keywords: cultural heritage, manga, film, tabi

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32 Research Regarding Resistance Characteristics of Biscuits Assortment Using Cone Penetrometer

Authors: G.–A. Constantin, G. Voicu, E.–M. Stefan, P. Tudor, G. Paraschiv, M.–G. Munteanu

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In the activity of handling and transport of food products, the products may be subjected to mechanical stresses that may lead to their deterioration by deformation, breaking, or crushing. This is the case for biscuits, regardless of their type (gluten-free or sugary), the addition of ingredients or flour from which they are made. However, gluten-free biscuits have a higher mechanical resistance to breakage or crushing compared to easily shattered sugar biscuits (especially those for children). The paper presents the results of the experimental evaluation of the texture for four varieties of commercial biscuits, using the penetrometer equipped with needle cone at five different additional weights on the cone-rod. The assortments of biscuits tested in the laboratory were Petit Beurre, Picnic, and Maia (all three manufactured by RoStar, Romania) and Sultani diet biscuits, manufactured by Eti Burcak Sultani (Turkey, in packs of 138 g). For the four varieties of biscuits and the five additional weights (50, 77, 100, 150 and 177 g), the experimental data obtained were subjected to regression analysis in the MS Office Excel program, using Velon's relationship (h = a∙ln(t) + b). The regression curves were analysed comparatively in order to identify possible differences and to highlight the variation of the penetration depth h, in relation to the time t. Based on the penetration depth between two-time intervals (every 5 seconds), the curves of variation of the penetration speed in relation to time were then drawn. It was found that Velon's law verifies the experimental data for all assortments of biscuits and for all five additional weights. The correlation coefficient R2 had in most of the analysed cases values over 0.850. The values recorded for the penetration depth were framed, in general, within 45-55 p.u. (penetrometric units) at an additional mass of 50 g, respectively between 155-168 p.u., at an additional mass of 177 g, at Petit Beurre biscuits. For Sultani diet biscuits, the values of the penetration depth were within the limits of 32-35 p.u., at an additional weight of 50 g and between 80-114 p.u., at an additional weight of 177g. The data presented in the paper can be used by both operators on the manufacturing technology flow, as well as by the traders of these food products, in order to establish the most efficient parametric of the working regimes (when packaging and handling).

Keywords: biscuits resistance/texture, penetration depth, penetration velocity, sharp pin penetrometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
31 Cutaneous Crohn’s Disease in a Child: Atypical Axillary Involvement

Authors: A. Al Yousef, A. Toulon, L. Petit, S. Fraitag, F. Ruemmele, S. Hadj-Rabia, C. Bodemer

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Cutaneous Crohn’s disease (CCD) refers to an extremely rare granulomatous inflammation of the skin that is non-contiguous to the bowel tract. These cutaneous lesions can occur prior to, concurrent with, or after the gastrointestinal manifestations. In adults, CCD most frequently occurs in the setting of well-documented intestinal disease. Only 20% of cases occur prior to its development. Review of CCD in children, reveals that 86% of cases (24 of 28) occurring in patients without a known diagnosis of intestinal Crohn’s disease. Overall, the genitalia was the most commonly involved location, representing 21 of the 28 cases with 16 vulvar and 5 penile/scrotal lesions.

Keywords: Crohn’s disease, cutaneous manifestations, children, atypical axillary involvement

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30 Visual Impairment Through Contextualized Lived Experiences: The Story of James

Authors: Jentel Van Havermaet, Geert Van Hove, Elisabeth De Schauwer

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This study re-conceptualizes visual impairment in the interdependent context of James, his family, and allies. Living with a visual impairment is understood as an entanglement of assemblages, dynamics, disablism, systems… We narrated this diffractively into two meaningful events: decisions and processes on (inclusive) education and hinderances in connecting with others. We entangled and (un)raveled lived experiences in assemblages in which the contextualized meaning of visual impairment became more clearly. The contextualized narrative of James interwove complex intra-actions; showed the complexity and contextualization of entangled relationalities.

Keywords: disability studies, contextualization, visual impairment, assemblage, entanglement, lived experiences

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29 Integrating Human Preferences into the Automated Decisions of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Arwa Khannoussi, Alexandru-Liviu Olteanu, Pritesh Narayan, Catherine Dezan, Jean-Philippe Diguet, Patrick Meyer, Jacques Petit-Frere

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Due to the nature of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) missions, it is important that the decisions of a UAV stay consistent with the priorities of an operator, while at the same time allowing them to be easily audited and explained. We propose a multi-layer decision engine that integrates the operator (human) preferences by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) methods. A software implementation of a UAV simulator and of the decision engine is presented to highlight the advantage of using such techniques on high-level decisions. We demonstrate that, with such a preference-based decision engine, the decisions of the UAV are compatible with the priorities of the operator, which in turn increases her/his confidence in its autonomous behavior.

