Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: hyperglycemia

71 A New Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor Isolated from the Stem Bark of Anthocleista Djalonensis

Authors: Oseyemi O. Olubomehin, Edith O. Ajaiyeoba, Kio A. Abo, Eleonora D. Goosen

Abstract:

Diabetes is a major degenerative disease of global concern and it is the third most lethal disease of mankind, accounting for about 3.2 million deaths annually. Lowering postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme such as alpha-amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Alpha-amylase inhibitors from plants have been found to be effective in managing postprandial hyperglycemia. In continuation of our anti-diabetic activities of this plant, bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation using 0.1-1.0 mg/mL furnished djalonenol, a monoterpene diol with a significant 53.7% α-amylase inhibition (p<0.001) from the stem bark which was comparable to acarbose which gave a 54.9% inhibition. Spectral characterization using Infra-red, Gas Chromatogrphy-Mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR of the isolated compound was done to elucidate the structure of the compound.

Keywords: alpha-amylase inhibitor, hyperglycemia, postprandial, diabetes

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70 Screening of Risk Phenotypes among Metabolic Syndrome Subjects in Adult Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Saqlain, Abid Mahmood, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Rizwan Aziz Qazi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja

Abstract:

Background: Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of multiple risk factors including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. These risk phenotypes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalent world-wide, Therefore we aimed to identify the frequency of risk phenotypes among metabolic syndrome subjects in local adult Pakistani population. Methods: Screening of subjects visiting out-patient department of medicine, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad was performed to assess the occurrence of risk phenotypes among MetS subjects in Pakistani population. The Metabolic Syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anthropometric and biochemical assay results were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (16.0). Results: Our results showed that dyslipidemia (31.50%) and hyperglycemia (30.50%) was most population specific risk phenotypes of MetS. The results showed the order of association of metabolic risk phenotypes to MetS as follows hyperglycemia>dyslipidemia>obesity >hypertension. Conclusion: The hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were found be the major risk phenotypes among the MetS subjects and have greater chances of deceloping MetS among Pakistani Population.

Keywords: dyslipidemia, hypertention, metabolic syndrome, obesity

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69 An Increase in Glucose Uptake per se is Insufficient to Induce Oxidative Stress and Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

Authors: Heba Khader, Victor Solodushko, Brian Fouty

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Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of uncontrolled diabetes and causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. An increase in glucose uptake and metabolism by vascular endothelial cells is the presumed trigger for this hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction. Glucose uptake into vascular endothelial cells is mediated largely by Glut-1. Glut-1 is an equilibrative glucose transporter with a Km value of 2 mM. At physiologic glucose concentrations, Glut-1 is almost saturated and, therefore, increasing glucose concentration does not increase glucose uptake unless Glut-1 is upregulated. However, hyperglycemia downregulates Glut-1 and decreases rather than increases glucose uptake in vascular endothelial cells. This apparent discrepancy necessitates further study on the effect of increasing glucose uptake on the oxidative state and function of vascular endothelial cells. To test this, a Tet-on system was generated to conditionally regulate Glut-1 expression in endothelial cells by the addition and removal of doxycycline. Glut-1 overexpression was confirmed by Western blot and radiolabeled glucose uptake measurements. Upregulation of Glut-1 resulted in a 4-fold increase in glucose uptake into endothelial cells as determined by 3H deoxy-D-glucose uptake. Increased glucose uptake through Glut-1 did not induce an oxidative stress nor did it cause endothelial dysfunction in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells determined by monolayer resistance, cell proliferation or advanced glycation end product formation. Increased glucose uptake through Glut-1did not lead to an increase in glucose metabolism, due in part to inhibition of hexokinase in Glut-1 overexpressing cells. In summary, this study demonstrates that increasing glucose uptake and intracellular glucose by overexpression of Glut-1 does not alter the oxidative state of rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells or cause endothelial cell dysfunction. These results conflict with the current paradigm that hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in vascular endothelial cells through an increase in glucose uptake.

Keywords: endothelial cells, glucose uptake, Glut1, hyperglycemia

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68 Inhibitory Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cestrum Nocturnum on α-Amylase Activity

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Anil Kamboj

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Inhibition of α- amylase play a vital role in the clinical management of postprandial hyperglycemia. Although, powerful synthetic inhibitors are available, natural inhibitors are potentially safer. The present study was carried out to evaluate α- amylase inhibition activity from hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of Cestrum nocturnum. Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by Soxhletation Method. The extract showed strong inhibition towards α- amylase activity and IC50 value were 45.9 µg. This In vitro studies indicate the potential of C. nocturnum in the development of effective anti-diabetic agents.

Keywords: α- amylase, cestrum nocturnum, hyperglycemia, hydroalcoholic extracts, diabetes

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67 The Effect of Nepodin-Enrich Plant on Dyslipidemia and Hyperglycemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6J Mice

Authors: Mi Kyeong Yu, Seon Jeong Lee, So Young Kim, Bora Choi, Young Mi Lee, Su-Jung Cho, Je Tae Woo, Myung-Sook Choi

Abstract:

A high-fat diet (HFD) induces excessive fat accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT), which increases metabolic disorders such as obesity, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Many plants are known to have effects that improve metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of this present study is to investigate the effect of nepodin-enrich plant extract on dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia in high fat diet-induced C57BL/6J mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups, and fed HFD (20% fat, w/w) or HFD supplemented with nepodin-enrich plant extract (NPE 0.005%, w/w) for 16 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every week. And we also analysed metabolic rates (respiratory quotient), blood glucose level, and plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, free fatty acid, apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 and apo B levels. Food intakes and body weights were not different between NPE group and HFD group, while plasma apo B, free fatty acid levels, and blood glucose concentration were significantly decreased in NPE group than in HFD group. Furthermore, plasma apo A and HDL-cholesterol levels in NPE group were remarkably increased than in HFD group. Metabolic rates (respiratory quotient) were significantly increased in NPE group than in HFD group. These results indicate that NPE can alleviate dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia. Further studies are required to identify the effects of NPE on metabolic disorders.

