Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23748

Search results for: cost analysis

23748 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal


In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: organization, cost reduction, cost control, performance, budget, profit

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23747 Construction Time - Cost Trade-Off Analysis Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram, G. C. S. Reddy


Time and cost are the two critical objectives of construction project management and are not independent but intricately related. Trade-off between project duration and cost are extensively discussed during project scheduling because of practical relevance. Generally when the project duration is compressed, the project calls for an increase in labor and more productive equipments, which increases the cost. Thus, the construction time-cost optimization is defined as a process to identify suitable construction activities for speeding up to attain the best possible savings in both time and cost. As there is hidden tradeoff relationship between project time and cost, it might be difficult to predict whether the total cost would increase or decrease as a result of compressing the schedule. Different combinations of duration and cost for the activities associated with the project determine the best set in the time-cost optimization. Therefore, the contractors need to select the best combination of time and cost to perform each activity, all of which will ultimately determine the project duration and cost. In this paper, the fuzzy set theory is used to model the uncertainties in the project environment for time-cost trade off analysis.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, qualitative factors, decision making

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23746 Cost Effectiveness and Performance Study of Perpetual Pavement Using ABAQUS

Authors: Mansour Fakhri, Monire Zokaei


Where there are many demolitions on conventional asphalt pavements, heavy costs are paid to repair and reconstruct the pavement roads annually. Recently some research has been done in order to increase the pavement life. Perpetual pavement is regarded as one of them which can improve the pavement life and minimize the maintenance activity and cost. In this research, ABAQUS which is a finite element software is implemented for analyzing and simulation of perpetual pavement. Viscoelastic model of material is used and loading wheel is considered to be dynamic. Effect of different parameters on pavement function has been considered. Because of high primary cost these pavements are not widely used. In this regard, life cost analysis was also carried out to compare perpetual pavement to conventional asphalt concrete pavement. It was concluded that although the initial cost of perpetual pavement is higher than that of conventional asphalt pavement, life cycle cost analysis during 50 years of service life showed that the performance of this pavement is better and the whole life cost of that is less.

Keywords: ABAQUS, lifecycle cost analysis, mechanistic empirical, perpetual pavement

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23745 Cost Efficiency of European Cooperative Banks

Authors: Karolína Vozková, Matěj Kuc


This paper analyzes recent trends in cost efficiency of European cooperative banks using efficient frontier analysis. Our methodology is based on stochastic frontier analysis which is run on a set of 649 European cooperative banks using data between 2006 and 2015. Our results show that average inefficiency of European cooperative banks is increasing since 2008, smaller cooperative banks are significantly more efficient than the bigger ones over the whole time period and that share of net fee and commission income to total income surprisingly seems to have no impact on bank cost efficiency.

Keywords: cooperative banks, cost efficiency, efficient frontier analysis, stochastic frontier analysis, net fee and commission income

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
23744 Activity-Based Costing of Medical Intensive Care Unit 240

Authors: Suppawan Lertpongpakpoom, Anongnat Boonrat, Kunya BoontummoSuppawan


This descriptive cost analysis aimed to analyze the unit cost of patients in medical intensive care unit. Purposive sampling was used to select 20 nurses, 6 practical nurses, 5 nurses aid and select samples 30 patients. Data were collected from both primary source (activity and average time of nursing care) and secondary source Z bill of payment and patient record). Instruments were cost recording form, activity observation form, and service recording form. Content validity of all instruments were evaluated by three experts (CVI = 0.87). Descriptive statistics was employed for data analysis. The results of the Activity-Based Costing Analysis showed that total activity cost of 4 service types for the patients was 14,776.92 Bath. The highest cost was nursing record was 5,674.78 Bath, followed direct nursing activity was 5,176.18 Bath, medical treatment was 1,976.6 Bath. The lowest cost was management activity was 1,003.64 Bath per visit. The result suggested that Activity-Base Costing Analysis could be applied to give better understanding of cost structure, enabling better consideration wasted expense and non-value-added activity, and improvement of effective utilization.