Keywords: autonomous UAV, multi-criteria decision aiding, multi-layers decision engine, operator's preferences, traceable decisions, UAV simulation

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28 A Fellowship of Philosophy: Übermensch and the Will to Power in Tolkien

Authors: Ali Mirzabayati

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This article associates Tolkien’s concept of power with Nietzsche’s Übermensch. Despite his catholic beliefs, Tolkien refuses to create religiously motivated characters, opening room for existentialist decisions. Who is an Übermensch? What Tolkienian character resembles this concept the most? To tend to these questions, the article studies the case of Adolf Hitler and Elisabeth Nietzsche, manipulating Nietzschean philosophy. An investigation of the Nazis’ misuse of philosophy, art, and myth for political advantage introduces a Nazi version of Übermensch, best reflected in Sauron and Saruman. Unlike the Nazi version, Nietzschean Übermensch is proven to emphasize internal power and seek harmony within one’s desires. Tolkien’s best candidates for Übermensch, Aragorn and Bilbo are examined through Nietzsche’s three metamorphoses of becoming a higher spirit. What is more, I will study Nietzsche’s admiration for cheer and eating, the main characteristics of the hobbits, to strengthen his bond with Tolkien.

Keywords: Tolkien, Nietzsche, literature, fantasy, history, philosophy

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27 Exploring the Impact of Location on Urban and Peri-Urban Farming: A Case Study from Lusaka, Zambia

Authors: Cecilia Elisabeth Fåhraeus

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In 2016, this author conducted a study on agricultural livelihoods in urban and peri-urban low-income settings in Lusaka, Zambia. The overarching aim was to determine the impact of physical space on agricultural activities, with a particular emphasis on geographical distinctions between urban and peri-urban environments. Agricultural activities among the areas’ residents were mapped through questionnaires, interviews and observations, and included variables such as type of activity and product; degree of marketization; inputs; location of production, storage and vending; labour distribution; production constraints, and associated mobility patterns, among others. The study confirmed that spatial idiosyncrasies of urban and peri-urban environments both enabled and constrained agricultural activity, but not always as anticipated. There were also cross-cutting issues on which physical space appeared to have a limited impact.

Keywords: agricultural production systems, geography, low-income settlements, Lusaka, peri-urban, urban

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26 Portable Hands-Free Process Assistant for Gas Turbine Maintenance

Authors: Elisabeth Brandenburg, Robert Woll, Rainer Stark

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This paper presents how smart glasses and voice commands can be used for improving the maintenance process of industrial gas turbines. It presents the process of inspecting a gas turbine’s combustion chamber and how it is currently performed using a set of paper-based documents. In order to improve this process, a portable hands-free process assistance system has been conceived. In the following, it will be presented how the approach of user-centered design and the method of paper prototyping have been successfully applied in order to design a user interface and a corresponding workflow model that describes the possible interaction patterns between the user and the interface. The presented evaluation of these results suggests that the assistance system could help the user by rendering multiple manual activities obsolete, thus allowing him to work hands-free and to save time for generating protocols.

Keywords: paper prototyping, smart glasses, turbine maintenance, user centered design

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25 Comparing Sounds of the Singing Voice

Authors: Christel Elisabeth Bonin

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This experiment aims at showing that classical singing and belting have both different singing qualities, but singing with a speaking voice has no singing quality. For this purpose, a singing female voice was recorded on four different tone pitches, singing the vowel ‘a’ by using 3 different kinds of singing - classical trained voice, belting voice and speaking voice. The recordings have been entered in the Software Praat. Then the formants of each recorded tone were compared to each other and put in relationship to the singer’s formant. The visible results are taken as an indicator of comparable sound qualities of a classical trained female voice and a belting female voice concerning the concentration of overtones in F1 to F5 and a lack of sound quality in the speaking voice for singing purpose. The results also show that classical singing and belting are both valuable vocal techniques for singing due to their richness of overtones and that belting is not comparable to shouting or screaming. Singing with a speaking voice in contrast should not be called singing due to the lack of overtones which means by definition that there is no musical tone.

Keywords: formants, overtone, singer’s formant, singing voice, belting, classical singing, singing with the speaking voice

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24 Teacher Mental Health during Online Teaching

Authors: Elisabeth Desiana Mayasari, Laurensia Aptik Evanjeli, Brigitta Erlita Tri Anggadewi

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The condition of the COVID-19 pandemic demands adaptation in various aspects of human life, including in the field of education. Teachers are expected to do distance learning or Learning From Home (LFH). The teacher said that he experienced stress, anxiety, feeling depressed, and afraid based on the interview. Learning adaptations and pandemic situations can impact the mental health of teachers, so the purpose of this study is to determine the mental health of teachers while teaching online. This research was conducted with a quantitative approach using a survey method. The subjects in this study were 330 elementary school teachers under the auspices of a foundation in Yogyakarta. Teachers' mental health was measured using the Indonesian version of The Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38), which has a reliability of 0.888. The results showed that the teachers generally had a good mental health condition marked by a lower negative aspect score than the positive aspect. In addition, the overall mental health aspect shows that some teachers have better mental health when compared to the average score, as well as higher positive aspect scores in all sub-aspects.

