Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1806

Search results for: bulk metallic glass

1806 Application of Genetic Programming for Evolution of Glass-Forming Ability Parameter

Authors: Manwendra Kumar Tripathi, Subhas Ganguly


A few glass forming ability expressions in terms of characteristic temperatures have been proposed in the literature. Attempts have been made to correlate the expression with the critical diameter of the bulk metallic glass composition. However, with the advent of new alloys, many exceptions have been noted and reported. In the present approach, a genetic programming based code which generates an expression in terms of input variables, i.e., three characteristic temperatures viz. glass transition temperature (Tg), onset crystallization temperature (Tx) and offset temperature of melting (Tl) with maximum correlation with a critical diameter (Dmax). The expression evolved shows improved correlation with the critical diameter. In addition, the expression can be explained on the basis of time-temperature transformation curve.

Keywords: glass forming ability, genetic programming, bulk metallic glass, critical diameter

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1805 Inherent Relation Between Atomic-Level Stresses and Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in a Rejuvenated Bulk Metallic Glass

Authors: Majid Samavatian, Reza Gholamipour, Vahid Samavatian


This study addresses the role of rejuvenation on the fluctuation of atomic-level stresses and nanoscale topological heterogeneity in ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass (BMG). Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the rejuvenation process leads to an increase in nanoscale spatial heterogeneity manifested by the intensification of the local viscoelastic response of the BMG nanostructure. It means that the rejuvenation process induces more loose-packing structures which behave towards an external load in a viscoelastic way. Hence, it is suggested that the alteration of such heterogeneity may be attributed to the variation of positional atomic rearrangement during the evolution of structural rejuvenation. On the other side, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the rejuvenation intensifies the variation of internal stresses at the atomic level. This conclusion unfolds that the increase of atomic-level stresses during rejuvenation induces structural disordering and nanoscale heterogeneity in the amorphous material.

Keywords: bulk metallic glass, heterogeneity, rejuvenation, nanostructure

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1804 Ab Initio Approach to Generate a Binary Bulk Metallic Glass Foam

Authors: Jonathan Galvan-Colin, Ariel Valladares, Renela Valladares, Alexander Valladares


Both porous materials and bulk metallic glasses have been studied due to their potential applications and their exceptional physical and chemical properties. However, each material presents certain drawbacks which have been thought to be overcome by generating bulk metallic glass foams (BMGF). Although some experimental reports have been performed on multicomponent BMGF, still no ab initio works have been published, as far as we know. We present an approach based on the expanding lattice (EL) method to generate binary amorphous nanoporous Cu64Zr36. Starting from two different configurations: a 108-atom crystalline cubic supercell (cCu64Zr36) and a 108-atom amorphous supercell (aCu64Zr36), both with an initial density of 8.06 g/cm3, we applied EL method to halve the density and to get 50% of porosity. After the lattice expansion the supercells were subject to ab initio molecular dynamics for 500 steps at constant room temperature. Then, the samples were geometry-optimized and characterized with the pair and radial distribution functions, bond-angle distributions and a coordination number analysis. We found that pores appeared along specific spatial directions different from one to another and that they differed in size and form as well, which we think is related to the initial structure. Due to the lack of experimental counterparts our results should be considered predictive and further studies are needed in order to handle a larger number of atoms and its implication on pore topology.

Keywords: ab initio molecular dynamics, bulk mettalic glass, porous alloy

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1803 Probing Multiple Relaxation Process in Zr-Cu Base Alloy Using Mechanical Spectroscopy

Authors: A. P. Srivastava, D. Srivastava, D. J. Browne


Relaxation dynamics of Zr44Cu40Al8Ag8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) has been probed using dynamic mechanical analyzer. The BMG sample was casted in the form of a plate of dimension 55 mm x 40 mm x 3 mm using tilt casting technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope have been used for the microstructural characterization of as-cast BMG. For the mechanical spectroscopy study, samples in the form of a bar of size 55 mm X 2 mm X 3 mm were machined from the BMG plate. The mechanical spectroscopy was performed on dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) by 50 mm 3-point bending method in a nitrogen atmosphere. It was observed that two glass transition process were competing in supercooled liquid region around temperature 390°C and 430°C. The supercooled liquid state was completely characterized using DMA and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition to the main α-relaxation process, presence of β relaxation process around temperature 360°C; below the glass transition temperature was also observed. The β relaxation process could be described by Arrhenius law with the activation energy of 160 kJ/mole. The volume of the flow unit associated with this relaxation process has been estimated. The results from DMA study has been used to characterize the shear transformation zone in terms of activation volume and size. High fragility parameter value of 34 and higher activation volume indicates that this alloy could show good plasticity in supercooled liquid region. The possible mechanism for the relaxation processes has been discussed.