Keywords: activity-based costing, medical intensive care, nursing care, cost analysis

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23743 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski


The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

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23742 Evaluation of the Costs and Benefits of Mumbai Sewage Disposal Project, India

Authors: Indrani Gupta, Leena Vachasiddha, Rakesh Kumar


Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai intends to undertake Mumbai Sewage Disposal (MSDP) for improvement of environment in and around Mumbai city. Sewage generated from the city currently gets partly into the inadequate collection system for treatment and the rest into nearby marine water body through drains. This paper addresses the cost benefit analysis of MSDP works for better compliance of sewage treatment and disposal. Cost benefit analysis indicates that the investment in sewage treatment is economically beneficial and will provide immense social, environmental, health and economic benefits. Monetary values of positive benefits such as avoided health costs, enhanced fish catches and improved tourism have been quantified. The total capital cost of the project is estimated to be about INR 51,510 million and operation and maintenance cost is about INR 2240.6 million per year. The cost benefit analysis indicates that a benefit of about 25,882 million per year can be achieved due to the implementation of this project. Other than these benefits, better marine ecosystem quality; higher property cost; improved recreational opportunities were not included because of lack of information.

Keywords: waste water treatment, cost-benefit analysis, health, tourism, fisheries

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
23741 Cost Analysis of Neglected Tropical Disease in Nigeria: Implication for Programme Control and Elimination

Authors: Lawong Damian Bernsah


Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are most predominant among the poor and rural populations and are endemic in 149 countries. These diseases are the most prevalent and responsible for infecting 1.4 billion people worldwide. There are 17 neglected tropical diseases recognized by WHO that constitute the fourth largest disease health and economic burden of all communicable diseases. Five of these 17 diseases are considered for the cost analysis of this paper: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and soil transmitted helminth infections. WHO has proposed a roadmap for eradication and elimination by 2020 and treatments have been donated through the London Declaration by pharmaceutical manufacturers. The paper estimates the cost of NTD control programme and elimination for each NTD disease and total in Nigeria. This is necessary as it forms the bases upon which programme budget and expenditure could be based. Again, given the opportunity cost the resources for NTD face it is necessary to estimate the cost so as to provide bases for comparison. Cost of NTDs control and elimination programme is estimated using the population at risk for each NTD diseases and for the total. The population at risk is gotten from the national master plan for the 2015 - 2020, while the cost per person was gotten for similar studies conducted in similar settings and ranges from US$0.1 to US$0.5 for Mass Administration of Medicine (MAM) and between US$1 to US$1.5 for each NTD disease. The combined cost for all the NTDs was estimated to be US$634.88 million for the period 2015-2020 and US$1.9 billion for each NTD disease for the same period. For the purpose of sensitivity analysis and for robustness of the analysis the cost per person was varied and all were still high. Given that health expenditure for Nigeria (% of GDP) averages 3.5% for the period 1995-2014, it is very clear that efforts have to be made to improve allocation to the health sector in general which is hoped could trickle to NTDs control and elimination. Thus, the government and the donor partners would need to step-up budgetary allocation and also to be aware of the costs of NTD control and elimination programme since they have alternative uses. Key Words: Neglected Tropical Disease, Cost Analysis, NTD Programme Control and Elimination, Cost per Person

Keywords: Neglected Tropical Disease, Cost Analysis, Neglected Tropical Disease Programme Control and Elimination, Cost per Person

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23740 An Analytical Method for Maintenance Cost Estimating Relationships of Helicopters Using Linear Programming

Authors: Meesun Sun, Yongmin Kim


Estimating maintenance cost is crucial in defense management because it affects military budgets and availability of equipment. When it comes to estimating maintenance cost of the deployed equipment, time series forecasting can be applied with the actual historical cost data. It is more difficult issue to estimate maintenance cost of new equipment for which the actual costs are not provided. In this underlying context, this study proposes an analytical method for maintenance cost estimating relationships (CERs) development of helicopters using linear programming. The CERs can be applied to a new helicopter because they use non-cost independent variables such as the number of engines, the empty weight and so on. In the Republic of Korea, the maintenance cost of new equipment has been usually estimated by reflecting maintenance cost to unit price ratio of the legacy equipment. This study confirms that the CERs perform well for the 10 types of airmobile helicopters in terms of mean absolute percentage error by applying leave-one-out cross-validation. The suggested method is very useful to estimate the maintenance cost of new equipment and can help in the affordability assessment of acquisition program portfolios for total life cycle systems management.

