Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: retailing

30 An E-Retailing System Architecture Based on Cloud Computing

Authors: Chanchai Supaartagorn

Abstract:

E-retailing is the sale of goods online that takes place over the Internet. The Internet has shrunk the entire World. The world e-retailing is growing at an exponential rate in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. However, e-retailing costs require expensive investment, such as hardware, software, and security systems. Cloud computing technology is internet-based computing for the management and delivery of applications and services. Cloud-based e-retailing application models allow enterprises to lower their costs with their effective implementation of e-retailing activities. In this paper, we describe the concept of cloud computing and present the architecture of cloud computing, combining the features of e-retailing. In addition, we propose a strategy for implementing cloud computing with e-retailing. Finally, we explain the benefits from the architecture.

Keywords: architecture, cloud computing, e-retailing, internet-based

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29 Investigating the Application of Social Sustainability: A Case Study in the Egyptian Retailing Sector

Authors: Lobna Hafez, Eman Elakkad

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Sustainability is no longer a choice for firms. To achieve sustainable supply chain, all three dimensions of sustainability should be considered. Unlike the economic and environmental aspects, social sustainability has been rarely given attention. The problem surrounding social sustainability and employees’ welfare in Egypt is complex and remains unsolved. The aim of this study is to qualitatively assess the current level of application of social sustainability in the retailing sector in Egypt through using the social sustainability indicators identified in the literature. The purpose of this investigation is to gain knowledge about the complexity of the system involved. A case study is conducted on one of the largest retailers in Egypt. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with managers and employees to determine the level of application and identify the major obstacles affecting the social sustainability in the retailing context. The work developed gives insights about the details and complexities of the application of social sustainability in developing countries, from the retailing perspective. The outcomes of this study will help managers to understand the enablers of social sustainability and will direct them to methods of sound implementation.

Keywords: developing countries, Egyptian retailing sector, sustainability, social sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
28 Radio Frequency Identification System and Its Effect on Retailing Sector

Authors: Ayşe Çoban, Orhan Çoban, Murat Birekul

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In this study, the effects of radio frequency identification system on the retailing sector were theoretically analysed. The technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method enabling to identify the objects individually and automatically, using radio frequency. RFID generally consists of a tag and reader. RFID tags can be programmed to receive, store, and send the information of object such as Electronic Product Code (EPC). Having read the tags placed on product by the reader, the information associated with the management of supply chain can be automatically recorded and replaced. Recently, RFID technology used in many areas has particularly important effects on the businesses that are active in the retailing sector. The most important disadvantage of this technology is that the cost of installation and operation is higher compared to its alternatives. However, it provides important advantages to the business enterprises in the application process. At present, it is especially adopted by the large sized enterprises and with chain stores in the international areas. The application results point out that RFID technology provides business enterprises with the important competitive advantage.

Keywords: RFID, retailing sector, RFID technologies, electronic product code

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27 Applying Transformative Service Design to Develop Brand Community Service in Women, Children and Infants Retailing

Authors: Shian Wan, Yi-Chang Wang, Yu-Chien Lin

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This research discussed the various theories of service design, the importance of service design methodology, and the development of transformative service design framework. In this study, transformative service design is applied while building a new brand community service for women, children and infants retailing business. The goal is to enhance the brand recognition and customer loyalty, effectively increase the brand community engagement by embedding the brand community in social network and ultimately, strengthen the impact and the value of the company brand.

Keywords: service design, transformative service design, brand community, innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
26 Opportunities and Challenges of Omni Channel Retailing in the Emerging Market

Authors: Salma Ahmed, Anil Kumar

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This paper develops and estimates a model for understanding the drivers and barriers for Omni-Channel retail. This study serves as one of the first attempt to empirically test the effect of various factors on Omni-channel retail. Omni-channel is relative new and evolving, we hypothesize three drivers: (1) Innovative sales and marketing opportunities, (2) channel migration, (3) Cross channel synergies; and three barriers: (1) Integrated sales and marketing operations, (2) Visibility and synchronization (3) Integration and Technology challenges. The findings from the study strongly support that Omni-channel effects exist between cross channel synergy and channel migration. However, it partially supports innovative sales and marketing operations. We also found the variables which we identified as barriers to Omni-channel retail have a strong impact on Omni-channel retail.

Keywords: retailing, multichannel, Omni-channel, emerging market

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25 Privacy Protection Principles of Omnichannel Approach

Authors: Renata Mekovec, Dijana Peras, Ruben Picek

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The advent of the Internet, mobile devices and social media is revolutionizing the experience of retail customers by linking multiple sources through various channels. Omnichannel retailing is a retailing that combines multiple channels to allow customers to seamlessly leverage all the distribution information online and offline while shopping. Therefore, today data are an asset more critical than ever for all organizations. Nonetheless, because of its heterogeneity through platforms, developers are currently facing difficulties in dealing with personal data. Considering the possibilities of omnichannel communication, this paper presents channel categorization that could enhance the customer experience of omnichannel center called hyper center. The purpose of this paper is fundamentally to describe the connection between the omnichannel hyper center and the customer, with particular attention to privacy protection. The first phase was finding the most appropriate channels of communication for hyper center. Consequently, a selection of widely used communication channels has been identified and analyzed with regard to the effect requirements for optimizing user experience. The evaluation criteria are divided into 3 groups: general, user profile and channel options. For each criterion the weight of importance for omnichannel communication was defined. The most important thing was to consider how the hyper center can make user identification while respecting the privacy protection requirements. The study carried out also shows what customer experience across digital networks would look like, based on an omnichannel approach owing to privacy protection principles.