Keywords: DMA, glass transition, metallic glass, thermoplastic forming

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1802 Thermal Transformation and Structural on Se90Te7Cu3 Chalcogenide Glass

Authors: Farid M. Abdel-Rahim


In this study, Se90Te7Cu3 chalcogenide glass was prepared using the melt quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the as prepared samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result of differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) under nonisothermal condition on composition bulk materials are reported and discussed. It shows that these glasses exhibit a single-stage glass transition and a single-stage crystallization on heating rates. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the onset crystallization (Tc), the crystallization temperature (Tp), were found by dependent on the composition and heating rates. Activation energy for glass transition (Et), activation energy of the amorphous –crystalline transformation (Ec), crystallization reaction rate constant (Kp), (n) and (m) are constants related to crystallization mechanism of the bulk samples have been determined by different formulations.

Keywords: chalcogenides, heat treatment, DSC, SEM, glass transition, thermal analysis

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1801 Crystalline Particles Dispersed Cu-Based Metallic Glassy Composites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Sandrine Cardinal, Jean-Marc Pelletier, Guang Xie, Florian Mercier, Florent Delmas


Bulk metallic glasses exhibit several superior properties, compared to their corresponding crystalline counterpart, such as high strength, high elastic limit or good corrosion resistance. Therefore they can be considered as good candidates for structural applications in many sectors. However, they are generally brittle and do not exhibit plastic deformation at room temperature. These materials are mainly obtained by rapid cooling from a liquid state to prevent crystallization, which limits their size. To overcome these two drawbacks: fragility and limited dimensions, composite metallic glass matrix reinforced by a second phase whose role is to slow crack growth are developed. Concerning the limited size of the pieces, the proposed solution is to get the material from amorphous powders by densifying under load. In this study, Cu50Zr45Al5 bulk metallic glassy matrix composites (MGMCs) containing different volume fraction (Vf) of Zr crystalline particles were manufactured by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Microstructure, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the MGMCs were investigated. Matrix of the composites remains a fully amorphous phase after consolidation at 420°C under 600 MPa. A good dispersion of the particles in the glassy matrix is obtained. Results show that the compressive strength decreases with Vf : 1670 MPa (Vf=0%) to 1300MPa (Vf=30%), the elastic modulus decreases but only slighty respectively 97.3GPa and 94.5 GPa and plasticity is improved from 0 to 4%. Fractographic investigation indicates a good bonding between amorphous and crystalline particles. In conclusion, present study has demonstrated that SPS method is useful for the synthesis of the bulk glassy composites. Large controlled microstructure specimens with interesting ductility can be obtained compared with others methods.

Keywords: composite, mechanical properties, metallic glasses, spark plasma sintering

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1800 Free-Standing Pd-Based Metallic Glass Membranes for MEMS Applications

Authors: Wei-Shan Wang, Klaus Vogel, Felix Gabler, Maik Wiemer, Thomas Gessner


Metallic glasses, which are free of grain boundaries, have superior properties including large elastic limits, high strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Therefore, bulk metallic glasses (BMG) and thin film metallic glasses (TFMG) have been widely developed and investigated. Among various kinds of metallic glasses, Pd-Cu-Si TFMG, which has lower elastic modulus and better resistance of oxidation and corrosions compared to Zr- and Fe-based TFMGs, can be a promising candidate for MEMS applications. However, the study of Pd-TFMG membrane is still limited. This paper presents free-standing Pd-based metallic glass membranes with large area fabricated on wafer level for the first time. Properties of Pd-Cu-Si thin film metallic glass (TFMG) with various deposition parameters are investigated first. When deposited at 25°C, compressive stress occurs in the Pd76Cu6Si18 thin film regardless of Ar pressure. When substrate temperature is increased to 275°C, the stress state changes from compressive to tensile. Thin film stresses are slightly decreased when Ar pressure is higher. To show the influence of temperature on Pd-TFMGs, thin films without and with post annealing below (275°C) and within (370°C) supercooled liquid region are investigated. Results of XRD and TEM analysis indicate that Pd-TFMGs remain amorphous structure with well-controlled parameters. After verification of amorphous structure of the Pd-TFMGs, free-standing Pd-Cu-Si membranes were fabricated by depositing Pd-Cu-Si thin films directly on 200nm-thick silicon nitride membranes, followed by post annealing and dry etching of silicon nitride layer. Post annealing before SiNx removal is used to further release internal stress of Pd-TFMGs. The edge length of the square membrane ranges from 5 to 8mm. The effect of post annealing on Pd-Cu-Si membranes are discussed as well. With annealing at 370°C for 5 min, Pd-MG membranes are fully distortion-free after removal of SiNx layer. Results show that, by introducing annealing process, the stress-relief, distortion-free Pd-TFMG membranes with large area can be a promising candidate for sensing applications such as pressure and gas sensors.