Keywords: affordability analysis, cost estimating relationship, helicopter, linear programming, maintenance cost

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23739 Resource Constrained Time-Cost Trade-Off Analysis in Construction Project Planning and Control

Authors: Sangwon Han, Chengquan Jin


Time-cost trade-off (TCTO) is one of the most significant part of construction project management. Despite the significance, current TCTO analysis, based on the Critical Path Method, does not consider resource constraint, and accordingly sometimes generates an impractical and/or infeasible schedule planning in terms of resource availability. Therefore, resource constraint needs to be considered when doing TCTO analysis. In this research, genetic algorithms (GA) based optimization model is created in order to find the optimal schedule. This model is utilized to compare four distinct scenarios (i.e., 1) initial CPM, 2) TCTO without considering resource constraint, 3) resource allocation after TCTO, and 4) TCTO with considering resource constraint) in terms of duration, cost, and resource utilization. The comparison results identify that ‘TCTO with considering resource constraint’ generates the optimal schedule with the respect of duration, cost, and resource. This verifies the need for consideration of resource constraint when doing TCTO analysis. It is expected that the proposed model will produce more feasible and optimal schedule.

Keywords: time-cost trade-off, genetic algorithms, critical path, resource availability

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
23738 A Fuzzy Satisfactory Optimization Method Based on Stress Analysis for a Hybrid Composite Flywheel

Authors: Liping Yang, Curran Crawford, Jr. Ren, Zhengyi Ren


Considering the cost evaluation and the stress analysis, a fuzzy satisfactory optimization (FSO) method has been developed for a hybrid composite flywheel. To evaluate the cost, the cost coefficients of the flywheel components are obtained through calculating the weighted sum of the scores of the material manufacturability, the structure character, and the material price. To express the satisfactory degree of the energy, the cost, and the mass, the satisfactory functions are proposed by using the decline function and introducing a satisfactory coefficient. To imply the different significance of the objectives, the object weight coefficients are defined. Based on the stress analysis of composite material, the circumferential and radial stresses are considered into the optimization formulation. The simulations of the FSO method with different weight coefficients and storage energy density optimization (SEDO) method of a flywheel are contrasted. The analysis results show that the FSO method can satisfy different requirements of the designer and the FSO method with suitable weight coefficients can replace the SEDO method.

Keywords: flywheel energy storage, fuzzy, optimization, stress analysis

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23737 Developing a Mathematical Model for Trade-Off Analysis of New Green Products

Authors: M. R. Gholizadeh, N. Bhuiyan, M. Salari


In the near future, companies will be increasingly forced to shift their activities along a new road in order to decrease the harmful effects of their design, production and after-life on our environment. Products must meet environmental standards to not only prevent penalties but to consider the sustainability for future generations. However, the most important factor that companies will face is selecting a reasonable strategy to maximize their profit. Thus, companies need to have precise forecast from their profit after design stage through Trade-off analysis. This paper is an attempt to introduce a mathematical model that considers effective factors that impact the total profit when products are designed for resource and energy efficiency or recyclability. The modification is according to different strategies based on a Cost-Volume-Profit model. Here, the cost structure consists of Recycling cost, Development cost, Ramp-up cost, Production cost, and Pollution cost. Also, the model shows the effect of implementation of design for recyclable on revenue structure through revenue of used parts and revenue of recycled materials. A numerical example is used to evaluate the proposed model. Results show that fulfillment of Green Product Development not only can reduce the environmental impact of products but also it will increase profit of company in long term.

Keywords: green product, design for environment, C-V-P model, trade-off analysis

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23736 Analysis of Behavior and Determinants of Cost Stickiness in Manufacturing Companies in Indonesia

Authors: Farizy Yunaz, Catur Sasongko


This research aims to provide the empirical evidence regarding cost stickiness behavior and its determinants on listed manufacturing companies. Hypothesis testing is performed using pooled least square method. The result concludes that there is cost stickiness behavior in selling, general and administrative costs. In term of determinants, firm-specific adjustment costs measured by asset intensity and employee intensity have significant positive impact on the level of cost stickiness. Meanwhile, earnings target and leverage have significant negative impact on the level of cost stickiness. However, the management empire building incentives measured by free cash flow has no significant positive impact.