Keywords: dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, metabolic disorders, nepodin enrich plant extract

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66 Mitochondrial DNA Defect and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetic Nephropathy: The Role of Hyperglycemia-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species

Authors: Ghada Al-Kafaji, Mohamed Sabry

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Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via oxidative phosphorylation. They are the major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also direct target to ROS attack. Oxidative stress and ROS-mediated disruptions of mitochondrial function are major components involved in the pathogenicity of diabetic complications. In this work, the changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, biogenesis, gene expression of mtDNA-encoded subunits of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, and mitochondrial function in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS and the effect of direct inhibition of ROS on mitochondria were investigated in an in vitro model of diabetic nephropathy using human renal mesangial cells. The cells were exposed to normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions in the presence and absence of Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) or catalase for 1, 4 and 7 days. ROS production was assessed by the confocal microscope and flow cytometry. mtDNA copy number and PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as ND2, CYTB, COI, and ATPase 6 transcripts, were all analyzed by real-time PCR. PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as ND2, CYTB, COI, and ATPase 6 proteins, were analyzed by Western blotting. Mitochondrial function was determined by assessing mitochondrial membrane potential and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Hyperglycemia-induced a significant increase in the production of mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide at day 1 (P < 0.05), and this increase remained significantly elevated at days 4 and 7 (P < 0.05). The copy number of mtDNA and expression of PGC-1a, NRF-1, and TFAM as well as ND2, CYTB, CO1 and ATPase 6 increased after one day of hyperglycemia (P < 0.05), with a significant reduction in all those parameters at 4 and 7 days (P < 0.05). The mitochondrial membrane potential decreased progressively at 1 to 7 days of hyperglycemia with the parallel progressive reduction in ATP levels over time (P < 0.05). MnTBAP and catalase treatment of cells cultured under hyperglycemic conditions attenuated ROS production reversed renal mitochondrial oxidative stress and improved mtDNA, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function. These results show that hyperglycemia-induced ROS caused an early increase in mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA-encoded gene expression of the ETC subunits in human mesangial cells as a compensatory response to the decline in mitochondrial function, which precede the mtDNA defect and mitochondrial dysfunction with a progressive oxidative response. Protection from ROS-mediated damage to renal mitochondria induced by hyperglycemia may be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention/treatment of DN.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, mtDNA, mitochondrial dysfunction, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase

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65 Melatonin Suppresses the Brain Injury after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Hyperglycemic Rats

Authors: Dalia O. Saleha, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleela, Sally W. Al-Awdana

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of melatonin (MLN) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by a single injection of STZ (55mg/kg; i.p.), six weeks later the cerebral injury was induced by MCAO/Re. Twenty-four hours after the MCAO/Re the MLN (10 mg/kg) was injected for 14 consecutive days. Results of the present study revealed that MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemia in rats causes an increase in the oxidative stress biomarkers; it increased brain lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and brain level of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, MCAO/Reproduces a prominent increase in the brain inflammatory markers viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis nuclear factor-alpha (TNF-α). Oral treatment of MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats with MLN (10 mg/kg) for two weeks restored the brain levels of MDA, GSH, NO, IL-6, IL-1β and the TNF-α. MLN succeeded to suppress the exacerbation of damage in the brain of hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that daily intake of MLN attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.

Keywords: melatonin, brain injury, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, hyperglycemia, rats

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64 Clinical Cases of Rare Types of 'Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young' Diabetes

Authors: Alla Ovsyannikova, Oksana Rymar, Elena Shakhtshneider, Mikhail Voevoda

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In Siberia endocrinologists increasingly noted young patients with the course of diabetes mellitus differing from 1 and 2 types. Therefore we did a molecular genetic study for this group of patients to verify the monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus in them and researched the characteristics of this pathology. When confirming the monogenic form of diabetes, we performed a correction therapy for many patients (transfer from insulin to tablets), prevented specific complications, examined relatives and diagnosed their diabetes at the preclinical stage, revealed phenotypic characteristics of the pathology which led to the high significance of this work. Materials and Methods: We observed 5 patients (4 families). We diagnosed MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young) during the molecular genetic testing (direct automatic sequencing). All patients had a full clinical examination, blood samples for biochemical research, determination of C-peptide and TSH, antibodies to b-cells, microalbuminuria, abdominal ultrasound, heart and thyroid ultrasound, examination of ophthalmologist. Results: We diagnosed 3 rare types of MODY: two women had MODY8, one man – MODY6 and man and his mother - MODY12. Patients with types 8 and 12 had clinical features. Age of onset hyperglycemia ranged from 26 to 34 years. In a patient with MODY6 fasting hyperglycemia was detected during a routine examination. Clinical symptoms, complications were not diagnosed. The patient observes a diet. In the first patient MODY8 was detected during first pregnancy, she had itchy skin and mostly postprandial hyperglycemia. Upon examination we determined glycated hemoglobin 7.5%, retinopathy, non-proliferative stage, peripheral neuropathy. She uses a basic bolus insulin therapy. The second patient with MODY8 also had clinical manifestations of hyperglycemia (pruritus, thirst), postprandial hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy, a stage of microalbuminuria. The patient was diagnosed autoimmune thyroiditis. She used inhibitors of DPP-4. The patient with MODY12 had an aggressive course. In the detection of hyperglycemia he had complaints of visual impairment, intense headaches, leg cramps. The patient had a history of childhood convulsive seizures of non-epileptic genesis, without organic pathology, which themselves were stopped at the age of 12 years. When we diagnosed diabetes a patient was 28 years, he had hypertriglyceridemia, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery, proliferative retinopathy (lacerocoagulation). Diabetes and early myocardial infarction were observed in three cases in family. We prescribe therapy with sulfonylureas and SGLT-2 inhibitors with a positive effect. At the patient's mother diabetes began at a later age (30 years) and a less aggressive course was observed. She also has hypertriglyceridemia and uses oral hypoglycemic drugs. Conclusions: 1) When young patients with hyperglycemia have extrapancreatic pathologies and diabetic complications with a short duration of diabetes we can assume they have one of type of MODY diabetes. 2) In patients with monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, the clinical manifestations of hyperglycemia in each succeeding generation are revealed at an earlier age. Research had increased our knowledge of the monogenic forms of diabetes. The reported study was supported by RSCF, research project No. 14-15-00496-P.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, MODY diabetes, monogenic forms, young patients