Keywords: amorphous alloy, annealing, metallic glasses, TFMG membrane

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1799 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi


The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

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1798 Study and Analyze of Metallic Glasses for Biomedical Applications: From Soft to Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. Monfared, S. Faghihi


Metallic glasses (MGs) are newcomers in the field of metals that show great potential for soft and bone tissue engineering due to the amorphous structure that endows unique properties. Up to now, various MGs based on Ti, Zr, Mg, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Sr in the form of a ribbon, bulk, thin-film, and powder have been investigated for biomedical purposes. This article reviews the compositions and biomedical properties of MGs as well as analyzes results in order to guide new approaches and future development of MGs.

Keywords: metallic glasses, biomaterials, biocompatibility, biocorrosion

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1797 Assessment of Physical Characteristics of Maize (Zea Mays) Stored in Metallic Silos

Authors: B. A. Alabadan, E. S. Ajayi, C. A. Okolo


The storage losses recorded globally in maize (Zea mays) especially in the developing countries is worrisome. Certain degenerating changes in the physical characteristics (PC) of the grain occur due to the interaction between the stored maize and the immediate environment especially during long storage period. There has been tremendous reduction in the storage losses since the evolution of metallic silos. This study was carried out to assess the physical quality attributes of maize stored in 2500 MT and 1 MT metallic silos for a period of eight months. The PC evaluated includes percentage moisture content MC, insect damage ID, foreign matters FM, hectolitre weight HC, mould M and germinability VG. The evaluation of data obtained was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) for windows evaluation version to determine significant levels and trend of deterioration (P < 0.05) for all the values obtained using Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Duncan’s multivariate test. The result shows that the PC are significant with duration of storage at (P < 0.05) except MI and FM that are significant at (P > 0.05) irrespective of the size of the metallic silos. The average mean deviation for physical properties from the control in respect to duration of storage are as follows: MC 10.0 ±0.00%, HC 72.9 ± 0.44% ID 0.29 ± 0.00%, BG 0.55±0.05%, MI 0.00 ± 0.65%, FM 0.80± 0.20%, VG 100 ± 0.03%. The variables that were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with the position of grain in the bulk are VG, MI and ID while others are insignificant at (p > 0.05). Variables were all significant (p < 0.05) with the duration of storage with (0.00) significant levels, irrespective of the size of the metallic silos, but were insignificant with the position of the grain in the bulk (p > 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that there is a slight decrease of the following variables, with time, HC, MC, and V, probably due to weather fluctuations and grain respiration, while FM, BG, ID and M were found to increase slightly probably due to insect activity in the bigger silos and loss of moisture. The size of metallic silos has no remarkable influence on the PC of stored maize (Zea mays). Germinability was found to be better with the 1 MT silos probably due to its hermetic nature. Smaller size metallic silos are preferred for storage of seeds but bigger silos largely depend on the position of the grains in the bulk.

Keywords: maize, storage, silo, physical characteristics

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1796 Chemical, Structural and Mechanical Optimization of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Eliott Guérin, Remi Daudin, Georges Kalepsi, Alexis Lenain, Sebastien Gravier, Benoit Ter-Ovanessian, Damien Fabregue, Jean-Jacques Blandin


