Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1506

Search results for: Anil Kumar Tripathi

1506 Some Pertinent Issues and Considerations on CBSE

Authors: Anil Kumar Tripathi, Ratneshwer Gupta


All the software engineering researches and best industry practices aim at providing software products with high degree of quality and functionality at low cost and less time. These requirements are addressed by the Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) as well. CBSE, which deals with the software construction by components’ assembly, is a revolutionary extension of Software Engineering. CBSE must define and describe processes to assure timely completion of high quality software systems that are composed of a variety of pre built software components. Though these features provide distinct and visible benefits in software design and programming, they also raise some challenging problems. The aim of this work is to summarize the pertinent issues and considerations in CBSE to make an understanding in forms of concepts and observations that may lead to development of newer ways of dealing with the problems and challenges in CBSE.

Keywords: software component, component based software engineering, software process, testing, maintenance

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1505 Pharmacokinetic Monitoring of Glimepiride and Ilaprazole in Rat Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection

Authors: Anil P. Dewani, Alok S. Tripathi, Anil V. Chandewar


Present manuscript reports the development and validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography method for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of Glimepiride (GLM) and Ilaprazole (ILA) in rat plasma. The plasma samples were involved with Solid phase extraction process (SPE). The analytes were resolved on a Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 mm× 250 mm; 5 µm particle size) using a isocratic elution mode comprising methanol:water (80:20 % v/v) with pH of water modified to 3 using Formic acid, the total run time was 10 min at 225 nm as common wavelength, the flow rate throughout was 1ml/min. The method was validated over the concentration range from 10 to 600 ng/mL for GLM and ILA, in rat plasma. Metformin (MET) was used as Internal Standard. Validation data demonstrated the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise. The limit of detection was 1.54 and 4.08 and limit of quantification was 5.15 and 13.62 for GLM and ILA respectively, the method demonstrated excellent linearity with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.999. The intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were < 2.0% for both ILA and GLM. The method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic studies followed by oral administration in rats.

Keywords: pharmacokinetics, glimepiride, ilaprazole, HPLC, SPE

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1504 Molecular Modeling a Tool for Postulating the Mechanism of Drug Interaction: Glimepiride Alters the Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil Citrate in Diabetic Nephropathy Animals

Authors: Alok Shiomurti Tripathi, Ajay Kumar Timiri, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Anil Chandewar


The present study evaluates the possible drug interaction between glimepiride (GLIM) and sildenafil citrate (SIL) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced in diabetic nephropathic (DN) animals and also postulates the possible mechanism of interaction by molecular modeling studies. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) and confirms it by assessing the blood and urine biochemical parameters on 28th day of its induction. Selected DN animals were used for the drug interaction between GLIM (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) and SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) after 29th and 70th day of protocol. Drug interaction were assessed by evaluating the plasma drug concentration using HPLC-UV and also determine the change in the biochemical parameter in blood and urine. Mechanism of the interaction was postulated by molecular modeling study using Maestro module of Schrodinger software. DN was confirmed as there was significant alteration in the blood and urine biochemical parameter in STZ treated groups. The concentration of SIL increased significantly (p<0.001) in rat plasma when co administered with GLIM after 70th day of protocol. Molecular modelling study revealed few important interactions with rat serum albumin and CYP2C9.GLIM has strong hydrophobic interaction with binding site residues of rat serum albumin compared to SIL. Whereas, for CYP2C9, GLIM has strong hydrogen bond with polar contacts and hydrophobic interactions than SIL. Present study concludes that bioavailability of SIL increases when co-administered chronically with GLIM in the management of DN animals and mechanism has been supported by molecular modeling studies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, glimepiride, sildenafil citrate, pharmacokinetics, homology modeling, schrodinger

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1503 Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for ITS Applications

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, V. S. Tripathi, Shivesh Tripathi


A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38, 1.98, 2.89, 3.86, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56, 2.16, 2.88, 3.91 and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.