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63 Clinical Profile and Outcome of Type I Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Care-Centre in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Gauri Shankar Shah

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Objectives: The Type I diabetes mellitus in children is frequently a missed diagnosis and children presents in emergency with diabetic ketoacidosis having significant morbidity and mortality. The present study was done to find out the clinical presentation and outcome at a tertiary-care centre. Methods: This was retrospective analysis of data of Type I diabetes mellitus reporting to our centre during last one year (2012-2013). Results: There were 12 patients (8 males) and the age group was 4-14 years (mean ± 3.7). The presenting symptoms were fever, vomiting, altered sensorium and fast breathing in 8 (66.6%), 6 (50%), 4 (33.3%), and 4 (33.3%) cases, respectively. The classical triad of polyuria, polydypsia, and polyphagia were present only in two patients (33.2%). Seizures and epigastric pain were found in two cases each (33.2%). The four cases (33.3%) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis due to discontinuation of insulin doses, while 2 had hyperglycemia alone. The hemogram revealed mean hemoglobin of 12.1± 1.6 g/dL and total leukocyte count was 22,883.3 ± 10,345.9 per mm3, with polymorphs percentage of 73.1 ± 9.0%. The mean blood sugar at presentation was 740 ± 277 mg/ dl (544–1240). HbA1c ranged between 7.1-8.8 with mean of 8.1±0.6 %. The mean sodium, potassium, blood ph, pCO2, pO2 and bicarbonate were 140.8 ± 6.9 mEq/L, 4.4 ± 1.8mEq/L, 7.0 ± 0.2, 20.2 ± 10.8 mmHg, 112.6 ± 46.5 mmHg and 9.2 ± 8.8 mEq/L, respectively. All the patients were managed in pediatric intensive care unit as per our protocol, recovered and discharged on intermediate insulin given twice daily. Conclusions: Thus, it shows that these patients have uncontrolled hyperglycemia and often presents in emergency with ketoacidosis and deranged biochemical profile. The regular administration of insulin, frequent monitoring of blood sugar and health education are required to have better metabolic control and good quality of life.

Keywords: type I diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, outcome, glycemic control

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62 Effects of Tiliacora triandra Leaf Water Extract in High-Fat Diet Leaf Water

Authors: Urarat Nanna, Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

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Tiliacora triandra (T. triandra) is traditional Southeast Asian medicine and widely used in the cuisines of northeast Thailand and Laos. It has been used as antipyretic, detoxication agent, antiinflammation. But the activity of T. triandra leaf water extract (TTW) in the regulation of metabolic syndrome is still little known. In this study, we evaluated the effects of TTW in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male ICR mice were induced to be obese by HFD feeding (45 kcal% lard fat) for 12 weeks. During the last 6 weeks of diet feeding, the obese mice were treated with TTW at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day. The biochemical parameters and histology analysis were measured at the end of treatment period. After 6 weeks of TTW treatment, the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hyperlipidemia were significantly decreased. Hepatic lipid accumulation and adipocyte hypertrophy were also reduced. Serum adiponectin was increased in TTW-treated obese mice. TTW treatment could reduce the malondialdehyde in serum and liver tissue. Furthermore, the elevated serum inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were reduced (MCP-1) by TTW. These results suggest that T. triandra leaf is a beneficial plant in alleviating hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in the obese condition induced by HFD.

Keywords: Tiliacora triandra, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress

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61 Nursing Care Experience for a Patient with Type2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Authors: Yen-Hsia Lin, Ya-Fang Cheng, Hui-Zhu Chen, Chi-Hui Tiao

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This is a case study of a 70-year-old man suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia hyperosmolarity state. He was admitted into the intensive care unit from the 20th to 26th of October, 2015. After receiving relevant information through open-ended conversations, observation, and physical assessment, as well as the psychological, social and spiritual holistic nursing assessment, several clinical health problems such as unstable blood sugar, impaired skin integrity and lack of self-care management knowledge were identified by the author. During the period of care, the patient was encouraged to share and express his feelings, an active listening and initiating approach from the nursing team had led to the understanding of why the patient refused to use insulin. This knowledge enabled the nursing team to manage patient care by educating the patient with self-care management skills, such as foot wound care and insulin injection skills to slow the deterioration of complications. Also, the implementation of appropriate diet and exercise routine to improve patients’ style. By enhancing self-care ability in diabetic patients, they are able to return home with the skill to improve better quality life style.

Keywords: hyperglycemia hyperosmolar state, type2 diabetes Mellitu, diabetes Mellitu foot care, intensive care

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60 The Ameliorative Effects of Nanoencapsulated Triterpenoids from Petri-Dish Cultured Antrodia cinnamomea on Reproductive Function of Diabetic Male Rats

Authors: Sabri Sudirman, Yuan-Hua Hsu, Zwe-Ling Kong

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Male reproductive dysfunction is predominantly due to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia result in inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, nanotechnology provides an alternative approach to improve the bioavailability of natural active food ingredients. Therefore, the aim of this study were to investigate nanoencapsulated triterpenoids from petri-dish cultured Antrodia cinnamomea (PAC) nanoparticles whether it could increase the bioavailability; in addition, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects could more effectively ameliorate the reproductive function of diabetic male rats. First, PAC encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles (Nano-PAC) were prepared by biosilicification method. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the average particle size is about 30 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency is 83.7% by HPLC. Diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by high fat diet (40% kcal from fat) and streptozotocin (35 mg/kg). Nano-PAC was administered by oral gavage in three doses (4, 8 and 20 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Besides, metformin (300 mg/kg) and nanoparticles (Nano) were treated as the positive and negative control respectively. Results indicated that 4 mg/kg Nano-PAC administration for 6 weeks improved hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and also reduced advanced glycation end products in plasma. In addition, 8 mg/kg Nano-PAC ameliorated morphological of testicular seminiferous tubules, sperm morphology and motility, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, 20 mg/kg Nano-PAC restored reproductive endocrine system function and increased KiSS-1 level in plasma. In plasma or testis anti-oxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were increased whereas malondialdehyde, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-gamma, decreased. Most importantly, 8 mg/kg Nano-PAC down-regulated the oxidative stress induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Our study successfully nanoencapsulated PAC to form nanoparticles and low-dose Nano-PAC improved diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, inflammation and oxidative stress to ameliorate the reproductive function of diabetic male rats.