Due to interesting compromise between mechanical and corrosion properties, Zr-based BMGs are attractive for biomedical applications. However, the enhancement of their glass forming ability (GFA) is often achieved by addition of toxic elements like Ni or Be, which is of course a problem for such applications. Consequently, the development of Ni-free Be-free Zr-based BMGs is of great interest. We have developed a Zr-based (Ni and Be-free) amorphous metallic alloy with an elastic limit twice the one of Ti-6Al-4V. The Zr56Co28Al16 composition exhibits a yield strength close to 2 GPa and low Young’s modulus (close to 90 GPa) [1-2]. In this work, we investigated Niobium (Nb) addition through substitution of Zr up to 8 at%. Cobalt substitution has already been reported [3], but we chose Zr substitution to preserve the glass forming ability. In this case, we show that the glass forming ability for 5 mm diameters rods is maintained up to 3 at% of Nb substitution using suction casting in cooper moulds. Concerning the thermal stability, we measure a strong compositional dependence on the glass transition (Tg). Using DSC analysis (heating rate 20 K/min), we show that the Tg rises from 752 K for 0 at% of Nb to 759 K for 3 at% of Nb. Yet, the thermal range between Tg and the crystallisation temperature (Tx) remains almost unchanged from 33 K to 35 K. Uniaxial compression tests on 2 mm diameter pillars and 3 points bending (3PB) tests on 1 mm thick plates are performed to study the Nb addition on the mechanical properties and the plastic behaviour. With these tests, an optimal Nb concentration is found, improving both plasticity and fatigue resistance. Through interpretations of DSC measurements, an attempt is made to correlate the modifications of the mechanical properties with the structural changes. The optimized chemical, structural and mechanical properties through Nb addition are encouraging to develop the potential of this BMG alloy for biomedical applications. For this purpose, we performed polarisation, immersion and cytotoxicity tests. The figure illustrates the polarisation response of Zr56Co28Al16, Zr54Co28Al16Nb2 and TA6V as a reference after 2h of open circuit potential. The results show that the substitution of Zr by a small amount of Nb significantly improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

Keywords: metallic glasses, amorphous metal, medical, mechanical resistance, biocompatibility

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1795 Processing and Characterization of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Amorphous Zr₃₇.₅Cu₁₈.₆₇Al₄₃.₉₈ Phase

Authors: P. Abachi, S. Karami, K. Purazrang


The amorphous reinforcements (metallic glasses) can be considered as promising options for reinforcing light-weight aluminum and its alloys. By using the proper type of reinforcement, one can overcome to drawbacks such as interfacial de-cohesion and undesirable reactions which can be created at ceramic particle and metallic matrix interface. In this work, the Zr-based amorphous phase was produced via mechanical milling of elemental powders. Based on Miedema semi-empirical Model and diagrams for formation enthalpies and/or Gibbs free energies of Zr-Cu amorphous phase in comparison with the crystalline phase, the glass formability range was predicted. The composite was produced using the powder mixture of the aluminum and metallic glass and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at the temperature slightly above the glass transition Tg of the metallic glass particles. The selected temperature and rapid sintering route were suitable for consolidation of an aluminum matrix without crystallization of amorphous phase. To characterize amorphous phase formation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analyses were performed on powder mixture after specified intervals of milling. The microstructure of the composite was studied by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on composite specimens with the dimension of 4 mm long and a cross-section of 2 ˟ 2mm2. The micrographs indicated an appropriate reinforcement distribution in the metallic matrix. The comparison of stress–strain curves of the consolidated composite and the non-reinforced Al matrix alloy in compression showed that the enhancement of yield strength and mechanical strength are combined with an appreciable plastic strain at fracture. It can be concluded that metallic glasses (amorphous phases) are alternative reinforcement material for lightweight metal matrix composites capable of producing high strength and adequate ductility. However, this is in the expense of minor density increase.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composite, amorphous phase, mechanical alloying, spark plasma sintering

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1794 Enhanced Optical Nonlinearity in Bismuth Borate Glass: Effect of Size of Nanoparticles

Authors: Shivani Singla, Om Prakash Pandey, Gopi Sharma


Metallic nanoparticle doped glasses has lead to rapid development in the field of optics. Large third order non-linearity, ultrafast time response, and a wide range of resonant absorption frequencies make these metallic nanoparticles more important in comparison to their bulk material. All these properties are highly dependent upon the size, shape, and surrounding environment of the nanoparticles. In a quest to find a suitable material for optical applications, several efforts have been devoted to improve the properties of such glasses in the past. In the present study, bismuth borate glass doped with different size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been prepared using the conventional melt-quench technique. Synthesized glasses are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to observe the structural modification in the glassy matrix with the variation in the size of the AuNPs. Glasses remain purely amorphous in nature even after the addition of AuNPs, whereas FTIR proposes that the main structure contains BO₃ and BO₄ units. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirms the existence and variation in the size of AuNPs. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) depicts that prepared glasses are thermally stable and are highly suitable for the fabrication of optical fibers. The nonlinear optical parameters (nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index) are calculated out by using the Z-scan technique with a Ti: sapphire laser at 800 nm. It has been concluded that the size of the nanoparticles highly influences the structural thermal and optical properties system.