Keywords: mental health, teacher, COVID-19 pandemic, MHI-38

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23 "Epitaph" Charles Mingus’ Foresight of Jazz

Authors: Christel Elisabeth Bonin

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The score of the 2 ½ hour ‘magnum opus’ named ‘Epitaph’ was reconstructed 10 years after Charles Mingus’ death in 1979. Most of the movements were probably composed in the late 1950s. As the finale was missing, Gunther Schuller, the conductor of the world premiere in 1989, decided to improvise one with the orchestra, using Mingus as a guide. The aim of this paper is to analyze ‘Main Score Part I ‘ and ‘Main Score Part II’ and to look into the score of Mingus’ reconstructed compositions under particular observation of the new finale, ‘Main Score Reprise’. There, Mingus left instructions for a return to the opening section of ‘Epitaph’. By examining ‘Epitaph’ in the historical context of Jazz between 1955 to 1967 and the 1980s and comparing the finale of ‘Epitaph’, created - or better said: improvised - by the musicians of the 1989 world premiere with the opening section, at first it will be interesting to discover at which point Gunther Schuller followed Mingus creative process and brought it to life in 1989. Finally, it will be speculated if Charles Mingus composition still represents a foresight of Jazz nearly 30 years after its creation.

Keywords: epitaph, Charles Mingus, Gunter Schuller, jazz reception, bebop, hardbop, Duke Ellington, black, brown and beige, African-American music, free-jazz

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22 Development of a New Characterization Method to Analyse Cypermethrin Penetration in Wood Material by Immunolabelling

Authors: Sandra Tapin-Lingua, Katia Ruel, Jean-Paul Joseleau, Daouia Messaoudi, Olivier Fahy, Michel Petit-Conil

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The preservative efficacy of organic biocides is strongly related to their capacity of penetration and retention within wood tissues. The specific detection of the pyrethroid insecticide is currently obtained after extraction followed by chemical analysis by chromatography techniques. However visualizing the insecticide molecule within the wood structure requires specific probes together with microscopy techniques. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to apply a new methodology based on antibody-antigen recognition and electronic microscopy to visualize directly pyrethroids in the wood material. A polyclonal antibody directed against cypermethrin was developed and implement it on Pinus sylvestris wood samples coated with technical cypermethrin. The antibody was tested on impregnated wood and the specific recognition of the insecticide was visualized in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immunogold-TEM assay evidenced the capacity of the synthetic biocide to penetrate in the wood. The depth of penetration was measured on sections taken at increasing distances from the coated surface of the wood. Such results correlated with chemical analyzes carried out by GC-ECD after extraction. In addition, the immuno-TEM investigation allowed visualizing, for the first time at the ultrastructure scale of resolution, that cypermethrin was able to diffuse within the secondary wood cell walls.

Keywords: cypermethrin, insecticide, wood penetration, wood retention, immuno-transmission electron microscopy, polyclonal antibody

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21 De-Novo Structural Elucidation from Mass/NMR Spectra

Authors: Ismael Zamora, Elisabeth Ortega, Tatiana Radchenko, Guillem Plasencia

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The structure elucidation based on Mass Spectra (MS) data of unknown substances is an unresolved problem that affects many different fields of application. The recent overview of software available for structure elucidation of small molecules has shown the demand for efficient computational tool that will be able to perform structure elucidation of unknown small molecules and peptides. We developed an algorithm for De-Novo fragment analysis based on MS data that proposes a set of scored and ranked structures that are compatible with the MS and MSMS spectra. Several different algorithms were developed depending on the initial set of fragments and the structure building processes. Also, in all cases, several scores for the final molecule ranking were computed. They were validated with small and middle databases (DB) with the eleven test set compounds. Similar results were obtained from any of the databases that contained the fragments of the expected compound. We presented an algorithm. Or De-Novo fragment analysis based on only mass spectrometry (MS) data only that proposed a set of scored/ranked structures that was validated on different types of databases and showed good results as proof of concept. Moreover, the solutions proposed by Mass Spectrometry were submitted to the prediction of NMR spectra in order to elucidate which of the proposed structures was compatible with the NMR spectra collected.

Keywords: De Novo, structure elucidation, mass spectrometry, NMR

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20 MIM and Experimental Studies of the Thermal Drift in an Ultra-High Precision Instrument for Dimensional Metrology

Authors: Kamélia Bouderbala, Hichem Nouira, Etienne Videcoq, Manuel Girault, Daniel Petit

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Thermal drifts caused by the power dissipated by the mechanical guiding systems constitute the main limit to enhance the accuracy of an ultra-high precision cylindricity measuring machine. For this reason, a high precision compact prototype has been designed to simulate the behaviour of the instrument. It ensures in situ calibration of four capacitive displacement probes by comparison with four laser interferometers. The set-up includes three heating wires for simulating the powers dissipated by the mechanical guiding systems, four additional heating wires located between each laser interferometer head and its respective holder, 19 Platinum resistance thermometers (Pt100) to observe the temperature evolution inside the set-up and four Pt100 sensors to monitor the ambient temperature. Both a Reduced Model (RM), based on the Modal Identification Method (MIM) was developed and optimized by comparison with the experimental results. Thereafter, time dependent tests were performed under several conditions to measure the temperature variation at 19 fixed positions in the system and compared to the calculated RM results. The RM results show good agreement with experiment and reproduce as well the temperature variations, revealing the importance of the RM proposed for the evaluation of the thermal behaviour of the system.