Keywords: Antrodia cinnamomea, diabetes mellitus, male reproduction, nanoparticles

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59 Rice Tablet Poisoning in Iran

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Samaneh Nabavi, Shirin Jalili

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Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is an inorganic phosphide used to control insects and is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. In Iran it was known as "rice tablet", for its use to preserve rice. Two kinds of rice tablets one being herbal while other containing 3g aluminum phosphide (AlP) are available for use in Iranian households to protect stored food grains from pests and rodents. The toxicity of Aluminum phosphide is attributed to the liberation of phosphine gas in contact with water or weak acid and is the major cause of poisoning and deaths. Rice tablet (Aluminum Phosphid) poisoning may be associated with serious and sometimes incurable complications. In 61.3% of patients were shown uniform ingestion. Vomiting was the most common symptoms reported by 96.4% patients. Agitation was reported in 36.9% and felling of thirsty in 27.9 %. Although many complications such as Hypotension, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Renal Failure (ARF) AND Multi Organ Failure (MOF) were the common complications observed in these patients, but the most lethal complication was Cardiac Arrhythmias occurred in 36.9% of cases. Abdominal pain in 31.4% of the patients, nausea in 79.4% of the patients and 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning leading to deaths in 18.6% of the patients. Aluminum phosphide can cause either elevation, decrease or no change in electrolytes, bicarbonate and blood glucose level. The possible mechanism for changes in blood glucose levels are complex and depend on the balance of factors which increase its concentration and those which reduce it. AlP poisoning has been postulated to stimulate cortisol which leads to increasing blood level of cortisol, also it may cause stimulation of glucagon, and Adrenaline secretion; in addition, it can inhibit insulin synthesis which may lead to hyperglycemia. Another suggested mechanism of hyperglycemia is rennin activity in some cases, an increase in magnesium level of plasma and that of tissues, and high phosphate level. Although hyperglycemia is most frequent in this poisoning and also is known as a marker of poor prognostic, hypoglycemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning is a rare finding which may be so dangerous. Patients showed sever hypotension and sever acidosis in addition to sever hypoglycemia. The presenting features of AlP intoxication are rapid onset of shock, severe metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Keywords: aluminum phosphide (ALP), rice tablet, poisoning, phosphine gas

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58 Antihyperglycemic Potential of Chrysin and Diosmin alone or in Combination against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Rats: Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleel, Dalia O Saleh, Manal Badawi

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disease that affects a wide range of people worldwide and results in serious complications. Streptozotocin (STZ) causes selective cytotoxicity in the pancreatic β-cell, and it has been extensively used to induce diabetes mellitus in rats. The present study investigated the effects of diosmin and chrysin alone or in combination with each other on glucose level and on liver in STZ diabetic rats. Methods: In this study, rats were divided into six experimental groups (normal, untreated STZ-diabetic (60 mg/kg B.W., IP), treated STZ-diabetic with glycazide (10 mg/kg B.W, oral), treated STZ-diabetic with diosmin (100 mg/kg B. W., oral), treated STZ-diabetic with chrysin (80 mg/kg B.W., oral), treated STZ-diabetic with diosmin (50 mg/kg B.W, oral) + chrysin (40 mg/kg B.W., oral). After 2 weeks blood samples were withdrawn and glucose was measured. Animals were anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg), and sacrificed for dissecting liver. Results: Throughout the experimental period, all treatments significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum glucose, AST, ALT, triglyceride, cholesterol, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β. Moreover, the treated diabetic rats showed higher levels of reduced glutathione (P<0.05) in the liver compared to the diabetic control rats and inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde in liver. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that diosmin and chrysin possess several treatment-oriented properties, including the control of hyperglycemia, antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusion: Considering these observations, it appears that diosmin and chrysin may be a useful supplement to delay the developmentof diabetes and its complications.

Keywords: diabetes, streptozocin, chrysin, rat, diosmin, cytokines

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57 Plausible Influence of Hydroxycitric Acid and Garcinol in Garcinia indica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Hannah Rachel Vasanthi, Paomipem Phazang, Veereshkumar, Sali, Ramesh Parjapath, Sangeetha Marimuthu Kannan

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Garcinia indica (G. indica) fruit rind extract commonly used in South Indian culinary and Indian System of medicines is reported to exhibit various biological activities. The present study envisages the influence of the phytoconstituents in G. indica extract (Vrikshamla capsules- a herbal supplement) on diabetic condition. The condition of type 2 diabetes was triggered in experimental animals by feeding high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a sub-diabetogenic dose of 35mg/kg bw of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Oral supplementation of the extract at two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days reduced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (p< 0.001). Pathophysiological changes of obesity and diabetes associated complications majorly mediated by oxidative stress were analyzed by measuring the markers of oxidative stress such as lipid peroxidation, enzymatic (SOD, Catalase, GPx) and non-enzymatic markers (GSH). Conspicuous changes markers were noticed in diabetic condition which was reverted by the G. indica extract. Screening the extract by AccuTOF-DART (MS) revealed the presence of hydroxycitric acid and garcinol in abundant quantity which probably has influenced the biological activity. This was also corroborated through docking studies of hydroxycitric acid and garcinol both individually and synergistically with the antioxidant proteins. Altogether, hydroxycitric acid and garcinol present in G. indica fruit extract alleviates the pathophysiological conditions such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress mediated by diabesity.

