Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1165

Search results for: polypropylene fiber

1165 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber according to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber.

Keywords: Bond, Polypropylene, fiber reinforcement, macro fiber, shape change

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1164 Analytical Investigation of Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthening with Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Rifat Sezer, Abdulhamid Aryan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to research both the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams without fiber and the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams with fiber. For this purpose, the analytical load - displacement curves of the beams were formed and the areas under these curves were compared. According to the results of this comparison, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber are more ductile. The dimension of the used beam-samples for analytical model in this study is 20x30 cm, their length is 200 cm and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete reference-beams are produced as one item and the reinforced concrete beams with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fiber are produced as one item. The modeling of reinforced concrete beams was utilized with Abaqus software.

Keywords: polypropylene, fiber-reinforced beams, strengthening of the beams, abaqus program

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
1163 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Jozefita Marku, Thomas Bier

Abstract:

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.

Keywords: compressive strength, polypropylene fiber, steel fiber, ultrasonic pulse velocity, volume, type of fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
1162 Stabilization of Expansive Soils with Polypropylene Fiber

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent

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1161 The Effect of Polypropylene Fiber in the Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent

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1160 Fracture Properties Investigation of Artocarpus odoratissimus Composite with Polypropylene (PP)

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Al Fareez Bin Aslie, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari

Abstract:

Wood plastic composites (WPC) were made using matrix of polypropylene (PP) thermoplastic resin with wood fiber from Artocarpus Odoratissimus as filler. The purpose of this project is to investigate the fracture properties of Artocarpus odoratissimus composite with PP. The WPC were manufactured by hot-press technique with varying formulations which are 10:0 (100% pure PP), 50:50 (40 g of wood fiber and 40 g of PP) and 60:40 (48 g of wood fiber and 32 g of PP). The mechanical properties were investigated. Tensile and flexural were carried out according to ASTM D 638 and ASTM D 790. The results were analysed to calculate the tensile strength. Tensile strength at break is ranged from 13.2 N/mm2 to 21.7 N/mm2 while, the flexural strength obtained is varying from 14.7 N/mm2 to 31.1 N/mm2. The results of the experiment showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composite were increased with the adding of wood fiber material. Finally, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), have been done to study the fracture behavior of the WPC specimens.

Keywords: Artocarpus odoratissimus, polypropylene thermoplastic, wood fiber, WPC

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1159 A Pull-Out Fiber/Matrix Interface Characterization of Vegetal Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer Composites, the Influence of the Processing Temperature

Authors: Duy Cuong Nguyen, Ali Makke, Guillaume Montay

Abstract:

This work presents an improved single fiber pull-out test for fiber/matrix interface characterization. This test has been used to study the Inter-Facial Shear Strength ‘IFSS’ of hemp fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP). For this aim, the fiber diameter has been carefully measured using a tomography inspired method. The fiber section contour can then be approximated by a circle or a polygon. The results show that the IFSS is overestimated if the circular approximation is used. The Influence of the molding temperature on the IFSS has also been studied. We find a molding temperature of 183°C leads to better interface properties. Above or below this temperature the interface strength is reduced.

Keywords: composite, hemp, interface, pull-out, processing, polypropylene, temperature

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1158 Behavior of Reinforced Soil by Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: M. Kamal Elbokl

Abstract:

The beneficial effects of reinforcing the subgrade soil in pavement system with randomly distributed polypropylene fibers were investigated. For this issue, two types of soils and one type of fiber were selected. Proctor, CBR and unconfined compression tests were conducted on unreinforced samples as well as reinforced ones at different concentrations and aspect ratio of fibers. OMC, CBR and modulus of elasticity were investigated and thereby, the optimum value of aspect ratio and fiber content were determined. The static and repeated triaxial tests were also conducted to study the behaviour of fiber reinforced soils under both static and repeated loading. The results indicated that CBR values of reinforced sand and clay were 3.1 and 4.2 times of their unreinforced values respectively. The modulus of elasticity of fiber reinforced soils has increased by 100% for silty sandy soil and 60.20% for silty clay soil due to fiber reinforcement. The reinforced soils exhibited higher failure stresses in the static triaxial tests than the unreinforced ones due to the apparent bond developed between soil particle and the fiber. Fiber reinforcement of subgrade soils can play an important role in control the rut formation in the pavement system.