Keywords: adjustment cost, cost behavior, cost stickiness, earnings target, leverage, management empire building incentive

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
23735 Construction Unit Rate Factor Modelling Using Neural Networks

Authors: Balimu Mwiya, Mundia Muya, Chabota Kaliba, Peter Mukalula


Factors affecting construction unit cost vary depending on a country’s political, economic, social and technological inclinations. Factors affecting construction costs have been studied from various perspectives. Analysis of cost factors requires an appreciation of a country’s practices. Identified cost factors provide an indication of a country’s construction economic strata. The purpose of this paper is to identify the essential factors that affect unit cost estimation and their breakdown using artificial neural networks. Twenty-five (25) identified cost factors in road construction were subjected to a questionnaire survey and employing SPSS factor analysis the factors were reduced to eight. The 8 factors were analysed using the neural network (NN) to determine the proportionate breakdown of the cost factors in a given construction unit rate. NN predicted that political environment accounted 44% of the unit rate followed by contractor capacity at 22% and financial delays, project feasibility, overhead and profit each at 11%. Project location, material availability and corruption perception index had minimal impact on the unit cost from the training data provided. Quantified cost factors can be incorporated in unit cost estimation models (UCEM) to produce more accurate estimates. This can create improvements in the cost estimation of infrastructure projects and establish a benchmark standard to assist the process of alignment of work practises and training of new staff, permitting the on-going development of best practises in cost estimation to become more effective.

Keywords: construction cost factors, neural networks, roadworks, Zambian construction industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
23734 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan


During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
23733 A Review of the Factors Causing Cost Overrun in Construction Projects in Malaysia

Authors: Kaleem Ullah, Abd Halid Bin Abdullah


This study examines previous literature on cost overrun in construction projects with the specific aim of determining the frequently observed causes of cost overruns in Malaysian construction projects. Cost overrun is one of the major problems in construction projects. Cost overrun is frequently observed in almost every construction projects. This cost overrun in construction projects occurs due to various reasons and many researchers have carried out various studies to identify the cause factors of this issue. The causes of construction cost overrun could vary from country to country because of the difference in political, economic, social and environmental conditions. Likewise, other countries construction projects in Malaysia have also the issue of cost overrun. The concept of cost overrun in construction projects has attracted much attention in recent years and researches are trying to understand the causes of these overruns and their effects to the construction industry as whole. This paper review various research studies carried out in Malaysia which surveyed the cost performance and cause factors of cost overruns in construction projects in Malaysia.

Keywords: cause of cost overrun, cost overrun, construction industry in Malaysia, effects of cost overrun

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
23732 Benefit-Cost Analysis of Flood Management: a Case Study of Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Kowser Ali Jan, R. Balaji


A disaster hurts those affected. It also spares many in the affected areas, yet those spared may be indirectly affected. The analytical framework of prevention and coping has proved useful in many circumstances. Historically and currently, there has been limited quantitative information available on flood management in Jammu and Kashmir. This study focuses on the Cost-benefit Analysis (CBA) of flood management by District Disaster Management Kulgam, and the assessment is based on secondary pooled data collected from government offices, NGOs, published Journals, and local and national newspapers. It also described the scenario, the approach adopted, and the sources of flood damage cost information. The estimated total benefits account for 78686.18 lakh of rupees, and that of total costs account for 2218.75lakh of rupees. The Benefit-Cost ratio greater than one (>1) shows that Flood Management in District Kulgam was economically feasible and successfully managed. The State of Jammu and Kashmir takes essential prevention and management measures to bring down the damages due to floods to significant status.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, nature, flood management, disaster

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23731 Uncertain Time-Cost Trade off Problems of Construction Projects Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram


The development of effective decision support tools that adopted in the construction industry is vital in the world we live in today, since it can lead to substantial cost reduction and efficient resource consumption. Solving the time-cost trade off problems and its related variants is at the heart of scientific research for optimizing construction planning problems. In general, the classical optimization techniques have difficulties in dealing with TCT problems. One of the main reasons of their failure is that they can easily be entrapped in local minima. This paper presents an investigation on the application of meta-heuristic techniques to two particular variants of the time-cost trade of analysis, the time-cost trade off problem (TCT), and time-cost trade off optimization problem (TCO). In first problem, the total project cost should be minimized, and in the second problem, the total project cost and total project duration should be minimized simultaneously. Finally it is expected that, the optimization models developed in this paper will contribute significantly for efficient planning and management of construction project.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, optimization, time cost trade off problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
23730 Cost Benefit Analysis of Adoption of Climate Change Adaptation Options among Rural Rice Farmers in Nepal