Keywords: antioxidants , diabesity, hydroxycitric acid, garcinol, Garcinia indica, sreptozotocin

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56 Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Biological Activities of an Ethyl Acetate Extract from the Peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo

Authors: Silvia Di Giacomo, Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori, Francesco Cacciagrano, Chiara Toniolo, Gabriela Mazzanti, Luisa Mannina, Stefania Cesa, Antonella Di Sotto

Abstract:

Hyperglycemia represents the main pathogenic factor in the development of diabetes complications and has been found associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which in turn increase cell dysfunction. Therefore, counteract oxidative species appears to be a suitable strategy for preventing the hyperglycemia-induce cell damage and support the pharmacotherapy of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Antidiabetic potential of many food sources has been linked to the presence of polyphenolic metabolites, particularly flavonoids such as quercetin and its glycosylated form rutin. In line with this evidence, in the present study, we assayed the potential anti-hyperglycemic activity of an ethyl acetate extract from the peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo (PGE), a fruit well known to traditional medicine for the beneficial properties of its edible juice. The effect of the extract on the glucidic metabolism has been evaluated by assessing its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, two digestive enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates: their inhibition can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce glucose absorption, thus representing an important strategy for the management of hyperglycemia. Also, the PGE ability to block the release of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), whose accumulation is known to be responsible for diabetic vascular complications, was studied. The iron-reducing and chelating activities, which are the primary mechanisms by which AGE inhibitors stop their metal-catalyzed formation, were evaluated as possible antioxidant mechanisms. At last, the phenolic content of PGE was characterized by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Our results displayed the ability of PGE to inhibit α-amylase enzyme with a similar potency to the positive control: the IC₅₀ values were 52.2 (CL 27.7 - 101.2) µg/ml and 35.6 (CL 22.8 - 55.5) µg/ml for acarbose and PGE, respectively. PGE also inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme with about a 25 higher potency than the positive controls of acarbose and quercetin. Furthermore, the extract exhibited ferrous and ferric ion chelating ability, with a maximum effect of 82.1% and 80.6% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml respectively, and reducing properties, reaching the maximum effect of 80.5% at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. At last, PGE was found able to inhibit the AGE production (maximum inhibition of 82.2% at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml), although with lower potency with respect to the positive control rutin. The phytochemical analysis of PGE displayed the presence of high levels of total polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids, among which ellagic acid, gallic acid and catechin were identified. Altogether these data highlight the ability of PGE to control the carbohydrate metabolism at different levels, both by inhibiting the metabolic enzymes and by affecting the AGE formation likely by chelating mechanisms. It is also noteworthy that peel from pomegranate, although being a waste of juice production, can be reviewed as a nutraceutical source. In conclusion, present results suggest the possible role of PGE as a remedy for preventing hyperglycemia complications and encourage further in vivo studies.

Keywords: anti-hyperglycemic activity, antioxidant properties, nutraceuticals, polyphenols, pomegranate

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55 Parameter Estimation of Additive Genetic and Unique Environment (AE) Model on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Using Bayesian Method

Authors: Andi Darmawan, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease in human that occurred if pancreas cannot produce enough of insulin hormone or the body uses ineffectively insulin hormone which causes increasing level of glucose in the blood, or it was called hyperglycemia. In Indonesia, DM is a serious disease on health because it can cause blindness, kidney disease, diabetic feet (gangrene), and stroke. The type of DM criteria can also be divided based on the main causes; they are DM type 1, type 2, and gestational. Diabetes type 1 or previously known as insulin-independent diabetes is due to a lack of production of insulin hormone. Diabetes type 2 or previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes is due to ineffective use of insulin while gestational diabetes is a hyperglycemia that found during pregnancy. The most one type commonly found in patient is DM type 2. The main factors of this disease are genetic (A) and life style (E). Those disease with 2 factors can be constructed with additive genetic and unique environment (AE) model. In this article was discussed parameter estimation of AE model using Bayesian method and the inheritance character simulation on parent-offspring. On the AE model, there are response variable, predictor variables, and parameters were capable of representing the number of population on research. The population can be measured through a taken random sample. The response and predictor variables can be determined by sample while the parameters are unknown, so it was required to estimate the parameters based on the sample. Estimation of AE model parameters was obtained based on a joint posterior distribution. The simulation was conducted to get the value of genetic variance and life style variance. The results of simulation are 0.3600 for genetic variance and 0.0899 for life style variance. Therefore, the variance of genetic factor in DM type 2 is greater than life style.

Keywords: AE model, Bayesian method, diabetes mellitus type 2, genetic, life style

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54 Zinc Nanoparticles Modified Electrode as an Insulin Sensor

Authors: Radka Gorejova, Ivana Sisolakova, Jana Shepa, Frederika Chovancova, Renata Orinakova

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Often, the symptoms are not sufficiently observable at early stages, and so hyperglycemia causes pathological and functional changes before the diagnosis of the DM. Therefore, the development of an electrochemical sensor that will be fast, accurate, and instrumentally undemanding is currently needful. Screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) can be considered as the most suitable matrix material for insulin sensors because of the small size of the working electrode. It leads to the analyst's volume reduction to only 50 µl for each measurement. The surface of bare SPCE was modified by a combination of chitosan, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) to obtain better electrocatalytic activity towards insulin oxidation. ZnNPs were electrochemically deposited on the chitosan-MWCNTs/SPCE surface using the pulse deposition method. Thereafter, insulin was determined on the prepared electrode using chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The chronoamperometric measurement was performed by adding a constant amount of insulin in 0.1 M NaOH and PBS (2 μl) with the concentration of 2 μM, and the current response of the system was monitored after a gradual increase in concentration. Subsequently, the limit of detection (LOD) of the prepared electrode was determined via the Randles-Ševčík equation. The LOD was 0.47 µM. Prepared electrodes were studied also as the impedimetric sensors for insulin determination. Therefore, various insulin concentrations were determined via EIS. Based on the performed measurements, the ZnNPs/chitosan-MWCNTs/SPCE can be considered as a potential candidate for novel electrochemical sensor for insulin determination. Acknowledgments: This work has been supported by the projects Visegradfund project number 22020140, VEGA 1/0095/21 of the Slovak Scientific Grant Agency, and APVV-PP-COVID-20-0036 of the Slovak Research and Development Agency.