Keywords: polypropylene fibers, CBR, static triaxial, cyclic triaxial, resilient strain, permanent strain

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1157 Synthesis and Characterization of Recycled Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites Containing Date Wood Fiber

Authors: Habib Shaban

Abstract:

Nanocomposites of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and date wood fiber were prepared after modification of the host matrix by reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride. Chemical and mechanical treatment of date wood flour (WF) was conducted to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose. Layered silicates (clay) were partially intercalated with date wood fiber, and the modified layered silicate was used as filler in the PP matrix via a melt-blending process. The tensile strength of composites prepared from wood fiber modified clay was greater than that of the iPP-clay and iPP-WF composites at a 6% filler concentration, whereas deterioration of mechanical properties was observed when clay and WF were used alone for reinforcement. The dispersion of the filler in the matrix significantly decreased after clay modification with cellulose at higher concentrations, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data.

Keywords: nanocomposites, isotactic polypropylene, date wood flour, intercalated, melt-blending

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1156 Chemical Modification of Jute Fibers with Oxidative Agents for Usability as Reinforcement in Polymeric Composites

Authors: Yasemin Seki, Aysun Akşit

Abstract:

The goal of this research is to modify the surface characterization of jute yarns with different chemical agents to improve the compatibility with a non-polar polymer, polypropylene, when used as reinforcement. A literature review provided no knowledge on surface treatment of jute fibers with sodium perborate trihydrate. This study also aims to compare the efficiency of sodium perborate trihydrate on jute fiber treatment with other commonly used chemical agents. Accordingly, jute yarns were treated with 0.02% potassium dichromate (PD), potassium permanganate (PM) and sodium perborate trihydrate (SP) aqueous solutions in order to enhance interfacial compatibility with polypropylene in this study. The effect of treatments on surface topography, surface chemistry and interfacial shear strength of jute yarns with polypropylene were investigated. XPS results revealed that surface treatments enhanced surface hydrophobicity by increasing C/O ratios of fiber surface. Surface roughness values increased with the treatments. The highest interfacial adhesion with polypropylene was achieved after SP treatment by providing the highest surface roughness values and hydrophobic character of jute fiber.

Keywords: jute, chemical modification, sodium perborate, polypropylene

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1155 Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity by Non-Destructive Method of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Thomas Beer

Abstract:

Plain, unreinforced concrete is a brittle material, with a low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. In order to improve the inherent tensile strength of concrete there is a need of multi directional and closely spaced reinforcement, which can be provided in the form of randomly distributed fibers. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is a composite material consisting of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, water and fibers. In this composite material, short discrete fibers are randomly distributed throughout the concrete mass. The behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far superior to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of equal cost. The present experimental study considers the effect of steel fibers and polypropylene fiber on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Hook end steel fibers of length 5 cm and 3 cm at volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.% were used. Also polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm at volume fraction 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 % were used. Fifteen mixtures has been prepared to evaluate the effect of fiber on modulus of elasticity of concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and resonant frequency methods which are two non-destructive testing techniques have been used to measure the elastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete. This study found that ultrasonic wave propagation is the most reliable, easy and cost effective testing technique to use in the determination of the elastic properties of the FRC mix used in this study.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete(FRC), polypropylene fiber, resonance, ultrasonic pulse velocity, steel fiber

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1154 Effect of Chemical Modifier on the Properties of Polypropylene (PP) / Coconut Fiber (CF) in Automotive Application

Authors: K. Shahril, A. Nizam, M. Sabri, A. Siti Rohana, H. Salmah

Abstract:

Chemical modifier (Acrylic Acid) is used as filler treatment to improve mechanical properties and swelling behavior of polypropylene/coconut fiber (PP/CF) composites by creating more adherent bonding between CF filler and PP Matrix. Treated (with chemical modifier) and untreated (without chemical modifier) composites were prepared in the formulation of 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, and 40 wt%. The mechanical testing indicates that composite with 10 wt% of untreated composite has the optimum value of tensile strength, and the composite with chemical modifier shows the tensile strength was increased. By increasing of filler loading, elastic modulus was increased while the elongation at brake was decreased. Meanwhile, the swelling test discerned that the increase of filler loading increased the water absorption of composites and the presence of chemical modifier reduced the equilibrium water absorption percentage.