Authors: Niranjan Devkota , Ram Kumar Phuya, Durga Lal Shreshta


This paper estimates cost and benefit of adoption of climate change adaptation options available to the rural rice farmers of Nepal. Adoption of adaptation strategies, intensity of use of adaptation options, identification of labor and non-labor cost and finally per unit cost and benefit analysis of climate change adaptation were made. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to source respondents for the study and used structured questionnaire techniques to collect data from 773 households from seven districts; 3 from Terai and 4 from Hilly region of Nepal. The result revealed that there are 13 major adaptation options rice farmers practice in order to protect themselves from climatic risk. Among the given adaptation options, the first three popular adaptation options practiced by rice farmers are (i) increasing use of chemical fertilizer (60.93%) (ii) use of climate smart verities (49.29%) and (iii) change in nursery date (32.08%). Adaptation cost is obvious, based on that, the first three costly adaptation options are the alternative irrigation practice which incurred average cost of US $69.95 (US$ 1 = 102.84 Nepalese Rupees) followed by a denser plantation of local seeds ($ 20.69) and using climate smart varieties ($ 18.06). 88% farmers practiced more than one adaptation strategies on the same farm with the aim of reducing the effect of extreme climatic conditions. Total cost and revenue revealed that per unit total cost ranges from $28.34 to $32.79 whereas per unit total revenue ranges $33.4 to $49.02. Surprisingly, it is observed that farmers who do not adopt any adaptation options are able to receive highest income from per unit production. As Net Present Value (NPV) is positive and Benefit Cost Ration (BCR) is greater than one for every adaptation options that indicates the available adaptation options are profitable to the rice farmers.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation options, cost benefit analysis, rural rice farmers, Nepal

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23729 Direct Cost of Anesthesia in Traumatic Patients with Massive Bleeding: A Prospective Micro-Costing Study

Authors: Asamaporn Puetpaiboon, Sunisa Chatmongkolchart, Nalinee Kovitwanawong, Osaree Akaraborworn


Traumatic patients with massive bleeding require intensive resuscitation. The actual cost of anesthesia per case has never been clarified, so our study aimed to quantify the direct cost, and cost-to-charge ratio of anesthetic care in traumatic patients with intraoperative massive bleeding. This study was a prospective, observational, cost analysis study, conducted in Prince of Songkla University hospital, Thailand, with traumatic patients, of any mechanisms being recruited. Massive bleeding was defined as estimated blood loss of at least one blood volume in 24 hours, or a half of blood volume in 3 hours. The cost components were identified by the micro-costing method, and valued by the bottom-up approach. The direct cost was divided into 4 categories: the labor cost, the capital cost, the material cost and the cost of drugs. From September 2017 to August 2018, 10 patients with multiple injuries were included. Seven patients had motorcycle accidents, two patients fell from a height and another one was in a minibus accident. Two patients died on the operating table, and another two died within 48 hours. The median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8. The median intraoperative blood loss was 3,500 ml. The median direct cost, per case, was 250 United States Dollars (2017 exchange rate), and the cost-to-charge ratio was 0.53. In summary, the direct cost was nearly half of the hospital charge, for these traumatic patients with massive bleeding. However, our study did not analyze the indirect cost.

Keywords: cost, cost-to-charge ratio, micro-costing, trauma

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23728 Family Treatment Drug Court Cost Analysis: An In-depth Look At The Cost And Savings Of A Southeastern Family Treatment Drug Court

Authors: Ashley R. Logsdon, Becky F. Antle, Cynthia M. Kamer


This study examines the cost and benefits of a family treatment drug court in an urban county in a southeastern state. Additionally, this cost analysis will provide a detailed description of the type and cost of activities to produce the services provided to child welfare families. This study utilized return-on-investment analysis, which uses child welfare practices, disaggregates them into separate activities and estimates costs for these activities including child-level placement data for total cost of care for the child. Direct and indirect costs were considered as well as saving calculations what costs would be associated with child welfare outcomes both short and long term. The costs included were general program costs (salaries, drug screens, transportation, childcare, parent education, program evaluation, visitation, incentives) or personnel costs for other team members (judges, court administrators, child welfare workers, child welfare supervisors, and community mental health provider). The savings that were used in the study were length of time in out of home care, Medicaid costs, substance exposed births, emergency room utilization and jail/probation costs. This study documents an overall savings of between $168,993.30 and $837,993.30. The total savings per family divided by the 40 families who have participated in the program was between $4,224.83 to $20,949.83 per family. The results of this cost benefit analysis are consistent with prior research documenting savings associated with out of home care and jail/probation; however, there are also unique contributions of this study to the literature on cost effectiveness of family treatment drug courts. We will present recommendations for further utilization of family treatment drug courts and how to expand the current model.