Keywords: bismuth borate glass, different size, gold nanoparticles, nonlinearity

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1793 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Probe Mixed Valence State in Eu-Doped Nanocrystalline Glass-Ceramics

Authors: Ruchika Bagga, Mauro Falconieri, Venu Gopal Achanta, José M. F. Ferreira, Ashutosh Goel, Gopi Sharma


Mixed valence Eu-doped nanocrystalline NaAlSiO4/NaY9Si6O26 glass-ceramics have been prepared by controlled crystallization of melt quenched bulk glasses. XRD and SEM techniques were employed to characterize the crystallization process of the precursor glass and their resultant glass-ceramics. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the formation of divalent europium (Eu2+) from Eu3+ ions during high temperature synthesis under ambient atmosphere and is explained on the basis of optical basicity model. The observed luminescence properties of Eu: NaY9Si6O26 are compared with that of well explored Eu: β-PbF2 nanocrystals and their marked differences are discussed.

Keywords: rare earth, oxyfluoride glasses, nano-crystalline glass-ceramics, photoluminescence spectroscopy

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1792 Investigation on the Thermal Properties of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Prepared with Glass Powder

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi


The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal property of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) using glass powder as a substitute. Glass powder by proportion 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cement’s weight was added to specimens. At the end of a drying time of 28 days, thermal properties, compressive strength and bulk density of samples were determined. Thermal property is measured by Photothermal Deflection Technique by comparing the experimental of normalized amplitude and the phase curves of the photothermal signal to the corresponding theoretical ones. The findings indicate that incorporation of glass powder decreases the thermal properties of MOC.

Keywords: magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC), phototharmal deflection technique, thermal properties, Ddensity

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1791 XANES Studies on the Oxidation States of Copper Ion in Silicate Glass

Authors: R. Buntem, K. Samkongngam


The silicate glass was prepared using rice husk as the source of silica. The base composition of glass sample is composed of SiO2 (from rice husk ash), Na2CO3, K2CO3, ZnO, H3BO3, CaO, Al2O3 or Al, and CuO. Aluminum is used in place of Al2O3 in order to reduce Cu2+ to Cu+. The red color of Cu2O in the glass matrix was observed when the Al was added into the glass mixture. The expansion coefficients of the copper doped glass are in the range of 1.2 x 10-5-1.4x10-5 (ºC -1) which is common for the silicate glass. The finger prints of the bond vibrations were studied using IR spectroscopy. While the oxidation state and the coordination information of the copper ion in the glass matrix were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the data, Cu+ and Cu2+ exist in the glass matrix. The red particles of Cu2O can be formed in the glass matrix when enough aluminum was added.

Keywords: copper in glass, coordination information, silicate glass, XANES spectrum

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1790 Enhancing the Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells Using Metallic Nanoparticles

Authors: Sankara Rao Gollu, Ramakant Sharma, G. Srinivas, Souvik Kundu, Dipti Gupta


In recent years, bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) based on polymer–fullerene attracted a large research attention due to their numerous advantages such as light weight, easy processability, eco-friendly, low-cost, and capability for large area roll-to-roll manufacturing. BHJ OSCs usually suffer from insufficient light absorption due to restriction on keeping thin ( < 150 nm) photoactive layer because of small exciton diffusion length ( ~ 10 nm) and low charge carrier mobilities. It is thus highly desirable that light absorption as well as charge transport properties are enhanced by alternative methods so as to improve the device efficiency. In this work, therefore, we have focused on the strategy of incorporating metallic nanostructures in the active layer or charge transport layer to enhance the absorption and improve the charge transport.

Keywords: organic solar cell, efficiency, bulk heterojunction, polymer-fullerene

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1789 Physical Properties and Elastic Studies of Fluoroaluminate Glasses Based on Alkali

Authors: C. Benhamideche


Fluoroaluminate glasses have been reported as the earliest heavy metal fluoride glasses. By comparison with flurozirconate glasses, they offer a set of similar optical features, but also some differences in their elastic and chemical properties. In practice they have been less developed because their stability against devitrification is smaller than that of the most stable fluoroziconates. The purpose of this study was to investigate glass formation in systems AlF3-YF3-PbF2-MgF2-MF2 (M= Li, Na, K). Synthesis was implemented at room atmosphere using the ammonium fluoride processing. After fining, the liquid was into a preheated brass mold, then annealed below the glass transition temperature for several hours. The samples were polished for optical measurements. Glass formation has been investigated in a systematic way, using pseudo ternary systems in order to allow parameters to vary at the same time. We have chosen the most stable glass compositions for the determination of the physical properties. These properties including characteristic temperatures, density and proprieties elastic. Glass stability increases in multicomponent glasses. Bulk samples have been prepared for physical characterization. These glasses have a potential interest for passive optical fibers because they are less sensitive to water attack than ZBLAN glass, mechanically stronger. It is expected they could have a larger damage threshold for laser power transmission.