Keywords: ITS, multiband antenna, PIN-diode, reconfigurable

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1502 Inhibitory Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum Nocturnum on α-Amylase Activity

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Anil Kamboj


Inhibition of α- amylase play a vital role in the clinical management of postprandial hyperglycemia. Although, powerful synthetic inhibitors are available, natural inhibitors are potentially safer. The present study was carried out to evaluate α- amylase inhibition activity from hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of Cestrum nocturnum. Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by Soxhletation Method. The extract showed strong inhibition towards α- amylase activity and IC50 value were 45.9 µg. This In vitro studies indicate the potential of C. nocturnum in the development of effective anti-diabetic agents.

Keywords: α- amylase, cestrum nocturnum, hyperglycemia, hydroalcoholic extracts, diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1501 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi


In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular

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1500 Non-Universality in Barkhausen Noise Signatures of Thin Iron Films

Authors: Arnab Roy, P. S. Anil Kumar


We discuss angle dependent changes to the Barkhausen noise signatures of thin epitaxial Fe films upon altering the angle of the applied field. We observe a sub-critical to critical phase transition in the hysteresis loop of the sample upon increasing the out-of-plane component of the applied field. The observations are discussed in the light of simulations of a 2D Gaussian Random Field Ising Model with references to a reducible form of the Random Anisotropy Ising Model.

Keywords: Barkhausen noise, Planar Hall effect, Random Field Ising Model, Random Anisotropy Ising Model

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1499 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1498 Glioblastoma: Prognostic Value of Clinical, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical (p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, Ki67) Parameters

Authors: Sujata Chaturvedi, Ishita Pant, Deepak Kumar Jha, Vinod Kumar Singh Gautam, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi


Objective: To describe clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical profile of glioblastoma in patients and to correlate these findings with patient survival. Material and methods: 30 cases of histopathologically diagnosed glioblastomas were included in this study. These cases were analysed in detail for certain clinical and histopathological parameters. Immunohistochemical staining for p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) and Ki67 was done and scores were calculated. Results of these findings were correlated with patient survival. Results: A retrospective analysis of the histopathology records and clinical case files was done in 30 cases of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). The mean age of presentation was 50.6 years with a male predilection. The most common involved site was the frontal lobe. Amongst the clinical parameters, age of the patient and extent of surgical resection showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Histopathological parameters showed no significant correlation with the patient survival, while amongst the immunohistochemical parameters expression of MDM2 showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Conclusion: In this study incorporating clinical, histopathological and basic panel of immunohistochemistry, age of the patient, extent of the surgical resection and expression of MDM2 showed significant correlation with the patient survival.

Keywords: glioblastoma, p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, Ki67

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1497 Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tunas Caught from Lakshweep Islands, India

Authors: Mahesh Kumar Farejiya, Anil Kumar Dikshit


The toxic metal contamination and their biomagnification in marine fishes is a serious public health concern specially, in the coastal areas and the small islands. In the present study, concentration of toxic heavy metals like zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the tissues of tunas (T. albacores) caught from the area near to Lakshdweep Islands. The heavy metals are one of the indicators for the marine water pollution. Geochemical weathering, industrialization, agriculture run off, fishing, shipping and oil spills are the major pollutants. The presence of heavy toxic metals in the near coastal water fishes at both western coast and eastern coast of India has been well established. The present study was conducted assuming that the distant island will not have the metals presence in a way it is at the near main land coast. However, our study shows that there is a significant amount of the toxic metals present in the tissues of tuna samples. The gill, lever and flash samples were collected in waters around Lakshdweep Islands. They were analyzed using ICP–AES for the toxic metals after microwave digestion. The concentrations of the toxic metals were found in all fish samples and the general trend of presence was in decreasing order as Zn > Al > Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg. The amount of metals was found to higher in fish having more weight.