Keywords: zinc nanoparticles, insulin, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

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53 Efficacy of Insulin Pump Therapy on Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction and Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Prospective Study

Authors: Ayman A. Al Hayek, Asirvatham A. Robert, Mohamed A. Al Dawish, Rim B. Braham, Hanouf S. Goudeh, Fahad S. Al Sabaan

Abstract:

Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of insulin pump therapy on diabetes treatment satisfaction and glycemic control among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A 6-month, prospective study was conducted among 47 patients (aged17–24 years) with T1DM who attended the Insulin Pump Clinic at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2014 and November 2014. The respondents were purposively and conveniently selected and were interviewed using the Arabic version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Demographics and clinical variables including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were also collected. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age of the study cohort was 19.1 ± 1.93 years. Seventeen patients were male (36.2%) and 30 were female (63.8%). Compared to baseline, significant positive differences were found in treatment satisfaction among female patients and patients with long-standing T1DM at 6 months. Frequency of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia declined significantly in female patient’s at 6 months and in patients who had a shorter duration of T1DM. Furthermore, significant positive differences were found in HbA1c levels among female patients and among those who had a shorter duration of T1DM compared to baseline. Both female and male patients and those with a shorter duration of T1DM showed significant decline in insulin necessity at6months when compared to baseline. Conclusion: Although multiple daily injections is a feasible preference for insulin supply, insulin pumps should also be considered for patients with T1DM as it appears to increase patients’ treatment satisfaction, decrease the frequency of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and reduce HbA1c levels.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, insulin pump, Saudi Arabia, T1DM

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52 Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Suman, Ipseeta Ray Mohanty, Manjusha K. Borde, Ujjawala maheswari, Y. A. Deshmukh

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Background: Metabolic syndrome encompasses cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease which includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The incidence of metabolic syndrome is on the rise globally. Objective: The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in a large pool of individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome; suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs beneficial in this condition. Material and Methods: A combination of high fat diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35 and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results: The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for our study to induce diabetes mellitus. Rat fed HFD (HF-DC) group showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in body weight on 4th and 7th week as compared with NC (Normal Control) group rats. However, the increase in body weight of HF-DC group rats was not sustained at the end of 10th weeks. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia {(Increased Triglyceride, total Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and decreased HDL Cholesterol)}, diabetes mellitus (Blood Glucose, HbA1c, Serum Insulin, C-peptide), hypertension {Systolic Blood pressure (p < 0.001)} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition significant cardiac injury as indicated by CPK-MB levels, artherogenic index, hs-CRP. The decline in hepatic function {(p < 0.01) increase in the level of SGPT (U/L)} and renal function {(increase in creatinine levels (p < 0.01)} when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis and inflammation in Heart, Pancreas, Liver and Kidney of HFD-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion: The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome; with diabetes as an essential component.

Keywords: diabetes, metabolic syndrome, high fat diet, streptozotocin, rats

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51 Effects of Kolavironon Liver Oxidative Stress and Beta-Cell Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omolola R. Ayepola, Nicole L. Brooks, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

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The liver plays an important role in the regulation of blood glucose and is a target organ of hyperglycaemia. Hyperglycemia plays a crucial role in the onset of various liver diseases and may culminate into hepatopathy if untreated. Alteration in antioxidant defense and increase in oxidative stress that results in tissue injury is characteristic of diabetes. We evaluated the protective effects of kolaviron-a biflavonoid complex, on hepatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the liver of diabetic rats. To induce type I diabetes, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 50 mg/kg. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with kolaviron (100 mg/kg) started on the 6th day after diabetes induction and continued for 6 weeks (5 times weekly). Diabetic rats exhibited a significant increase in the peroxidation of hepatic lipids as observed from the elevated level of malondialdehyde (MDA) estimated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. In addition, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and catalase (CAT) activity was decreased in the liver of diabetic rats. TUNEL assay revealed increased apoptotic cell death in the liver of diabetic rats. Examination of Pancreatic beta-cells by immunohistochemical methods revealed beta cell degeneration and reduction in beta cell/ islet area in the diabetic controls. Kolaviron-treatment increased the area of insulin immunoreactive beta-cells significantly. Kolaviron attenuated lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the liver of diabetic rats, increased CAT activity GSH levels and the resultant GSH: GSSG. The ORAC of kolaviron-treated diabetic liver was restored to near-normal values. Kolaviron protects the liver against oxidative and apoptotic damage induced by hyperglycemia. The antidiabetic effect of kolaviron may also be related to its beneficial effects on beta-cell function.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, kolaviron, oxidative stress, liver, apoptosis

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50 Evaluation of Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of Two Plants from Brazilian Cerrado

Authors: N. A. P. Camaforte, P. M. P. Vareda, L. L. Saldanha, A. L. Dokkedal, J. M. Rezende-Neto, M. R. Senger, F. P. Silva-Jr, J. R. Bosqueiro

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by deficiency of insulin secretion and/or action which results in hyperglycemia. Nowadays, acarbose is a medicine used by diabetic people to inhibit alpha-glucosidases leading to the decreasing of post-feeding glycaemia, but with low effectiveness and many side effects. Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of many diseases including diabetes and their action occurs through the modulation of insulin-depending processes, pancreas regeneration or inhibiting glucose absorption by the intestine. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the treatment using two crude extracts of plants from Brazilian cerrado was able to decrease fasting blood glucose and improve glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Because of this and the importance of the search for new alternatives to decrease the hyperglycemia, we decided to evaluate the inhibitory action of two plants from Brazilian cerrado - B.H. and Myrcia bella. The enzymatic assay was performed in 50 µL of final volume using pancreatic α-amylase and maltase together with theirs commercial substrates. The inhibition potency (IC50) was determined by the incubation of eight different concentrations of both extracts and the enzymes for 5 minutes at 37ºC. After, the substrate was added to start the reaction. Glucosidases assay was evaluated measuring the quantity of p-nitrophenol in 405 nmin 384 wells automatic reader. The in vitro assay with the extracts of B.H. and M. bella showed an IC50 of 28,04µg/mL and 16,93 µg/mL for α-amilase, and 43,01µg/mL and 17 µg/mL for maltase, respectively. M. bella extract showed a higher inhibitory activity for those enzymes than B.H. extract. The crude extracts tested showed a higher inhibition rate to α-amylase, but were less effective against maltase in comparison to acarbose (IC50 36µg/mL and 9 µg/mL, respectively). In conclusion, the crude extract of B.H. and M. bella showed a potent inhibitory effect against α-amylase and showed promising results to the possible development of new medicines to treat diabetes with less or even without side effects.