Keywords: child welfare, cost analysis, family drug court, family treatment drug court

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23727 Methodology of Choosing Technology and Sizing of the Hybrid Energy Storage Based on Cost-benefit Analysis

Authors: Krzysztof Rafał, Weronika Radziszewska, Hubert Biedka, Oskar Grabowski, Krzysztof Mik


We present a method to choose energy storage technologies and their parameters for the economic operation of a microgrid. A grid-connected system with local loads and PV generation is assumed, where an energy storage system (ESS) is attached to minimize energy cost by providing energy balancing and arbitrage functionalities. The ESS operates in a hybrid configuration and consists of two unique technologies operated in a coordinated way. Based on given energy profiles and economical data a model calculates financial flow for ESS investment, including energy cost and ESS depreciation resulting from degradation. The optimization strategy proposes a hybrid set of two technologies with their respective power and energy ratings to minimize overall system cost in a given timeframe. Results are validated through microgrid simulations using real-life input profiles.

Keywords: energy storage, hybrid energy storage, cost-benefit analysis, microgrid, battery sizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
23726 Evaluation of Earthquake Induced Cost for Mid-Rise Buildings

Authors: Gulsah Olgun, Ozgur Bozdag, Yildirim Ertutar


This paper mainly focuses on performance assessment of buildings by associating the damage level with the damage cost. For this purpose a methodology is explained and applied to the representative mid-rise concrete building residing in Izmir. In order to consider uncertainties in occurrence of earthquakes, the structural analyses are conducted for all possible earthquakes in the region through the hazard curve. By means of the analyses, probability of the structural response being in different limit states are obtained and used to calculate expected damage cost. The expected damage cost comprises diverse cost components related to earthquake such as cost of casualties, replacement or repair cost of building etc. In this study, inter-story drift is used as an effective response variable to associate expected damage cost with different damage levels. The structural analysis methods performed to obtain inter story drifts are response spectrum method as a linear one, accurate push-over and time history methods to demonstrate the nonlinear effects on loss estimation. Comparison of the results indicates that each method provides similar values of expected damage cost. To sum up, this paper explains an approach which enables to minimize the expected damage cost of buildings and relate performance level to damage cost.

Keywords: expected damage cost, limit states, loss estimation, performance based design

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
23725 A Prediction of Electrical Cost for High-Rise Building Construction

Authors: Picha Sriprachan


The increase in electricity prices affects the cost of high-rise building construction. The objectives of this research are to study the electrical cost, trend of electrical cost and to forecast electrical cost of high-rise building construction. The methods of this research are: 1) to study electrical payment formats, cost data collection methods, and the factors affecting electrical cost of high-rise building construction, 2) to study the quantity and trend of cumulative percentage of the electrical cost, and 3) to forecast the electrical cost for different types of high-rise buildings. The results of this research show that the average proportion between electrical cost and the value of the construction project is 0.87 percent. The proportion of electrical cost for residential, office and commercial, and hotel buildings are closely proportional. If construction project value increases, the proportion of electrical cost and the value of the construction project will decrease. However, there is a relationship between the amount of electrical cost and the value of the construction project. During the structural construction phase, the amount of electrical cost will increase and during structural and architectural construction phase, electrical cost will be maximum. The cumulative percentage of the electrical cost is related to the cumulative percentage of the high-rise building construction cost in the same direction. The amount of service space of the building, number of floors and the duration of the construction affect the electrical cost of construction. The electrical cost of construction forecasted by using linear regression equation is close to the electrical cost forecasted by using the proportion of electrical cost and value of the project.