Keywords: toxic metals, marine tuna fish, bioaccumulation, biomagnifications

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1496 Application of Genetic Programming for Evolution of Glass-Forming Ability Parameter

Authors: Manwendra Kumar Tripathi, Subhas Ganguly


A few glass forming ability expressions in terms of characteristic temperatures have been proposed in the literature. Attempts have been made to correlate the expression with the critical diameter of the bulk metallic glass composition. However, with the advent of new alloys, many exceptions have been noted and reported. In the present approach, a genetic programming based code which generates an expression in terms of input variables, i.e., three characteristic temperatures viz. glass transition temperature (Tg), onset crystallization temperature (Tx) and offset temperature of melting (Tl) with maximum correlation with a critical diameter (Dmax). The expression evolved shows improved correlation with the critical diameter. In addition, the expression can be explained on the basis of time-temperature transformation curve.

Keywords: glass forming ability, genetic programming, bulk metallic glass, critical diameter

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1495 Heat Loss Control in Stave Cooled Blast Furnace by Optimizing Gas Flow Pattern through Burden Distribution

Authors: Basant Kumar Singh, S. Subhachandhar, Vineet Ranjan Tripathi, Amit Kumar Singh, Uttam Singh, Santosh Kumar Lal


Productivity of Blast Furnace is largely impacted by fuel efficiency and controlling heat loss is one of the enabling parameters for achieving lower fuel rate. 'I' Blast Furnace is the latest and largest Blast Furnace of Tata Steel Jamshedpur with working volume of 3230 m³ and with rated capacity of 3.055 million tons per annum. Optimizing heat losses in Belly and Bosh zone remained major challenge for blast furnace operators after its commissioning. 'I' Blast has installed Cast Iron & Copper Staves cooling members where copper staves are installed in Belly, Bosh & Lower Stack whereas cast iron staves are installed in upper stack area. Stave cooled Blast Furnaces are prone to higher heat losses in Belly and Bosh region with an increase in coal injection rate as Bosh gas volume increases. Under these conditions, managing gas flow pattern through proper burden distribution, casting techniques & by maintaining desired raw material qualities are of utmost importance for sustaining high injection rates. This study details, the burden distribution control by Ore & Coke ratio adjustment at wall and center of Blast Furnace as the coal injection rates increased from 140 kg/thm to 210 kg/thm. Control of blowing parameters, casting philosophy, specification for raw materials & devising operational practice for controlling heat losses is also elaborated with the model that is used to visualize heat loss pattern in different zones of Blast Furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, staves, gas flow pattern, belly/bosh heat losses, ore/coke ratio, blowing parameters, casting, operation practice

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1494 Development of a Very High Sensitivity Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Planar Hall Effect

Authors: Arnab Roy, P. S. Anil Kumar


Hall bar magnetic field sensors based on planar hall effect were fabricated from permalloy (Ni¬80Fe20) thin films grown by pulsed laser ablation. As large as 400% planar Hall voltage change was observed for a magnetic field sweep within ±4 Oe, a value comparable with present day TMR sensors at room temperature. A very large planar Hall sensitivity of 1200 Ω/T was measured close to switching fields, which was not obtained so far apart from 2DEG Hall sensors. In summary, a highly sensitive low magnetic field sensor has been constructed which has the added advantage of simple architecture, good signal to noise ratio and robustness.

Keywords: planar hall effect, permalloy, NiFe, pulsed laser ablation, low magnetic field sensor, high sensitivity magnetic field sensor

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1493 Opportunities and Challenges of Omni Channel Retailing in the Emerging Market

Authors: Salma Ahmed, Anil Kumar


This paper develops and estimates a model for understanding the drivers and barriers for Omni-Channel retail. This study serves as one of the first attempt to empirically test the effect of various factors on Omni-channel retail. Omni-channel is relative new and evolving, we hypothesize three drivers: (1) Innovative sales and marketing opportunities, (2) channel migration, (3) Cross channel synergies; and three barriers: (1) Integrated sales and marketing operations, (2) Visibility and synchronization (3) Integration and Technology challenges. The findings from the study strongly support that Omni-channel effects exist between cross channel synergy and channel migration. However, it partially supports innovative sales and marketing operations. We also found the variables which we identified as barriers to Omni-channel retail have a strong impact on Omni-channel retail.