Keywords: alfa-glucosidases, diabetes mellitus, glycaemia, medicinal plants

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49 Histological Study on the Effect of Bone Marrow Transplantation Combined with Curcumin on Pancreatic Regeneration in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Manal M. Shehata, Kawther M. Abdel-Hamid, Nashwa A. Mohamed, Marwa H. Bakr, Maged S. Mahmoud, Hala M. Elbadre

Abstract:

Introduction: The worldwide rapid increase in diabetes poses a significant challenge to current therapeutic approaches. Therapeutic utility of bone marrow transplantation in diabetes is an attractive approach. However, the oxidative stress generated by hyperglycemia may hinder β-cell regeneration. Curcumin, is a dietary spice with antioxidant activity. Aim of work: The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of curcumin, bone marrow transplantation, and their combined effects in the reversal of experimental diabetes. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male healthy albino rats were included in the present study.They were divided into two groups: Group І: (control group) included 10 rats. Group П: (diabetic group): included 40 rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Group II will be further subdivided into four groups (10 rats for each): Group II-a (diabetic control). Group II-b: rats were received single intraperitoneal injection of bone marrow suspension (un-fractionated bone marrow cells) prepared from rats of the same family. Group II-c: rats were treated with curcumin orally by gastric intubation for 6 weeks. Group II-d: rats were received a combination of single bone marrow transplantation and curcumin for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, blood glucose, insulin levels were measured and the pancreas from all rats were processed for Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric examination. Results: Diabetic group, showed progressive histological changes in the pancreatic islets. Treatment with either curcumin or bone marrow transplantation improved the structure of the islets and reversed streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Combination of curcumin and bone marrow transplantation elicited more profound alleviation of streptozotocin-induced changes including islet regeneration and insulin secretion. Conclusion: The use of natural antioxidants combined with bone marrow transplantation to induce pancreatic regeneration is a promising strategy in the management of diabetes.

Keywords: diabtes, panceatic islets, bone marrow transplantation, curcumin

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48 Effects of Nanoencapsulated Echinacea purpurea Ethanol Extract on the Male Reproductive Function in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Jia-Ling Ho, Xiu-Ru Zhang, Zwe-Ling Kong

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem that affects patients’ life quality throughout the world due to its many complications. It characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with oxidative stress, which impaired male reproductive function. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator that is required for normal spermatogenesis and protects against diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis. Echinacea purpurea ethanol extract (EE), which contain phenolic acid and isobutylamide, had been proven to have antidiabetic property. Silica-chitosan nanoparticles (Nano-CS) has drug delivery and controlled release properties. This study aims to investigate whether silica-chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated EE (Nano-EE) had more ameliorating male infertility by analyzing the effect of testicular FGF21. The Nano-EE was characterized before used to treatment the diabetic rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were obtained and divided into seven groups. A group was no induced Streptozotocin (STZ), marked as normal group. Diabetic rats were induced into diabetes by STZ (33 mg/kg). A diabetic group was no treatment with sample (diabetic control group), and other groups were treatment by Nano-CS (465 mg/kg), Nano-EE (93, 279, 465 mg/kg), and metformin (Met) (200 mg/kg) used as reference drug for 7 weeks. Our results indicated that the average nanoparticle size and zeta potential of Nano-EE were 2630 nm and -21.3 mV, respectively. The encapsulation ratio of Nano-EE was about 70%. It also confirmed the antioxidative activity was unchanged by comparing the DPPH and ABTS scavenging of Nano-EE and EE. In vivo test, Nano-EE can improve the STZ induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and plasma FGF21 levels. Nano-EE has increased sperm motility, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), plasma testosterone level, and reduction of abnormal sperm, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide production as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, in plasma antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, and IL-1β were decreased. Further, in testis, protein content of FGF21, PGC-1α, and SIRT1 were improved. Nano-EE might improve diabetes-induced down-regulation of testicular FGF21 and SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling hence maintain spermatogenesis.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Echinacea purpurea, reproductive dysfunction, silica-chitosan nanoparticles

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47 Predictors of Glycaemic Variability and Its Association with Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with or without Diabetes

Authors: Haoming Ma, Guo Yu, Peiru Zhou

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Background: Previous studies show that dysglycemia, mostly hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability(GV), are associated with excess mortality in critically ill patients, especially those without diabetes. Glycemic variability is an increasingly important measure of glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to this association. However, there is limited data pertaining to the relationship between different clinical factors and glycemic variability and clinical outcomes categorized by their DM status. This retrospective study of 958 intensive care unit(ICU) patients was conducted to investigate the relationship between GV and outcome in critically ill patients and further to determine the significant factors that contribute to the glycemic variability. Aim: We hypothesize that the factors contributing to mortality and the glycemic variability are different from critically ill patients with or without diabetes. And the primary aim of this study was to determine which dysglycemia (hyperglycemia\hypoglycemia\glycemic variability) is independently associated with an increase in mortality among critically ill patients in different groups (DM/Non-DM). Secondary objectives were to further investigate any factors affecting the glycemic variability in two groups. Method: A total of 958 diabetic and non-diabetic patients with severe diseases in the ICU were selected for this retrospective analysis. The glycemic variability was defined as the coefficient of variation (CV) of blood glucose. The main outcome was death during hospitalization. The secondary outcome was GV. The logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with mortality. The relationships between GV and other variables were investigated using linear regression analysis. Results: Information on age, APACHE II score, GV, gender, in-ICU treatment and nutrition was available for 958 subjects. Predictors remaining in the final logistic regression model for mortality were significantly different in DM/Non-DM groups. Glycemic variability was associated with an increase in mortality in both DM(odds ratio 1.05; 95%CI:1.03-1.08,p<0.001) or Non-DM group(odds ratio 1.07; 95%CI:1.03-1.11,p=0.002). For critically ill patients without diabetes, factors associated with glycemic variability included APACHE II score(regression coefficient, 95%CI:0.29,0.22-0.36,p<0.001), Mean BG(0.73,0.46-1.01,p<0.001), total parenteral nutrition(2.87,1.57-4.17,p<0.001), serum albumin(-0.18,-0.271 to -0.082,p<0.001), insulin treatment(2.18,0.81-3.55,p=0.002) and duration of ventilation(0.006,0.002-1.010,p=0.003).However, for diabetes patients, APACHE II score(0.203,0.096-0.310,p<0.001), mean BG(0.503,0.138-0.869,p=0.007) and duration of diabetes(0.167,0.033-0.301,p=0.015) remained as independent risk factors of GV. Conclusion: We found that the relation between dysglycemia and mortality is different in the diabetes and non-diabetes groups. And we confirm that GV was associated with excess mortality in DM or Non-DM patients. Furthermore, APACHE II score, Mean BG, total parenteral nutrition, serum albumin, insulin treatment and duration of ventilation were significantly associated with an increase in GV in Non-DM patients. While APACHE II score, mean BG and duration of diabetes (years) remained as independent risk factors of increased GV in DM patients. These findings provide important context for further prospective trials investigating the effect of different clinical factors in critically ill patients with or without diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes, glycemic variability, predictors, severe disease