Keywords: coconut fiber, polypropylene, acid acrylic, ethanol, chemical modifier, composites

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1153 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Controlling the Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy

Abstract:

Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete. The results indicate that recycled plastic RP fiber of 50 mm length is capable of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete to some extent, but are not as effective as polypropylene PP fibers when added at the same volume fraction. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was The increase in flexural strength of RP fibers and PP fibers concrete were 12.34% and 40.30%, respectively in comparison to plain concrete. RP fiber showed a substantial increase in toughness and a slight decrease in flexural strength of concrete at a fiber volume fraction of 1.00% compared to PP fibers at fiber volume fraction of 0.50%. RP fibers caused a significant increase in compressive strengths up to 13.02% compared to concrete without fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: concrete, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, RF recycled fibers, polypropylene PP fibers

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1152 Study on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation

Authors: Kamrun N. Keya, Nasrin A. Kona, Ruhul A. Khan

Abstract:

Bamboo fiber (BF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, bamboo composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-65% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the BF/PP composites untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical, and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact, and bending properties were observed precisely. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) were found for 50 wt% fiber composites, 65 MPa, and 85.5 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 5.73 GPa and 7.85 GPa respectively. The BF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy doses). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 30.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated BF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated BF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.

Keywords: bamboo fiber, polypropylene, compression molding technique, gamma radiation, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscope

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1151 Investigation Particle Behavior in Gas-Solid Filtration with Electrostatic Discharge in a Hybrid System

Authors: Flávia M. Oliveira, Marcos V. Rodrigues, Mônica L. Aguiar

Abstract:

Synthetic fibers are widely used in gas filtration. Previous attempts to optimize the filtration process have employed mixed fibers as the filter medium in gas-solid separation. Some of the materials most frequently used this purpose are composed of polyester, polypropylene, and glass fibers. In order to improve the retention of cement particles in bag filters, the present study investigates the use of synthetic glass fiber filters and polypropylene fiber for particle filtration, with electrostatic discharge of 0 to -2 kV in cement particles. The filtration curves obtained showed that charging increased the particle collection efficiency and lowered the pressure drop. Particle diameter had a direct influence on the formation of the dust cake, and the application of electrostatic discharge to the particles resulted in the retention of more particles, hence increasing the lifetime of fabric filters.

Keywords: glass fiber filter, particle, electrostatic discharge, cement

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1150 Behaviour of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete under Dynamic Impact Loads

Authors: Masoud Abedini, Azrul A. Mutalib

Abstract:

A study of the used of additives which mixed with concrete in order to increase the strength and durability of concrete was examined to improve the quality of many aspects in the concrete. This paper presents a polypropylene (PP) fibre was added into concrete to study the dynamic response under impact load. References related to dynamic impact test for sample polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete (PPFRC) is very limited and there is no specific research and information related to this research. Therefore, the study on the dynamic impact of PPFRC using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) was done in this study. Provided samples for this study was composed of 1.0 kg/m³ PP fibres, 2.0 kg/m³ PP fibres and plain concrete as a control samples. This PP fibre contains twisted bundle non-fibrillating monofilament and fibrillating network fibres. Samples were prepared by cylindrical mould with three samples of each mix proportion, 28 days curing period and concrete grade 35 Mpa. These samples are then tested for dynamic impact by SHPB at 2 Mpa pressure under the strain rate of 10 s-1. Dynamic compressive strength results showed an increase of SC1 and SC2 samples than the control sample which is 13.22 % and 76.9 % respectively with the dynamic compressive strength of 74.5 MPa and 116.4 MPa compared to 65.8 MPa. Dynamic increased factor (DIF) shows that, sample SC2 gives higher value with 4.15 than others samples SC1 and SC3 that gives the value of 2.14 and 1.97 respectively.