Keywords: retailing, multichannel, Omni-channel, emerging market

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1492 Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

Keywords: power integrity, power-aware signal integrity analysis, electromagnetic simulation, channel simulation

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1491 Characterization of Cement Concrete Pavement

Authors: T. B. Anil Kumar, Mallikarjun Hiremath, V. Ramachandra


The present experimental investigation deals with the quality performance analysis of cement concrete with 0, 15 and 25% fly ash and 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of polypropylene fibers by weight of cement. The various test parameters like workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and abrasion resistance are detailed in the analysis. The compressive strength of M40 grade concrete attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash and at 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Higher flexural strength of concrete was observed by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.2% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. Similarly, split tensile strength value also increases and attains higher value by the replacement of cement by 15% fly ash with 0.4% PP after 28 and 56 days of curing. The percentage of wear gets reduced to 30 to 33% by the addition of fibers at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in cement concrete replaced by 15 and 25% fly ash. Hence, it is found that the pavement thickness gets reduced up to 20% when compared with plain concrete slab by the 15% fly ash treated with 0.2% PP fibers and also reduced up to 27% of surface course cost.

Keywords: cement, fly ash, polypropylene fiber, pavement design, cost analysis

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1490 Morphological Properties of Soil Profile of Vineyard of Bangalore North (GKVK Farm), Karnataka, India

Authors: Harsha B. R., K. S. Anil Kumar


A profile was dug at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, where grapes were intensively cultivated for 25 years on the dimension of 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 m. Demarcation was done on the basis of texture, structure, colour, and the details like depth, texture, colour, consistency, rock fragments, presence of mottles, and structure were recorded and studied according to standard performa of soil profile description. Horizons noticed were Ap, Bt1, Bt2, Bt3, Bt4C, Bt5C and BC with respective depths of 0-13, 13-37, 37-60, 60-78, 78-104, 104-130 and 130-151+ cm. The reddish-brown colour was noticed in Ap, Bt1, and Bt2 horizons. The sub-angular blocky structure was observed in all the layers with slightly acid in reaction. Clear and abrupt smooth boundaries were present between two respective layers with clayey texture in all the horizons except the Ap horizon, which was clay loam in texture. Variegated soil colours and iron concretions were observed in Bt4, Bt5, and BC horizons. Clay skins were observed in Bt and BC horizons. Soils were of highly friable consistency for grapes cultivation.

Keywords: soil morphology, horizons, clay skins, consistency, vineyards

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1489 Dielectric Properties of Ternary Composite Based on Complex Perovskite Oxides Synthesized by Semi-Wet Route

Authors: K. D. Mandal, Anil Kumar Mourya, Ankur Khare


Ceramics of 0.6 CaCu3TiO12 – 0.2 Bi2/3Cu3TiO12 – 0.2 Y2/3Cu3TiO12 (i.e. 0.6CCTO-0.2BCTO-0.2 YCTO) were prepared via semi - wet route. The phase structure of the sample was identified by X-Ray diffraction. The micro structure of the sample was observed by SEM, which displays grains of different shapes having diameter in range of 2 µm–4 µm. We have studied the frequency and temperature dependence of permittivity and impedance of the compound with LCR Meter in the range of 100 Hz–1 MHz and 300–500 K. The material shows its highest dielectric constant (428000) at 100 Hz and 368 K. The material shows Debye–like relaxation and their dielectric constant are independent of frequency and temperature over a wide range. The sample shows two electrical responses in impedance formalism, indicating that there are two distinct contributions. We attribute them to grain and grain boundaries in the ceramic sample and explain the dielectric behaviors by Maxwell–Wagner relaxation arising at the interfaces between grain and their boundaries.