Keywords: modal identification method (MIM), thermal behavior and drift, dimensional metrology, measurement

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19 Diagnostic Efficacy and Usefulness of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) in Evaluation of Breast Microcalcifications as a Pre-Procedural Study for Stereotactic Biopsy

Authors: Okhee Woo, Hye Seon Shin

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Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic power of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in evaluation of breast microcalcifications and usefulness as a pre-procedural study for stereotactic biopsy in comparison with full-field digital mammogram (FFDM) and FFDM plus magnification image (FFDM+MAG). Methods and Materials: An IRB approved retrospective observer performance study on DBT, FFDM, and FFDM+MAG was done. Image quality was rated in 5-point scoring system for lesion clarity (1, very indistinct; 2, indistinct; 3, fair; 4, clear; 5, very clear) and compared by Wilcoxon test. Diagnostic power was compared by diagnostic values and AUC with 95% confidence interval. Additionally, procedural report of biopsy was analysed for patient positioning and adequacy of instruments. Results: DBT showed higher lesion clarity (median 5, interquartile range 4-5) than FFDM (3, 2-4, p-value < 0.0001), and no statistically significant difference to FFDM+MAG (4, 4-5, p-value=0.3345). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of DBT were 86.4% and 92.5%; FFDM 70.4% and 66.7%; FFDM+MAG 93.8% and 89.6%. The AUCs of DBT (0.88) and FFDM+MAG (0.89) were larger than FFDM (0.59, p-values < 0.0001) but there was no statistically significant difference between DBT and FFDM+MAG (p-value=0.878). In 2 cases with DBT, petit needle could be appropriately prepared; and other 3 without DBT, patient repositioning was needed. Conclusion: DBT showed better image quality and diagnostic values than FFDM and equivalent to FFDM+MAG in the evaluation of breast microcalcifications. Evaluation with DBT as a pre-procedural study for breast stereotactic biopsy can lead to more accurate localization and successful biopsy and also waive the need for additional magnification images.

Keywords: DBT, breast cancer, stereotactic biopsy, mammography

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18 Graph-Oriented Summary for Optimized Resource Description Framework Graphs Streams Processing

Authors: Amadou Fall Dia, Maurras Ulbricht Togbe, Aliou Boly, Zakia Kazi Aoul, Elisabeth Metais

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Existing RDF (Resource Description Framework) Stream Processing (RSP) systems allow continuous processing of RDF data issued from different application domains such as weather station measuring phenomena, geolocation, IoT applications, drinking water distribution management, and so on. However, processing window phase often expires before finishing the entire session and RSP systems immediately delete data streams after each processed window. Such mechanism does not allow optimized exploitation of the RDF data streams as the most relevant and pertinent information of the data is often not used in a due time and almost impossible to be exploited for further analyzes. It should be better to keep the most informative part of data within streams while minimizing the memory storage space. In this work, we propose an RDF graph summarization system based on an explicit and implicit expressed needs through three main approaches: (1) an approach for user queries (SPARQL) in order to extract their needs and group them into a more global query, (2) an extension of the closeness centrality measure issued from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to determine the most informative parts of the graph and (3) an RDF graph summarization technique combining extracted user query needs and the extended centrality measure. Experiments and evaluations show efficient results in terms of memory space storage and the most expected approximate query results on summarized graphs compared to the source ones.

Keywords: centrality measures, RDF graphs summary, RDF graphs stream, SPARQL query

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17 Assessment of the Electrical, Mechanical, and Thermal Nociceptive Thresholds for Stimulation and Pain Measurements at the Bovine Hind Limb

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage

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Background: Three nociceptive thresholds of thermal, electrical, and mechanical thresholds commonly use to evaluate the local anesthesia in many species, for instance, cow, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, and so on. Due to the lack of investigations to evaluate and/or validate such those nociceptive thresholds, our plan was the comparison of two-foot local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA) and our modified four-point Nerve Block Anesthesia (NBA). Materials and Methods: Eight healthy nonpregnant nondairy Holstein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design were selected for this study. All cows divided into two different groups to receive two local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. Three thermal, electrical, and mechanical force and pinpricks were applied to evaluate the quality of local anesthesia methods before and after local anesthesia application. Results: The statistical evaluation demonstrated that our four-point NBA has a qualification to select as a standard foot local anesthesia. However, the recorded results of our study revealed no significant difference between two groups of local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and modified four-point NBA related to quality and duration of anesthesia stimulated by electrical, mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conclusion and discussion: All three nociceptive threshold stimuli of electrical, mechanical and heat nociceptive thresholds can be applied to measure and evaluate the efficacy of foot local anesthesia of dairy cows. However, our study revealed no superiority of those three nociceptive methods to evaluate the duration and quality of bovine foot local anesthesia methods. Veterinarians to investigate the duration and quality of their selected anesthesia method can use any of those heat, mechanical, and electrical methods.