Keywords: fluoride glass, aluminium fluoride, thermal properties, density, proprieties elastic

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1788 Spin-Polarized Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Properties of Co and Mn-Doped CdTe in Zinc-Blende Phase

Authors: A.Zitouni, S.Bentata, B.Bouadjemi, T.Lantri, W. Benstaali, Z.Aziz, S.Cherid, A. Sefir


Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Co and Mn-doped CdTe have been studied by employing the full potential linear augmented plane waves (FP-LAPW) method within the spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange–correlation (XC) potential. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, spin-polarized band structures, and total and local densities of states. The value of calculated magnetic moment per Co and Mn impurity atoms is found to be 2.21 µB for CdCoTe and 3.20 µB for CdMnTe. The calculated densities of states presented in this study identify the half-metallic of Co and Mn-doped CdTe.

Keywords: electronic structure, density functional theory, band structures, half-metallic, magnetic moment

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1787 Chlorine Pretreatment Effect on Mechanical Properties of Optical Fiber Glass

Authors: Abhinav Srivastava, Hima Harode, Chandan Kumar Saha


The principal ingredient of an optical fiber is quartz glass. The quality of the optical fiber decreases if impure foreign substances are attached to its preform surface. If residual strain inside a preform is significant, it cracks with a small impact during drawing or transporting. Furthermore, damages and unevenness on the surface of an optical fiber base material break the fiber during drawing. The present work signifies that chlorine pre-treatment enhances mechanical properties of the optical fiber glass. FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) results show that chlorine gas chemically modifies the structure of silica clad; chlorine is known to soften glass. Metallic impurities on the preform surface likely formed volatile metal chlorides due to chlorine pretreatment at elevated temperature. The chlorine also acts as a drying agent, and therefore the preform surface is anticipated to be water deficient and supposedly avoids particle adhesion on the glass surface. The Weibull analysis of long length tensile strength demarcates a substantial shift in its knee. The higher dynamic fatigue n-value also indicated surface crack healing.

Keywords: mechanical strength, optical fiber glass, FTIR, Weibull analysis

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1786 The Role of Initiator in the Synthesis of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites through Bulk Polymerization

Authors: Tsung-Yen Tsai, Naveen Bunekar, Ming Hsuan Chang, Wen-Kuang Wang, Satoshi Onda


The structure-property relationship and initiator effect on bulk polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)–oragnomodified layered silicate nanocomposites was investigated. In this study, we used 2, 2'-azobis (4-methoxy-2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile and benzoyl peroxide initiators for bulk polymerization. The bulk polymerized nanocomposites’ morphology was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The type of initiator strongly influences the physiochemical properties of the polymer nanocomposite. The thermal degradation of PMMA in the presence of nanofiller was studied. 5 wt% weight loss temperature (T5d) increased as compared to pure PMMA. The peak degradation temperature increased for the nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the glass transition temperature and the nature of the constrained region as the reinforcement mechanism respectively. Furthermore, the optical properties such as UV-Vis and Total Luminous Transmission of nanocomposites are examined.

Keywords: initiator, bulk polymerization, layered silicates, methyl methacrylate

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1785 Investigation of Damage in Glass Subjected to Static Indentation Using Continuum Damage Mechanics

Authors: J. Ismail, F. Zaïri, M. Naït-Abdelaziz, Z. Azari


In this work, a combined approach of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) and fracture mechanics is applied to model a glass plate behavior under static indentation. A spherical indenter is used and a CDM based constitutive model with an anisotropic damage tensor was selected and implemented into a finite element code to study the damage of glass. Various regions with critical damage values were predicted in good agreement with the experimental observations in the literature. In these regions, the directions of crack propagation, including both cracks initiating on the surface as well as in the bulk, were predicted using the strain energy density factor.

Keywords: finite element modeling, continuum damage mechanics, indentation, cracks

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1784 Mechanical Tests and Analyzes of Behaviors of High-Performance of Polyester Resins Reinforced With Unifilo Fiberglass

Authors: Băilă Diana Irinel, Păcurar Răzvan, Păcurar Ancuța


In the last years, composite materials are increasingly used in automotive, aeronautic, aerospace, construction applications. Composite materials have been used in aerospace in applications such as engine blades, brackets, interiors, nacelles, propellers/rotors, single aisle wings, wide body wings. The fields of use of composite materials have multiplied with the improvement of material properties, such as stability and adaptation to the environment, mechanical tests, wear resistance, moisture resistance, etc. The composite materials are classified concerning type of matrix materials, as metallic, polymeric and ceramic based composites and are grouped according to the reinforcement type as fibre, obtaining particulate and laminate composites. Production of a better material is made more likely by combining two or more materials with complementary properties. The best combination of strength and ductility may be accomplished in solids that consist of fibres embedded in a host material. Polyester is a suitable component for composite materials, as it adheres so readily to the particles, sheets, or fibres of the other components. The important properties of the reinforcing fibres are their high strength and high modulus of elasticity. For applications, as in automotive or in aeronautical domain, in which a high strength-to-weight ratio is important, non-metallic fibres such as fiberglass have a distinct advantage because of their low density. In general, the glass fibres content varied between 9 to 33% wt. in the composites. In this article, high-performance types of composite materials glass-epoxy and glass-polyester used in automotive domain will be analyzed, performing tensile and flexural tests and SEM analyzes.