Keywords: polypropylene fiber, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, impact load, dynamic compressive strength

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1149 Flexural Toughness of Fiber Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

Authors: S. Yousefi Oderji, B. Chen

Abstract:

According to the ASTM C1018 toughness index method, the single and combined toughness effects of copper coated steel fiber and polypropylene (pp) fiber on reactive powder concrete (RPC) were investigated. Through flexural toughness test of RPC with different fiber volume dosages, the corresponding load-deflection curves were also drawn. Test results indicate that the binary combination of fibers provide the best flexural toughness, and improve the post-peak load-deflection characteristics of RPC. However, the single effect of pp fibers was not pronounced on improving the flexural toughness of RPC.

Keywords: RPC, PP, flexural toughness, toughness index

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1148 Toughness Factor of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete in Aggressive Environment

Authors: R. E. Vasconcelos, K. R. M. da Silva, J. M. B. Pinto

Abstract:

This study aims to determine and to present the results of an experimental study of Synthetic (polypropylene) Fibers Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), in levels of 0.33% - 3kg/m3, 0.50% - 4.5kg/m3, and 0.66% - 6kg/m3, using cement CP V – ARI, at ages 28 and 88 days after specimens molding. The specimens were exposed for 60 days in aggressive environment (in solution of water and 3% of sodium chloride), after 28 days. The bending toughness tests were performed in prismatic specimens of 150 x 150 x 500 mm. The toughness factor values of the specimens in aggressive environment were the same to those obtained in normal environment (in air).

Keywords: concrete reinforced with polypropylene fibers, toughness in bending, synthetic fibers, concrete reinforced

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1147 Effect of Hollow and Solid Recycled-Poly Fibers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: S. Kerakra, S. Bouhelal, M. Poncot

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the effect of short hollow and solid recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers in different breaking tenacities reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites on the mechanical and morphological properties. Composites of iPP/3, 7and 10 wt% of solid and hollow recycled PET fibers were prepared by batched melt mixing in a Brabender. The incorporation of solid recycled-PET fibers in isotactic polypropylene increase Young’s modulus of iPP relatively, meanwhile it increased proportionally with hollow fibers content. An improvement of the storage modulus, and a shift up in glass transition temperatures of hollow fibers/iPP composites was determined by DMA results. The morphology of composites was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarized microscopy (OM) showing a good dispersion of the hollow fibers. Also, their flexible aspect (folding, bending) was observed. But, one weak interaction between the polymer/fibers phases was shown. Polymers can be effectively reinforced with short hollow recycled PET fibers due to their characteristics like recyclability, lightweight and the flexible aspect, which allows the absorbance of the energy of a striker with a minimum damage of the matrix. Aiming to improve the affinity matrix–recycled hollow PET fibers, it is suggested the addition of compatibilizers, as maleic anhydride.

Keywords: isotactic polypropylene, hollow recycled PET fibers, solid recycled-PET fibers, composites, short fiber, scanning electron microscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1146 Adsorption of Peppermint Essential Oil by Polypropylene Nanofiber

Authors: Duduku Krishnaiah, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Kumaran Govindaraj, Chiam Chel Ken, Zykamilia Kamin

Abstract:

Pure essential oil is highly demanded in the market since most of the so-called pure essential oils in the market contains alcohol. This is because of the usage of alcohol in separating oil and water mixture. Removal of pure essential oil from water without using any chemical solvent has become a challenging issue. Adsorbents generally have the properties of separating hydrophobic oil from hydrophilic mixture. Polypropylen nanofiber is a thermoplastic polymer which is produced from propylene. It was used as an adsorbent in this study. Based on the research, it was found that the polypropylene nanofiber was able to adsorb peppermint oil from the aqueous solution over a wide range of concentration. Based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), nanofiber has very small nano diameter fiber size in average before the adsorption and larger scaled average diameter of fibers after adsorption which indicates that smaller diameter of nanofiber enhances the adsorption process. The adsorption capacity of peppermint oil increases as the initial concentration of peppermint oil and amount of polypropylene nanofiber used increases. The maximum adsorption capacity of polypropylene nanofiber was found to be 689.5 mg/g at (T= 30°C). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of peppermint oil decreases as the temperature of solution increases. The equilibrium data of polypropylene nanofiber is best represented by Freundlich isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 689.5 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics of polypropylene nanofiber was best represented by pseudo-second order model.