Keywords: mechanical, thermal, electrical threshold, IVRA, NBA, hind limb, dairy cow

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16 Embracing Complex Femininity: A Comparative Analysis of the Representation of Female Sexuality in John Webster and William Faulkner

Authors: Elisabeth Pedersen

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Representations and interpretations of womanhood and female sexualities bring forth various questions regarding gender norms, and the implications of these norms, which are permeating and repetitive within various societies. Literature is one form of media which provides the space to represent and interpret women, their bodies, and sexualities, and also reveals the power of language as an affective and affected force. As literature allows an opportunity to explore history and the representations of gender, power dynamics, and sexuality through historical contexts, this paper uses engaged theory through a comparative analysis of two work of literature, The Duchess of Malfi by John Wester, and The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner. These novels span across space and time, which lends to the theory that repetitive tropes of womanhood and female sexuality in literature are influenced by and have an influence on the hegemonic social order throughout history. It analyzes how the representation of the dichotomy of male chivalry and honor, and female purity are disputed and questioned when a woman is portrayed as sexually emancipated, and explores the historical context in which these works were written to examine how socioeconomic events challenged the hegemonic social order. The analysis looks at how stereotypical ideals of womanhood and manhood have damaging implications on women, as the structure of society provides more privilege and power to men than to women, thus creating a double standard for men and women in regards to sexuality, sexual expression, and rights to sexual desire. This comparative analysis reveals how strict gender norms are permeating and have negative consequences. However, re-reading stories through a critical lens can provide an opportunity to challenge the repetitive tropes of female sexuality, and thus lead to the embrace of the complexity of female sexuality and expression.

Keywords: femininity, literature, representation, sexuality

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15 Phylogenetic Studies of Six Egyptian Sheep Breeds Using Cytochrome B

Authors: Othman Elmahdy Othman, Agnés Germot, Daniel Petit, Muhammad Khodary, Abderrahman Maftah

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Recently, the control (D-loop) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) regions of mtDNA have received more attention due to their role in the genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies in different livestock which give important knowledge towards the genetic resource conservation. Studies based on sequencing of sheep mitochondrial DNA showed that there are five maternal lineages in the world for domestic sheep breeds; A, B, C, D and E. By using cytochrome B sequencing, we aimed to clarify the genetic affinities and phylogeny of six Egyptian sheep breeds. Blood samples were collected from 111 animals belonging to six Egyptian sheep breeds; Barki, Rahmani, Ossimi, Saidi, Sohagi and Fallahi. The total DNA was extracted and the specific primers were used for conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome B region of mtDNA. PCR amplified products were purified and sequenced. The alignment of sequences was done using BioEdit software and DnaSP 5.00 software was used to identify the sequence variation and polymorphic sites in the aligned sequences. The result showed that the presence of 39 polymorphic sites leading to the formation of 29 haplotypes. The haplotype diversity in six tested breeds ranged from 0.643 in Rahmani breed to 0.871 in Barki breed. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Rahmani and Saidi (D: 1.436 and Dxy: 0.00127) while the highest distance was observed between Ossimi and Sohagi (D: 6.050 and Dxy: 0.00534). Neighbour-joining (Phylogeny) tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 software. The sequences of 111 analyzed samples were aligned with references sequences of different haplogroups; A, B, C, D and E. The phylogeny result showed the presence of four haplogroups; HapA, HapB, HapC and HapE in the examined samples whereas the haplogroup D was not found. The result showed that 88 out of 111 tested animals cluster with haplogroup B (79.28%), whereas 12 tested animals cluster with haplogroup A (10.81%), 10 animals cluster with haplogroup C (9.01%) and one animal belongs to haplogroup E (0.90%).

Keywords: phylogeny, genetic biodiversity, MtDNA, cytochrome B, Egyptian sheep

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14 An Empirical Study on the Impact of Peace in Tourists' Country of Origin on Their Travel Behavior