Keywords: glass-polyester composite, glass fibre, traction and flexion tests, SEM analyzes

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1783 An Investigation of Foam Glass Production from Sheet Glass Waste and SiC Foaming Agent

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Recep Artir, Mustafa Kara


Foam glass is a remarkable material with having incomparable properties like low weight, rigidity, high thermal insulation capacity and porous structure. In this study, foam glass production was investigated with using glass powder from sheet glass waste and SiC powder as foaming agent. Effects of SiC powders and sintering temperatures on foaming process were examined. It was seen that volume expansions (%), cellular structures and pore diameters of obtained foam glass samples were highly depending on composition ratios and sintering temperature. The study showed that various foam glass samples having with homogenous closed porosity, low weight and low thermal conductivity were achieved by optimizing composition ratios and sintering temperatures.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, waste glass, silicon carbide

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1782 Influence of Recycled Glass Content on the Properties of Concrete and Mortar

Authors: Bourmatte Nadjoua, Houari Hacène


The effect of replacement of fine aggregates with recycled glass on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete and mortar is studied. Percentages of replacement are 0–25% and 50% of aggregates with fine waste glass to produce concrete and percentage of replacement of 100% to produce mortar. As a result of the conducted study, the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures were decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength with 50% lower than that of control mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, mortar, recycled glass

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1781 The Impact of Glass Additives on the Functional and Microstructural Properties of Sand-Lime Bricks

Authors: Anna Stepien


The paper presents the results of research on modifications of sand-lime bricks, especially using glass additives (glass fiber and glass sand) and other additives (e.g.:basalt&barite aggregate, lithium silicate and microsilica) as well. The main goal of this paper is to answer the question ‘How to use glass additives in the sand-lime mass and get a better bricks?’ The article contains information on modification of sand-lime bricks using glass fiber, glass sand, microsilica (different structure of silica). It also presents the results of the conducted compression tests, which were focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density, and their microstructure. The Scanning Electron Microscope, spectrum EDS, X-ray diffractometry and DTA analysis helped to define the microstructural changes of modified products. The interpretation of the products structure revealed the existence of diversified phases i.e.the C-S-H and tobermorite. CaO-SiO2-H2O system is the object of intensive research due to its meaning in chemistry and technologies of mineral binding materials. Because the blocks are the autoclaving materials, the temperature of hydrothermal treatment of the products is around 200°C, the pressure - 1,6-1,8 MPa and the time - up to 8hours (it means: 1h heating + 6h autoclaving + 1h cooling). The microstructure of the products consists mostly of hydrated calcium silicates with a different level of structural arrangement. The X-ray diffraction indicated that the type of used sand is an important factor in the manufacturing of sand-lime elements. Quartz sand of a high hardness is also a substrate hardly reacting with other possible modifiers, which may cause deterioration of certain physical and mechanical properties. TG and DTA curves show the changes in the weight loss of the sand-lime bricks specimen against time as well as the endo- and exothermic reactions that took place. The endothermic effect with the maximum at T=573°C is related to isomorphic transformation of quartz. This effect is not accompanied by a change of the specimen weight. The next endothermic effect with the maximum at T=730-760°C is related to the decomposition of the calcium carbonates. The bulk density of the brick it is 1,73kg/dm3, the presence of xonotlite in the microstructure and significant weight loss during DTA and TG tests (around 0,6% after 70 minutes) have been noticed. Silicate elements were assessed on the basis of their compressive property. Orthogonal compositional plan type 3k (with k=2), i.e.full two-factor experiment was applied in order to carry out the experiments both, in the compression strength test and bulk density test. Some modification (e.g.products with barite and basalt aggregate) have improved the compressive strength around 41.3 MPa and water absorption due to capillary raising have been limited to 12%. The next modification was adding glass fiber to sand-lime mass, then glass sand. The results show that the compressive strength was higher than in the case of traditional bricks, while modified bricks were lighter.