Keywords: complex perovskite, ceramics composite, impedance study, SEM

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1488 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network (WLAN)

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1487 Temperature-Dependent Structural Characterization of Type-II Dirac Semi-Metal nite₂ From Bulk to Exfoliated Thin Flakes Using Raman Spectroscopy

Authors: Minna Theres James, Nirmal K Sebastian, Shoubhik Mandal, Pramita Mishra, R Ganesan, P S Anil Kumar


We report the temperature-dependent evolution of Raman spectra of type-II Dirac semimetal (DSM) NiTe2 (001) in the form of bulk single crystal and a nanoflake (200 nm thick) for the first time. A physical model that can quantitatively explain the evolution of out of plane A1g and in-plane E1g Raman modes is used. The non-linear variation of peak positions of the Raman modes with temperature is explained by anharmonic three-phonon and four-phonon processes along with thermal expansion of the lattice. We also observe prominent effect of electron-phonon coupling from the variation of FWHM of the peaks with temperature, indicating the metallicity of the samples. Raman mode E1 1g corresponding to an in plane vibration disappears on decreasing the thickness from bulk to nanoflake.

Keywords: raman spectroscopy, type 2 dirac semimetal, nickel telluride, phonon-phonon coupling, electron phonon coupling, transition metal dichalcogonide

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1486 Prospect and Challenges of Public Bicycle Sharing System in Indian Cities

Authors: Anil Kumar


Public Bicycle System (PBS), generally known as Public Bicycle Share System or Bike-Share, is a service provided to the everyday commuters in which several cycles are available on the shared system. The concept of PBS is new to the people of India and requires more study in the fields of essential requirements, major infrastructural requirements, social acceptability, and various challenges. In various Indian cities, MRTS, BRTS, Monorail, and other modes of transport have been adopted for the main haul of transport. These modes take more time, space and are also expensive to implement. At the same time, the PBS system is more economical and takes less time to implement. The main benefit of the PBS system is that it is more environmentally friendly. PBS is being implemented in many Indian cities for public use, but various challenges are associated with this. The study aims to determine what are the basic infrastructural requirements for PBS in India, as well as to determine to what extent a Public Bike Sharing System can provide a quality and efficient service to passengers as a primary method of transportation.

Keywords: public bicycle sharing system, sustainable transport, infrastructure, smart city

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1485 Clustering Using Cooperative Multihop Mini-Groups in Wireless Sensor Network: A Novel Approach

Authors: Virender Ranga, Mayank Dave, Anil Kumar Verma


Recently wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used in many real life applications like environmental monitoring, habitat monitoring, health monitoring etc. Due to power constraint cheaper devices used in these applications, the energy consumption of each device should be kept as low as possible such that network operates for longer period of time. One of the techniques to prolong the network lifetime is an intelligent grouping of sensor nodes such that they can perform their operation in cooperative and energy efficient manner. With this motivation, we propose a novel approach by organize the sensor nodes in cooperative multihop mini-groups so that the total global energy consumption of the network can be reduced and network lifetime can be improved. Our proposed approach also reduces the number of transmitted messages inside the WSNs, which further minimizes the energy consumption of the whole network. The experimental simulations show that our proposed approach outperforms over the state-of-the-art approach in terms of stability period and aggregated data.

Keywords: clustering, cluster-head, mini-group, stability period

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1484 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey


A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1483 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant


Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.