Authors: Claudia Seabra, Elisabeth Kastenholz, José Luís Abrantes, Manuel Reis

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In a world of increasing mobility and global risks, terrorism has, in a perverse way, capitalized on contemporaneous society’s growing interest in travel to explore a world whose national boundaries and distances have decreased. Terrorists have identified the modern tourist flows originated from the economically more developed countries as new appealing targets so as to: i) call attention to the causes they defend and ii) destroy a country’s foundations of tourism, with the final aim of disrupting the economic and consequently social fabric of the affected countries. The present study analyses sensitivity towards risk and travel behaviors in international travel amongst a sample of 600 international tourists from 49 countries travelling by air. Specifically, the sample was segmented according to the Global Peace Index. This index defines country profiles regarding the levels of peace. The indicators used are established over three broad themes: i) ongoing domestic and international conflict; ii) societal safety and security; and iii) militarisation. Tourists were segmented, according to their country of origin, in different levels of peacefulness. Several facets of travel behavior were evaluated, namely motivations, attitude towards trip planning, quality perception and perceived value of the trip. Also factors related with risk perception were evaluated, specifically terrorism risk perception during the trip, unsafety sensation as well as importance attributed to safety in travel. Results contribute to our understanding of the role of previous exposure to the lack of peace and safety at home in the international tourists behaviors, which is further discussed in terms of tourism management and marketing implications which should particularly interest tourism services and destinations more affected by terrorism, war, political turmoil, crime and other safety risks.

Keywords: terrorism, tourism, safety, risk perception

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13 The Evaluation of Superiority of Foot Local Anesthesia Method in Dairy Cows

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage

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Background: Nowadays, bovine limb interventions, especially any claw surgeries, raises selection of the most qualified and appropriate local anesthesia technique applicable for any superficial or deep interventions of the limbs. Currently, two local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA), as well as Nerve Blocks, have been routine to apply. However, the lack of studies investigating the quality and duration as well as quantity and onset of full (complete) local anesthesia, is noticeable. Therefore, the aim of our study was comparing the onset and quality of both IVRA and our modified NBA at the hind limb of dairy cows. For this abstract, only the onset of full local anesthesia would be consider. Materials and Methods: For that reason, we used six healthy non pregnant non lactating Holestein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design. Those cows divided into two groups to receive IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. For IVRA, 20 ml procaine without epinephrine was injected into the vein digitalis dorsalis communis III and for our modified four-point NBA, 10-15 ml procaine without epinephrine preneurally to the nerves, superficial and deep peroneal as well as lateral and medial branches of metatarsal nerves. For pain stimulation, electrical stimulator Grass S48 was applied. Results: The results of electrical stimuli revealed the faster onset of full local anesthesia (p < 0.05) by application of our modified NBA in comparison to IVRA about 10 minutes. Conclusion and discussion: Despite of available references showing faster onset of foot local anesthesia of IVRA, our study demonstrated that our modified four point NBA not only can be well known as a standard foot local anesthesia method applicable to desensitize the hind limb of dairy cows, but also, selection of this modified validated local anesthesia method can lead to have a faster start of complete desensitization of distal hind limb that is remarkable in any bovine limb interventions under time constraint.

Keywords: IVRA, four point NBA, dairy cow, hind limb, full onset

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12 The Functional Roles of Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Risk-Taking Behavior

Authors: Aline M. Dantas, Alexander T. Sack, Elisabeth Bruggen, Peiran Jiao, Teresa Schuhmann

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Risk-taking behavior has been associated with the activity of specific prefrontal regions of the brain, namely the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). While the deactivation of the rDLPFC has been shown to lead to increased risk-taking behavior, the functional relationship between VMPFC activity and risk-taking behavior is yet to be clarified. Correlational evidence suggests that the VMPFC is involved in valuation processes that involve risky choices, but evidence on the functional relationship is lacking. Therefore, this study uses brain stimulation to investigate the role of the VMPFC during risk-taking behavior and replicate the current findings regarding the role of the rDLPFC in this same phenomenon. We used continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to inhibit either the VMPFC or DLPFC during the execution of the computerized Maastricht Gambling Task (MGT) in a within-subject design with 30 participants. We analyzed the effects of such stimulation on risk-taking behavior, participants’ choices of probabilities and average values, and response time. We hypothesized that, compared to sham stimulation, VMPFC inhibition leads to a reduction in risk-taking behavior by reducing the appeal to higher-value options and, consequently, the attractiveness of riskier options. Right DLPFC (rDLPFC) inhibition, on the other hand, should lead to an increase in risk-taking due to a reduction in cognitive control, confirming existent findings. Stimulation of both the rDLPFC and the VMPFC led to an increase in risk-taking behavior and an increase in the average value chosen after both rDLPFC and VMPFC stimulation compared to sham. No significant effect on chosen probabilities was found. A significant increase in response time was observed exclusively after rDLPFC stimulation. Our results indicate that inhibiting DLPFC and VMPFC separately leads to similar effects, increasing both risk-taking behavior and average value choices, which is likely due to the strong anatomical and functional interconnection of the VMPFC and rDLPFC.