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46 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism Studies: A Case-Control Study

Authors: Salina Y. Saddick

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Mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH) is a very common complication of pregnancy that is characterized by intolerance to glucose. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to MGH has been previously reported. In this study, we evaluated the association between ACE polymorphism and the risk of MGH in a Saudi population. We conducted a case-control study in a population of 100 MGH patients and 100 control subjects. ACE gene polymorphism was analyzed by the novel approach of tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of ACE polymorphism was not associated with either alleles or genotypes in MGH patients. Glucose concentration was found to be significantly associated with the MGH group. Our study suggests that ACE genotypes were not associated with ACE polymorphism in a Saudi population.

Keywords: MGH, ACE, insertion polymorphism, deletion polymorphism

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45 Antioxidant Activity of Germinated African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa) in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Uchegbu Nneka

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the antioxidant activity of germinated African Yam Bean (AYB) on oxidative stress markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rat. Rats were randomized into three groups; control, diabetic and germinated AYB–treated diabetic rats. The Total phenol and flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity before and after germination were investigated. The glucose level, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione of the animals were also determined using the standard technique for four weeks. Germination increased the total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of AYB extract by 19.14%, 32.28%, and 57.25% respectively. The diabetic rats placed on germinated AYB diet had a significant decrease in the blood glucose and lipid peroxidation with a corresponding increase in glutathione (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that consumption of germinated AYB can be a good dietary supplement in inhibiting hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and the prevention of diabetic complication associated with oxidative stress.

Keywords: African yam bean, antioxidant, diabetes, total phenol

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44 Compensatory Increased Activities of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes from Eyes of Glucose-Immersed Zebrafish

Authors: Jisun Jun, Eun Ko, Sooim Shin, Kitae Kim, Moonsung Choi

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Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistant, mitochondrial dysfunction. Diabetes is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy resulting in worsening vision and eventual blindness. In this study, eyes were enucleated from glucose-immersed zebrafish which is a good animal model to generate diabetes, and then mitochondria were isolated to evaluate activities of mitochondrial electron transfer complexes. Surprisingly, the amount of isolated mitochondria was increased in eyes from glucose-immersed zebrafish compared to those from non-glucose-immerged zebrafish. Spectrophotometric analysis for measuring activities of mitochondrial complex I, II, III, and IV revealed that mitochondria functions was even enhanced in eyes from glucose-immersed zebrafish. These results indicated that 3 days or 7 days glucose-immersion on zebrafish to induce diabetes might contribute metabolic compensatory mechanism to restore their mitochondrial homeostasis on the early stage of diabetes in eyes.

Keywords: diabetes, glucose immersion, mitochondrial complexes, zebrafish

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43 Beneficial Effect of Biotin in Combination with Canagliflozin on High Fat Diet Induced Diabetes in Rats

Authors: Rayhana Begum, HongBin Wang, Nur Alam Siddiquee, Md.Yasin Ahmed

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Biotin treatment has significant effects on blood glucose, and pharmacological doses of biotin improve hyperglycemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of biotin in combination with canagliflozin in improving glycemic control on High Fat Diet-induced diabetes in Rats. Thirty male rats were divided into five groups (six rats /group): control, high fat diet (HFD), canagliflozin (CAG), biotin (BIO), and CAG + BIO. The treatments with CAG and /or BIO significantly reduced the body weight gain, blood glucose and HbA1c levels, whereas CAG in combination with BIO revealed greater glycemic improvement than CAG monotherapy. The treatment with CAG and /or BIO causes significant change in lipid profile and CK level while the treatment with CAG in combination with BIO showed better results as compared with CAG monotherapy. Furthermore, combination of biotin with CAG improved the pancreatic and cardiac damage when compared with other treated groups.

Keywords: canagliflozin, biotin, HbA1c, lipid profile

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42 Efficacy of Chia Seed Oil Supplemented Ice-Cream against Hypercholesterolemia

Authors: Naureen Naeem, M. S. Aslam

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Chia seeds found to be a rich source of dietary fiber contain oil which is high in omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids and helpful in the control of cardiovascular diseases. Owing to its spectacular significance, present research had been designed to explore its effect on cholesterol level of the individuals after consumption of chia seed oil supplemented ice cream. The project was designed in such a manner that fat of ice cream was replaced with chia seed oil in different proportions i.e., 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. After physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of ice cream, best treatment was selected and used for efficacy trials. After baseline line study and thorough inclusion criteria 10 individuals were selected and divided into two groups. One group treated as control and the other was given chia seed oil supplemented l(50%) ice cream. Significant decrease in cholesterol level was observed in the treated group. 18% decrease in cholesterol level was observed at 40th day followed by 8% at 20th day. Similarly 20% decrease in LDL cholesterol with 14% increase in HDL cholesterol. It was recommended that further trials be conducted with sophisticated techniques to completely replace saturated fat in ice cream with unsaturated fats and to study its effect in hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

Keywords: hypercholesterolemia, chia seed oil, HDL, triglycerides

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