Keywords: nanofiber, adsorption, peppermint essential oil, isotherms, adsorption kinetics

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1145 Time Temperature Dependence of Long Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Manufactured by Direct Long Fiber Thermoplastic Process

Authors: K. A. Weidenmann, M. Grigo, B. Brylka, P. Elsner, T. Böhlke

Abstract:

In order to reduce fuel consumption, the weight of automobiles has to be reduced. Fiber reinforced polymers offer the potential to reach this aim because of their high stiffness to weight ratio. Additionally, the use of fiber reinforced polymers in automotive applications has to allow for an economic large-scale production. In this regard, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics made by direct processing offer both mechanical performance and processability in injection moulding and compression moulding. The work presented in this contribution deals with long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene directly processed in compression moulding (D-LFT). For the use in automotive applications both the temperature and the time dependency of the materials properties have to be investigated to fulfill performance requirements during crash or the demands of service temperatures ranging from -40 °C to 80 °C. To consider both the influence of temperature and time, quasistatic tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures. These tests have been complemented by high speed tensile tests at different strain rates. As expected, the increase in strain rate results in an increase of the elastic modulus which correlates to an increase of the stiffness with decreasing service temperature. The results are in good accordance with results determined by dynamic mechanical analysis within the range of 0.1 to 100 Hz. The experimental results from different testing methods were grouped and interpreted by using different time temperature shift approaches. In this regard, Williams-Landel-Ferry and Arrhenius approach based on kinetics have been used. As the theoretical shift factor follows an arctan function, an empirical approach was also taken into consideration. It could be shown that this approach describes best the time and temperature superposition for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene manufactured by D-LFT processing.

Keywords: composite, dynamic mechanical analysis, long fibre reinforced thermoplastics, mechanical properties, time temperature superposition

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1144 Investigation of the Addition of Macro and Micro Polypropylene Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Pavement

Authors: Seyed Javad Vaziri Kang Olyaei, Asma Sadat Dabiri, Hassan Fazaeli, Amir Ali Amini

Abstract:

Cracks in concrete pavements are places for the entrance of water and corrosive substances to the pavement, which can reduce the durability of concrete in the long term as well as the serviceability of road. The use of fibers in concrete pavement is one of the effective methods to control and mitigate cracking. This study investigates the effect of the addition of micro and macro polypropylene fibers in different types and volumes and also in combination with the mechanical properties of concrete used in concrete pavements, including compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, and average residual strength. The fibers included micro-polypropylene, macro-polypropylene, and hybrid micro and micro polypropylene in different percentages. The results showed that macro polypropylene has the most significant effect on improving the mechanical properties of concrete. Also, the hybrid micro and macro polypropylene fibers increase the mechanical properties of concrete more. It was observed that according to the results of the average residual strength, macro polypropylene fibers alone and together with micro polypropylene fibers could have excellent performance in controlling the sudden formation of cracks and their growth after the formation of cracking which is an essential property in concrete pavements.

Keywords: concrete pavement, mechanical properties, macro polypropylene fibers, micro polypropylene fibers

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1143 Pultrusion of Side by Side Glass/Polypropylene Fibers: Study of Flexural and Shear Properties

Authors: Behrooz Ataee, Mohammad Golzar

Abstract:

The main purpose of using side by side (SBS) hybrid yarn in pultrusion thermoplastic method is reprisal the effect of high viscosity in melted thermoplastic and reduction of distance between reinforced fiber and melted thermoplastic. SBS hybrid fiber yarn composed of thermoplastic fibers and fiber reinforcement should be produced in the preparation of pultruded thermoplastic composites prepreg to reach better impregnation. An experimental set-up was designed and built to pultrude continues polypropylene and glass fiber to get obtain a suitable impregnated round prepregs. In final stage, the round prepregs come together to produce rectangular profile. Higher fiber volume fraction produces higher void volume fraction, however the second stage of the production process of rectangular profile and the cold die decrease 50% of the void volume fraction. Results show that whit increasing void volume fraction, flexural and shear strength decrease. Also, under certain conditions of parameters the pultruded profiles exhibit better flexural and shear strength. The pulling speed seems to have the greatest influence on the profile quality. In addition, adding cold die strongly increases the surface quality of rectangular profile.