Keywords: high-rise building construction, electrical cost, construction phase, architectural phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
23724 Feasibility Studies through Quantitative Methods: The Revamping of a Tourist Railway Line in Italy

Authors: Armando Cartenì, Ilaria Henke


Recently, the Italian government has approved a new law for public contracts and has been laying the groundwork for restarting a planning phase. The government has adopted the indications given by the European Commission regarding the estimation of the external costs within the Cost-Benefit Analysis, and has been approved the ‘Guidelines for assessment of Investment Projects’. In compliance with the new Italian law, the aim of this research was to perform a feasibility study applying quantitative methods regarding the revamping of an Italian tourist railway line. A Cost-Benefit Analysis was performed starting from the quantification of the passengers’ demand potentially interested in using the revamped rail services. The benefits due to the external costs reduction were also estimated (quantified) in terms of variations (with respect to the not project scenario): climate change, air pollution, noises, congestion, and accidents. Estimations results have been proposed in terms of the Measure of Effectiveness underlying a positive Net Present Value equal to about 27 million of Euros, an Internal Rate of Return much greater the discount rate, a benefit/cost ratio equal to 2 and a PayBack Period of 15 years.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, evaluation analysis, demand management, external cost, transport planning, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
23723 Activity-Based Costing in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in a Hotel

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Mohammad Ara


The purpose of this study is to provide some empirical evidence about implementing Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the hospitality industry in Iran. For this purpose, we consider the Tabriz International Hotel as our sample hotel and then gather the relevant data from its cost accounting system in 2012. Then, we use ABC as our costing method and compare the cost of each service unit with that cost which had been extracted for the traditional costing method. The results show a different cost per unit for two methods. Also, because of its more precise and detailed provided information, an ABC system facilitates the decision-making process for managers on decisions related to profitability analysis, budgeting, pricing, and so on.

Keywords: Activity-Based Costing (ABC), activity, cost driver, hospitality industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
23722 Cost Overrun Causes in Public Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni


This study is conducted to identify causes of cost deviations in public construction projects in Saudi Arabia from contractors’ perspective. 41 factors that might affect cost estimating accuracy were identified through literature review and discussion with some construction experts. The factors were tabulated in a questionnaire form and a field survey included 51 contractors from the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia was performed. The results show that the top five important causes are: wrong estimation method, long period between design and time of implementation, cost of labor, cost of machinary and absence of construction-cost data.

Keywords: cost deviation, public construction, cost estimating, Saudi Arabia, contractors

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
23721 Design Criteria for an Internal Information Technology Cost Allocation to Support Business Information Technology Alignment

Authors: Andrea Schnabl, Mario Bernhart


The controlling instrument of an internal cost allocation (IT chargeback) is commonly used to make IT costs transparent and controllable. Information Technology (IT) became, especially for information industries, a central competitive factor. Consequently, the focus is not on minimizing IT costs but on the strategic aligned application of IT. Hence, an internal IT cost allocation should be designed to enhance the business-IT alignment (strategic alignment of IT) in order to support the effective application of IT from a company’s point of view. To identify design criteria for an internal cost allocation to support business alignment a case study analysis at a typical medium-sized firm in information industry is performed. Documents, Key Performance Indicators, and cost accounting data over a period of 10 years are analyzed and interviews are performed. The derived design criteria are evaluated by 6 heads of IT departments from 6 different companies, which have an internal IT cost allocation at use. By applying these design criteria an internal cost allocation serves not only for cost controlling but also as an instrument in strategic IT management.

Keywords: accounting for IT services, Business IT Alignment, internal cost allocation, IT controlling, IT governance, strategic IT management

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23720 Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios

Authors: S. Sakthivel


Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cost analysis, break-even analysis, renewables, electrolyzer

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23719 Cost Benefit Analysis and Adjustments of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Airline Industry

Authors: Roman Asatryan


The decision-making processes in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) among firms in general and airlines in particular have to do with the benefits that accrue through those investments. The crux of the matter is not whether to invest in CSR or not, but rather, how firms can quantify the benefits derived from such investments. This paper analyzes the cost benefit adjustment strategies for firms in the airline industry in their CSR strategy adoption and implementation. The adjustment strategies identified will enable firms in the airline industry to have a basis for determining the worth of such CSR investments. This paper discusses the cost and benefit analysis model in order to understand the ways airlines can reduce costs and increase returns on CSR, or balance the cost and benefits. The analysis from this study points to the fact that economic concepts especially the CBA are useful, though they are not without challenges. The challenge arises when it is problematic to express the real impact of the externality in monetary terms. The use of rational maximization of the gains may seem to be a rather optimistic goal mainly because of environmental variability, perceptual uncertainty, and imperfect knowledge about the potential externality. This paper concludes that the CBA model gives a basic understanding of the motivations for investing in intangible assets like CSR. Consequently, it sets the tone for formulating relevant hypothesis in empirical studies in investment in CSR in particular and other intangible assets in business operations.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, corporate social responsibility, airline industry

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