Keywords: decision-making, risk-taking behavior, brain stimulation, TMS

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11 Effects of Potassium Sorbate on Some Sexual Maturation Parameters in Immature Female Wistar Rats

Authors: Elisabeth Louise Ndjengue Mindang, Charline Florence Awounfack, Derek Tantoh Ndinteh, Rui W. M. Krause, Dieudonne Njamen

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The evolution of human fertility over the last 50 years has shown considerable problems due to a growing number of couples that find it difficult to procreate without medical assistance. In Africa, this inability to conceive affect 30 to 40% of couples. A number of contaminants in the environment are thought to contribute significantly to the observed infertility epidemic. Methods: On this basis, the impact of 40-days unique oral administration (between 9 and 10 am) of potassium sorbate (at of 12.5, 45, and 78 mg/kg BW doses) was evaluated on sexual maturation and hematologic parameters on immature Wistar rats (21-22 days of age). At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed. Vaginal opening was evaluated before the sacrifice. After the sacrifice, relative weight of reproductive organs, pituitary gonadotrophin level (LH and FSH), and sexuals steroids (estrogen and progesterone), cholesterol level in ovaries, folliculogenesis, and some hematological parameters were evaluated. Results: Compared to the control group, no significant variation was observed in the body weight of the animals treated with patassium sorbate. On the other hand, potassium sorbate, a significantly lower percentage (25%) of vaginal-opening in these rats, was observed from day 46 of age (p <0.01); likewise, a significant decrease was observed on the relative weight of the ovaries (p <0.01), number of primary follicles (p <0.01), and a significant increase of follicle number (p <0.001) at 78 mg/kg BW have been obseved. Potassium sorbate always decreased the number of white blood cells (p <0.05). Taken together, these results confirm the disturbing effects on the endocrine system, causing a decrease in fertility by increasing the number of follicles in atresia. A deleterious effect on the immune system was also observed. Overall, these results validate at least in part the global observations on the growing decline in fertility in populationsfeeding increasingly on industrial processed foods.

Keywords: potassium sorbate, early puberty, folliculogenesis, endocrine disruptor, immatur wistar rat

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10 Family Medicine Residents in End-of-Life Care

Authors: Goldie Lynn Diaz, Ma. Teresa Tricia G. Bautista, Elisabeth Engeljakob, Mary Glaze Rosal

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Introduction: Residents are expected to convey unfavorable news, discuss prognoses, and relieve suffering, and address do-not-resuscitate orders, yet some report a lack of competence in providing this type of care. Recognizing this need, Family Medicine residency programs are incorporating end-of-life care from symptom and pain control, counseling, and humanistic qualities as core proficiencies in training. Objective: This study determined the competency of Family Medicine Residents from various institutions in Metro Manila on rendering care for the dying. Materials and Methods: Trainees completed a Palliative Care Evaluation tool to assess their degree of confidence in patient and family interactions, patient management, and attitudes towards hospice care. Results: Remarkably, only a small fraction of participants were confident in performing independent management of terminal delirium and dyspnea. Fewer than 30% of residents can do the following without supervision: discuss medication effects and patient wishes after death, coping with pain, vomiting and constipation, and reacting to limited patient decision-making capacity. Half of the respondents had confidence in supporting the patient or family member when they become upset. Majority expressed confidence in many end-of-life care skills if supervision, coaching and consultation will be provided. Most trainees believed that pain medication should be given as needed to terminally ill patients. There was also uncertainty as to the most appropriate person to make end-of-life decisions. These attitudes may be influenced by personal beliefs rooted in cultural upbringing as well as by personal experiences with death in the family, which may also affect their participation and confidence in caring for the dying. Conclusion: Enhancing the quality and quantity of end-of-life care experiences during residency with sufficient supervision and role modeling may lead to knowledge and skill improvement to ensure quality of care. Fostering bedside learning opportunities during residency is an appropriate venue for teaching interventions in end-of-life care education.

Keywords: end of life care, geriatrics, palliative care, residency training skill

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9 Data Analysis Tool for Predicting Water Scarcity in Industry

Authors: Tassadit Issaadi Hamitouche, Nicolas Gillard, Jean Petit, Valerie Lavaste, Celine Mayousse

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Water is a fundamental resource for the industry. It is taken from the environment either from municipal distribution networks or from various natural water sources such as the sea, ocean, rivers, aquifers, etc. Once used, water is discharged into the environment, reprocessed at the plant or treatment plants. These withdrawals and discharges have a direct impact on natural water resources. These impacts can apply to the quantity of water available, the quality of the water used, or to impacts that are more complex to measure and less direct, such as the health of the population downstream from the watercourse, for example. Based on the analysis of data (meteorological, river characteristics, physicochemical substances), we wish to predict water stress episodes and anticipate prefectoral decrees, which can impact the performance of plants and propose improvement solutions, help industrialists in their choice of location for a new plant, visualize possible interactions between companies to optimize exchanges and encourage the pooling of water treatment solutions, and set up circular economies around the issue of water. The development of a system for the collection, processing, and use of data related to water resources requires the functional constraints specific to the latter to be made explicit. Thus the system will have to be able to store a large amount of data from sensors (which is the main type of data in plants and their environment). In addition, manufacturers need to have 'near-real-time' processing of information in order to be able to make the best decisions (to be rapidly notified of an event that would have a significant impact on water resources). Finally, the visualization of data must be adapted to its temporal and geographical dimensions. In this study, we set up an infrastructure centered on the TICK application stack (for Telegraf, InfluxDB, Chronograf, and Kapacitor), which is a set of loosely coupled but tightly integrated open source projects designed to manage huge amounts of time-stamped information. The software architecture is coupled with the cross-industry standard process for data mining (CRISP-DM) data mining methodology. The robust architecture and the methodology used have demonstrated their effectiveness on the study case of learning the level of a river with a 7-day horizon. The management of water and the activities within the plants -which depend on this resource- should be considerably improved thanks, on the one hand, to the learning that allows the anticipation of periods of water stress, and on the other hand, to the information system that is able to warn decision-makers with alerts created from the formalization of prefectoral decrees.