Keywords: bricks, fiber, glass, microstructure

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1780 The Role of Nano Glass Flakes on Morphology, Dynamic-Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Behavior of Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate)

Authors: Fatemeh Alsadat Miri, Morteza Ehsani, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, Behjat Kavyani


This paper studies the effect of nano glass flakes on morphology, dynamic-mechanical properties, and crystallization behavior of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The concentration of nano glass flakes was varied from 0.5, 1, 2, and 3% wt of the total formulation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed the poor distribution of nano-glass flake particles in PET, as well as low adhesion of particles to the polymer matrix. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the crystallization rate and crystallization temperature of PET were increased by the addition of nano glass flakes. The crystallization rate of PET was increased from 31.41% to 34.25% by the incorporation of 1%wt of nano glass flakes. Based on the results of the dynamic-mechanical analysis, the storage modulus of PET gets increased by adding nano glass flakes, especially below glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass transition of PET did not change remarkably with the addition of nano glass flakes. Moreover, the use of nano glass flakes reduced the impact strength of PET.

Keywords: PET, nano glass flakes, morphology, crystallization

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1779 Synergetic Effects of Water and Sulfur Dioxide Treatments on Wear of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

Authors: Qian Qiao, Tongjin Xiao, Hongtu He, Jiaxin Yu


This study is focused on the synergetic effects of water and sulfur dioxide treatments (SO₂ treatments) on the mechanochemical wear of SLS glass. It is found that the wear behavior of SLS glass in humid air is very sensitive to the water and SO₂ treatment environments based on the wear test using a ball-on-flat reciprocation tribometer. When SLS glass is treated with SO₂-without, the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass in humid air becomes significantly higher compared to the pristine glass. However, when SLS glass is treated with SO₂ with the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass decreases remarkably with increasing in the relative humidity (RH) from 0% to 90%. Further analyses indicate that when sodium ions are leached out of SLS glass surface via the water and SO₂ treatments, the mechanochemical properties of SLS glass surface become different depending on the RH. At lower humidity, the nano hardness of the Na⁺-leached surface is higher, and it can contribute to the enhanced wear resistance of SLS glass. In contrast, at higher humidity conditions, the SLS glass surface is more hydrophilic, and substantial wear debris can be found inside the wear track of SLS glass. Those phenomena suggest that adhesive wear and abrasive wear dominate the wear mechanism of SLS glass in humid air, causing the decreased wear resistance of SLS glass with increasing the RH. These results may not only provide a deep understanding of the wear mechanism of SLS glass but also helpful for operation process of functional and engineering glasses.

Keywords: soda lime silicate glass, wear, water, SO₂

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1778 Investigating the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon: An Empirical Study of Glass Ceiling's Effects on Selection, Promotion and Female Effectiveness

Authors: Sharjeel Saleem


The glass ceiling has been a burning issue for many researchers. In this research, we examine gender of the BOD, training and development, workforce diversity, positive attitude towards women, and employee acts as antecedents of glass ceiling. Furthermore, we also look for effects of glass ceiling on likelihood of female selection and promotion and on female effectiveness. Multiple linear regression conducted on data drawn from different public and private sector organizations support our hypotheses. The research, however, is limited to Faisalabad city and only females from minority group are targeted here.

Keywords: glass ceiling, stereotype attitudes, female effectiveness

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1777 Microstructure Study of Melt Spun Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀

Authors: Michael Regev, Shai Essel, Alexander Katz-Demyanetz


Magnesium alloys are characterized by good physical properties: They exhibit high strength, are lightweight and have good damping absorption and good thermal and electrical conductivity. Amorphous magnesium alloys, moreover, exhibit higher strength, hardness and a large elastic domain in addition to having excellent corrosion resistance. These above-mentioned advantages make magnesium based metallic glasses attractive for industrial use. Among the various existing magnesium alloys, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ alloy is known to be one of the best glass formers. In the current study, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ ribbons were produced by melt spinning, their microstructure was investigated in its as-cast condition, after pressing under 0.5 GPa for 5 minutes under different temperatures - RT, 500C, 1000C, 1500C and 2000C - and after five minute exposure to the above temperatures without pressing. The microstructure was characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (HRSEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). XRD and DSC studies showed that the as-cast material had an amorphous character and that the material crystallized during exposure to temperature with or without applying stress. HRTEM revealed that the as-cast Mg65Cu25Y10, although known to be one of the best glass formers, is nano-crystalline rather than amorphous. The current study casts light on the question what an amorphous alloy is and whether there is any clear borderline between amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys.

Keywords: metallic glass, magnesium, melt spinning, amorphous alloys

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