Keywords: thermoplastic pultrusion, hybrid pultrusion, side-by-side fibers, impregnation

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1142 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH as a sustainable material instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared, incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: high temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fiber, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties

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1141 Effect of Fiber Inclusion on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil Subjected to Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: Arun Prasad, P. B. Ramudu, Deep Shikha, Deep Jyoti Singh

Abstract:

A number of studies have been conducted recently to investigate the influence of randomly oriented fibers on some engineering properties of cohesive soils.Freezing and thawing of soil affects the strength, durability and permeability of soil adversely. Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of inclusion of randomly distributed polypropylene fibers on the strength, hydraulic conductivity and durability of local soil (CL) subjected to freeze–thaw cycles. For evaluating the change in strength of soil, a series of unconfined compression tests as well as tri-axial tests were carried out on reinforced and unreinforced soil samples. All the samples were subjected to seven cycles of freezing and thawing. Freezing was carried out at a temperature of - 15 to -18 °C; and thawing was carried out by keeping the samples at room temperature. The reinforcement of soil samples was done by mixing with polypropylene fibers, 12 mm long and with an aspect ratio of 240. The content of fibers was varied from 0.25 to 1% by dry weight of soil. The maximum strength of soil was found in samples having a fiber content of 0.75% for all the samples that were prepared at optimum moisture content (OMC), and if the OMC was increased (+2% OMC) or decreased (-2% OMC), the maximum strength observed at 0.5% fiber inclusion. The effect of fiber inclusion and freeze–thaw on the hydraulic conductivity was studied increased from around 25 times to 300 times that of the unreinforced soil, without subjected to any freeze-thaw cycles. For studying the increased durability of soil, mass loss after each freeze-thaw cycle was calculated and it was found that samples reinforced with polypropylene fibers show 50-60% less loss in weight than that of the unreinforced soil.

Keywords: fiber reinforcement, freezingand thawing, hydraulic conductivity, unconfined compressive strength

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1140 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: bond stress, compressive strength, elevated temperatures, fiber reinforced concrete, modulus of rapture

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1139 Accelerated Ageing of Unidirectional Flax Fibers Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene Composites

Authors: Lara Alam, Laetitia Van-Schoors, Olivier Sicot, Shahram Aivazzadeh

Abstract:

Over the last decades, worldwide environmental awareness has grown due to the depletion of raw material resources and global warming. This awareness has prompted the development of new products more environmentally friendly. Among these products are biocomposite materials reinforced with natural fibers. The main challenge in developing the use of biocomposites in exterior applications is the lack of knowledge about their durability and the evolution of their mechanical and physicochemical properties in the long term. Few studies have been carried out on the durability of polypropylene PP-flax composites, which is the aim of this work. For this purpose, composites with unidirectional flax fiber were prepared by thermocompression using virgin and recycled polypropylene. To study the durability of these materials in real conditions, outdoor natural weathering is usually applied. This type of weathering is often slow to assess durability. Therefore, in this work, accelerated aging was mainly used to study the photo-oxidation of PP-flax composites. Xenon arc Weather-Ometer was used to apply two accelerated weathering cycles to understand the effect of the intensity of UV irradiation on photo-oxidation. A multi-scale characterization is carried out to evaluate the variation of the mechanical and physicochemical performance of these composites over time. The results showed that accelerated ageing had a significant effect on the surface of these composites, which consequently affects the properties at the macroscopic scale.