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1482 Artificial Intelligence in Disease Diagnosis

Authors: Shalini Tripathi, Pardeep Kumar


The method of translating observed symptoms into disease names is known as disease diagnosis. The ability to solve clinical problems in a complex manner is critical to a doctor's effectiveness in providing health care. The accuracy of his or her expertise is crucial to the survival and well-being of his or her patients. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has a huge economic influence depending on how well it is applied. In the medical sector, human brain-simulated intellect can help not only with classification accuracy, but also with reducing diagnostic time, cost and pain associated with pathologies tests. In light of AI's present and prospective applications in the biomedical, we will identify them in the paper based on potential benefits and risks, social and ethical consequences and issues that might be contentious but have not been thoroughly discussed in publications and literature. Current apps, personal tracking tools, genetic tests and editing programmes, customizable models, web environments, virtual reality (VR) technologies and surgical robotics will all be investigated in this study. While AI holds a lot of potential in medical diagnostics, it is still a very new method, and many clinicians are uncertain about its reliability, specificity and how it can be integrated into clinical practice without jeopardising clinical expertise. To validate their effectiveness, more systemic refinement of these implementations, as well as training of physicians and healthcare facilities on how to effectively incorporate these strategies into clinical practice, will be needed.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, medical diagnosis, virtual reality, healthcare ethical implications 

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1481 Electrical Transport in Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅ /α-RuCl₃ Heterostructure Nanodevices

Authors: Shoubhik Mandal, Debarghya Mallick, Abhishek Banerjee, R. Ganesan, P. S. Anil Kumar


We report magnetotransport measurements in Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅/RuCl₃ heterostructure nanodevices. Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅ (BSTS) is a strong three-dimensional topological insulator (3D-TI) that hosts conducting topological surface states (TSS) enclosing an insulating bulk. α-RuCl₃ (namely, RuCl₃) is an anti-ferromagnet that is predicted to behave as a Kitaev-like quantum spin liquid carrying Majorana excitations. Temperature (T)-dependent resistivity measurements show the interplay between parallel bulk and surface transport channels. At T < 150 K, surface state transport dominates over bulk transport. Multi-channel weak anti-localization (WAL) is observed, as a sharp cusp in the magnetoconductivity, indicating strong spin-orbit coupling. The presence of top and bottom topological surface states (TSS), including a pair of electrically coupled Rashba surface states (RSS), are indicated. Non-linear Hall effect, explained by a two-band model, further supports this interpretation. Finally, a low-T logarithmic resistance upturn is analyzed using the Lu-Shen model, supporting the presence of gapless surface states with a π Berry phase.

Keywords: topological materials, electrical transport, Lu-Shen model, quantum spin liquid

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1480 Effect of Radiation on Magnetohydrodynamic Two Phase Stenosed Arterial Blood Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Bhavya Tripathi, Bhupendra Kumar Sharma


In blood, the concentration of red blood cell varies with the arterial diameter. In the case of narrow arteries, red blood cells concentrate around the center of the artery and there exists a cell-free plasma layer near the arterial wall due to Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. Due to non- uniformity of the fluid in the narrow arteries, it is preferable to consider the two-phase model of the blood flow. In the present article, coupled nonlinear differential equations have been developed for momentum, energy and concentration of two phase model of the blood flow assuming the Newtonian fluid in both central core and cell free plasma layer and the exact solutions have been found for the problem. For having an adequate insight into the stenosed arterial two-phase blood flow, major components of the flow as flow resistance, total flow rate, and wall shear stress have been estimated for different values of magnetic and radiation parameter. Results show that the increase in the effects of magnetic field decreases the velocity of both cores as well as plasma regions. This result can be helpful to control the blood flow in narrow arteries during surgical process. Temperature of core as well plasma regions decrease as value of radiation parameter increases. The present result is implemented in the form of radiation therapy which is very helpful for cancer patients.