Keywords: data mining, industry, machine Learning, shortage, water resources

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8 Maker Education as Means for Early Entrepreneurial Education: Evaluation Results from a European Pilot Action

Authors: Elisabeth Unterfrauner, Christian Voigt

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Since the foundation of the first Fab Lab by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology about 17 years ago, the Maker movement has spread globally with the foundation of maker spaces and Fab Labs worldwide. In these workshops, citizens have access to digital fabrication technologies such as 3D printers and laser cutters to develop and test their own ideas and prototypes, which makes it an attractive place for start-up companies. Know-How is shared not only in the physical space but also online in diverse communities. According to the Horizon report, the Maker movement, however, will also have an impact on educational settings in the following years. The European project ‘DOIT - Entrepreneurial skills for young social innovators in an open digital world’ has incorporated key elements of making to develop an early entrepreneurial education program for children between the age of six and 16. The Maker pedagogy builds on constructive learning approaches, learning by doing principles, learning in collaborative and interdisciplinary teams and learning through trial and error where mistakes are acknowledged as learning opportunities. The DOIT program consists of seven consecutive elements. It starts with a motivation phase where students get motivated by envisioning the scope of their possibilities. The second step is about Co-design: Students are asked to collect and select potential ideas for innovations. In the Co-creation phase students gather in teams and develop first prototypes of their ideas. In the iteration phase, the prototype is continuously improved and in the next step, in the reflection phase, feedback on the prototypes is exchanged between the teams. In the last two steps, scaling and reaching out, the robustness of the prototype is tested with a bigger group of users outside of the educational setting and finally students will share their projects with a wider public. The DOIT program involves 1,000 children in two pilot phases at 11 pilot sites in ten different European countries. The comprehensive evaluation design is based on a mixed method approach with a theoretical backbone on Lackeus’ model of entrepreneurship education, which distinguishes between entrepreneurial attitudes, entrepreneurial skills and entrepreneurial knowledge. A pre-post-test with quantitative measures as well as qualitative data from interviews with facilitators, students and workshop protocols will reveal the effectiveness of the program. The evaluation results will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: early entrepreneurial education, Fab Lab, maker education, Maker movement

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7 A Construction Management Tool: Determining a Project Schedule Typical Behaviors Using Cluster Analysis

Authors: Natalia Rudeli, Elisabeth Viles, Adrian Santilli

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Delays in the construction industry are a global phenomenon. Many construction projects experience extensive delays exceeding the initially estimated completion time. The main purpose of this study is to identify construction projects typical behaviors in order to develop a prognosis and management tool. Being able to know a construction projects schedule tendency will enable evidence-based decision-making to allow resolutions to be made before delays occur. This study presents an innovative approach that uses Cluster Analysis Method to support predictions during Earned Value Analyses. A clustering analysis was used to predict future scheduling, Earned Value Management (EVM), and Earned Schedule (ES) principal Indexes behaviors in construction projects. The analysis was made using a database with 90 different construction projects. It was validated with additional data extracted from literature and with another 15 contrasting projects. For all projects, planned and executed schedules were collected and the EVM and ES principal indexes were calculated. A complete linkage classification method was used. In this way, the cluster analysis made considers that the distance (or similarity) between two clusters must be measured by its most disparate elements, i.e. that the distance is given by the maximum span among its components. Finally, through the use of EVM and ES Indexes and Tukey and Fisher Pairwise Comparisons, the statistical dissimilarity was verified and four clusters were obtained. It can be said that construction projects show an average delay of 35% of its planned completion time. Furthermore, four typical behaviors were found and for each of the obtained clusters, the interim milestones and the necessary rhythms of construction were identified. In general, detected typical behaviors are: (1) Projects that perform a 5% of work advance in the first two tenths and maintain a constant rhythm until completion (greater than 10% for each remaining tenth), being able to finish on the initially estimated time. (2) Projects that start with an adequate construction rate but suffer minor delays culminating with a total delay of almost 27% of the planned time. (3) Projects which start with a performance below the planned rate and end up with an average delay of 64%, and (4) projects that begin with a poor performance, suffer great delays and end up with an average delay of a 120% of the planned completion time. The obtained clusters compose a tool to identify the behavior of new construction projects by comparing their current work performance to the validated database, thus allowing the correction of initial estimations towards more accurate completion schedules.

Keywords: cluster analysis, construction management, earned value, schedule

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