Keywords: biocompoiste, flax fiber, recycled polypropylene, accelerated ageing, photo-oxidation, mechanical properties, physicochemical properties

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1138 Effect of Temperature Condition in Extracting Carbon Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Polypropylene Reinforced by Recycled Carbon Fibers

Authors: Shota Nagata, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the proper condition in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of composite molded by injection method. Recycled carbon fibers were extracted from wasted CFRP by pyrolyzing epoxy matrix of CFRP under air atmosphere at different temperature conditions 400, 600 and 800°C in this study. Recycled carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene (RCF/PP) pellets were prepared using twin screw extruder. The RCF/PP specimens were molded into dumbbell shaped specimens using injection molding machine. The tensile strength of recycled carbon fiber was decreased with rising pyrolysis temperature from 400 to 800°C. However, superior mechanical properties of tensile strength, tensile modulus and fracture strain of RCF/PP specimen were obtained when the extracting temperature was 600°C. Almost fibers in RCF/PP specimens were aligned in the mold filling direction in this study when the extracting temperature was 600°C. To discuss the results, the failure mechanisms of RCF/PP specimens was shown schematically. Finally, it was concluded that the temperature condition at 600°C should be selected in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of RCF/PP composite molded by injection method.

Keywords: CFRP, recycled carbon fiber, injection molding, mechanical properties, fiber orientation, failure mechanism

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1137 Nanostructure and Adhesion of Cement/Polymer Fiber Interfaces

Authors: Faezeh Shalchy

Abstract:

Concrete is the most used materials in the world. It is also one of the most versatile while complex materials which human have used for construction. However, concrete is weak in tension, over the past thirty years many studies were accomplished to improve the tensile properties of concrete (cement-based materials) using a variety of methods. One of the most successful attempts is to use polymeric fibers in the structure of concrete to obtain a composite with high tensile strength and ductility. Understanding the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete requires the knowledge of the fiber/matrix interfaces at the small scale. In this study, a combination of numerical simulations and experimental techniques have been used to study the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces. A new model for calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H)/fiber interfaces is proposed based on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The adhesion energy between the C-S-H gel and 2 different polymeric fibers (polyvinyl alcohol and polypropylene) was numerically studied at the atomistic level since adhesion is one of the key factors in the design of fiber reinforced composites. The mechanisms of adhesion as a function of the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces are also studied and discussed.

Keywords: fiber-reinforced concrete, adhesion, molecular modeling

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1136 Improvement of Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Concrete Using Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Omar Asad Ahmad, Mohammed Awwad

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the essential elements that used in different types of construction these days, but it has many problems when interacts with environmental elements such as water, air, temperature, dust, and humidity. Also concrete made with Portland cement has certain characteristics: it is relatively strong in compression but weak in tension and tends to be brittle. These disadvantages make concrete limited to use in certain conditions. The most common problems appears on concrete are manifested by tearing, cracking, corrosion and spalling, which will lead to do some defect in concrete then in the whole construction, The fundamental objective of this research was to provide information about the hardened properties of concrete achieved by using easily available local raw materials in Jordan to support the practical work with partners in assessing the practicability of the mixes with polypropylene, and to facilitate the introduction of polypropylene fiber concrete (PFC) technology into general construction practice. Investigate the effect of the polypropylene fibers in PCC mixtures and on materials properties such as compressive strength, and tensile strength. Also to investigate the use of polypropylene fibers in plain cubes and cylindrical concrete to improve its compressive and tensile strengths to reduce early cracking and inhibit later crack growth. Increasing the hardness of concrete in this research is the main purpose to measure the deference of compressive strength and tensile strength between plain concrete and concrete mixture with polypropylene fibers different additions and to investigate its effect on reducing the early and later cracking problem. To achieve the goals of research 225 concrete test sample were prepared to measure it’s compressive strength and tensile strength, the concrete test sample were three classes (A,B,C), sub-classified to standard , and polypropylene fibers added by the volume of concrete (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). The investigation of polypropylene fibers mixture with concrete shows that the strengths of the cement are increased and the cracking decreased. The results show that for class A the recommended addition were 5% of polypropylene fibers additions for compressive strength and 10 % for tensile strength revels the best compressive strength that reach 26.67 Mpa and tensile strength that reach 2.548 Mpa records. Achieved results show that for classes B and C the recommend additions were 10 % polypropylene fibers revels the best compressive strength records where they reach 21.11 and 33.78 Mpa, records reach for tensile strength 2.707 and 2.65 Mpa respectively.

Keywords: polypropylene, effects, compressive, tensile, strengths, concrete, construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 416