Keywords: two phase blood flow, radiation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), stenosis

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1479 Theoretical Insight into Ligand Free Manganese Catalyzed C-O Coupling Protocol for the Synthesis of Biaryl Ethers

Authors: Carolin Anna Joy, Rohith K. R, Rehin Sulay, Parvathy Santhoshkumar, G.Anil Kumar, Vibin Ipe Thomas


Ullmann coupling reactions are gaining great relevance owing to their contribution in the synthesis of biologically and pharmaceutically important compounds. Palladium and many other heavy metals have proven their excellent ability in coupling reaction, but the toxicity matters. The first-row transition metal also possess toxicity, except in the case of iron and manganese. The suitability of manganese as a catalyst is achieving great interest in oxidation, reduction, C-H activation, coupling reaction etc. In this presentation, we discuss the thermo chemistry of ligand free manganese catalyzed C-O coupling reaction between phenol and aryl halide for the synthesis of biaryl ethers using Density functional theory techniques. The mechanism involves an oxidative addition-reductive elimination step. The transition state for both the step had been studied and confirmed using Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate (IRC) calculation. The barrier height for the reaction had also been calculated from the rate determining step. The possibility of other mechanistic way had also been studied. To achieve further insight into the mechanism, substrate having various functional groups is considered in our study to direct their effect on the feasibility of the reaction.

Keywords: Density functional theory, Molecular Modeling, ligand free, biaryl ethers, Ullmann coupling

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1478 Quinazoline Analogue as a Pet Tracer for Imaging PDE10A: Radiosynthesis and Biological Evaluation

Authors: Anjani Kumar Tiwari, Neelam Kumari, Anil Mishra


The family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) plays a critical role in control of the level, localization, and duration of intracellular 3’-5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3’-5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signals by specifically hydrolyzing these cyclic nucleotides. As the involvement of cyclic nucleotide second messengers in cell signaling and homeostasis is established, the regulation of these pathways in the brain by various PDE isoforms is an area of considerable interest, as they are involved in nearly all brain functions and in the etiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. The PDE10A isoform, isolated from different species and characterized regarding structure and function, has received much attention in recent years, particularly in the context of schizophrenia and Huntington’s disease, which are both related to a role of PDE10A in the regulation of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Quinazoline analogue 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, was evaluated as specific PET marker for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of [11C]2 and the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]2 as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging PDE10A in the central nervous system (CNS). The radiosynthesis of [11C]2 was achieved by O-methylation of the corresponding des-methyl precursor with [11C]methyl iodide. [11C]2 was obtained with ∼50% radiochemical yield. PET imaging studies in rat brain displayed initial specific uptake with very rapid clearance of [11C]2 from brain. Though [11C]2 is not an ideal radioligand for clinical imaging of PDE10A in the CNS. Modified analogue of quinazoline having a higher potency for inhibiting PDE10A and improved pharmacokinetic properties will be necessary for imaging this enzyme with PET.

Keywords: PDE10A, PET, radiotracer, quinazoline

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1477 Concrete Mix Design Using Neural Network

Authors: Rama Shanker, Anil Kumar Sachan


Basic ingredients of concrete are cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. To produce a concrete of certain specific properties, optimum proportion of these ingredients are mixed. The important factors which govern the mix design are grade of concrete, type of cement and size, shape and grading of aggregates. Concrete mix design method is based on experimentally evolved empirical relationship between the factors in the choice of mix design. Basic draw backs of this method are that it does not produce desired strength, calculations are cumbersome and a number of tables are to be referred for arriving at trial mix proportion moreover, the variation in attainment of desired strength is uncertain below the target strength and may even fail. To solve this problem, a lot of cubes of standard grades were prepared and attained 28 days strength determined for different combination of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. An artificial neural network (ANN) was prepared using these data. The input of ANN were grade of concrete, type of cement, size, shape and grading of aggregates and output were proportions of various ingredients. With the help of these inputs and outputs, ANN was trained using feed forward back proportion model. Finally trained ANN was validated, it was seen that it gave the result with/ error of maximum 4 to 5%. Hence, specific type of concrete can be prepared from given material properties and proportions of these materials can be quickly evaluated using the proposed ANN.

Keywords: aggregate proportions, artificial neural network, concrete grade, concrete mix design

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