Keywords: personal data, privacy protection, omnichannel communication, retail

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
24 Technological Advancement in Fashion Online Retailing: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and UK Fashion E-Commerce

Authors: Sadia Idrees, Gianpaolo Vignali, Simeon Gill

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The study aims to establish the virtual size and fit technology features to enhance fashion online retailing platforms, utilising digital human measurements to provide customised style and function to consumers. A few firms in the UK have launched advanced interactive fashion shopping domains for personalised shopping globally, aided by the latest internet technology. Virtual size and fit interfaces have a great potential to provide a personalised better-fitted garment to promote mass customisation globally. Made-to-measure clothing, consuming unstitched fabric is a common practice offered by fashion brands in Pakistan. This product is regarded as economical and sustainable to be utilised by consumers in Pakistan. Although the manual sizing system is practiced to sell garments online, virtual size and fit visualisation and recommendation technologies are uncommon in Pakistani fashion interfaces. A comparative assessment of Pakistani fashion brand websites and UK technology-driven fashion interfaces was conducted to highlight the vast potential of the virtual size and fit technology. The results indicated that web 2.0 technology adopted by Pakistani apparel brands has limited features, whereas companies practicing web 3.0 technology provide interactive online real-store shopping experience leading to enhanced customer satisfaction and globalisation of brands.

Keywords: e-commerce, mass customization, virtual size and fit, web 3.0 technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
23 The Value of Store Choice Criteria on Perceived Patronage Intentions

Authors: Susana Marques

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Research on how store environment cues influence consumers’ store choice decision criteria, such as store operations, product quality, monetary price, store image and sales promotion, is sparse. Especially absent research on the simultaneous impact of multiple store environment cues. The authors propose a comprehensive store choice model that includes: three types of store environment cues as exogenous constructs; various store choice criteria as possible mediating constructs, and store patronage intentions as an endogenous construct. On the basis of testing with a sample of 561 customers of hypermarkets, the model is partially supported. This study used structural equation modelling to test the proposed model.

Keywords: store choice, store patronage, structural equation modelling, retailing

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22 An Analysis of the Relationship between Consumer Perception and Purchase Behavior towards Green Fashion in India

Authors: Upasna Bhandari, Indranil Saha, Deepak John Mathew

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The green fashion market is growing rapidly as eco-friendly consumers are willing to expand their organic lifestyle to include clothing. With an increasing share of fashion consumers globally, Indian consumers are observed to consider the social and environmental ethics while making purchasing decisions. While some research clearly identifies the efforts of responsible consumers towards green fashion, some argue that fashion-orientated consumers who are sensitive towards environment do not actively participate towards supporting green fashion. This study aims to analyze the current perception of green fashion among Indian consumers. A small-scale exploratory study is conducted where consumers’ perception of green fashion is examined followed by an analysis of translation of this perception into purchase decision making. This research paper gives insight into consumer awareness on green fashion and provides scope towards the expansion of ethical fashion consumption within the demography of India.

Keywords: consumer perception, environmental attitudes, fashion retailing, green fashion, sustainability

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21 The Impact of the “Cold Ambient Color = Healthy” Intuition on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Bingjie Li, Miaolei Jia, Lei Wang

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Ambient color temperature is one of the most ubiquitous factors in retailing. However, there is limited research regarding the effect of cold versus warm ambient color on consumers’ food consumption. This research investigates an unexplored lay belief named the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition and its impact on food choice. We demonstrate that consumers have built the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition, such that they infer that a restaurant with a cold-colored ambiance is more likely to sell healthy food than a warm-colored restaurant. This deep-seated intuition also guides consumers’ food choices. We find that using a cold (vs. warm) ambient color increases the choice of healthy food, which offers insights into healthy diet promotion for retailers and policymakers. Theoretically, our work contributes to the literature on color psychology, sensory marketing, and food consumption.

Keywords: ambient color temperature, cold ambient color, food choice, consumer wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
20 A Study on the Factors Effecting Store Format Selection between SBOand MBOs for Sportswear and Sports Accessories in the Fashion Capital of India-Shillong, Tier III Indian City

Authors: Arnab Banerjee, Deep Sagar Verma

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Tier 3 cities of India is home to one of the fastest growing socio-economic powers in the world and hence is the focus of a lot of business activity as it is almost a blue ocean giving the first mover a huge strategic advantage. Among the various sectors, the retailing is perhaps one of the most promising sectors. The study caries out 129 successfully structured mall-intercept interviews in the town of Shillong, Meghalaya in an attempt to understand the SBO and MBO shoppers. Demographic variables itself does not show any store format preference although discounts do attract the lower income group more while clear difference is observed among genders when it comes to importance of ambience, and it is more pronounced for SBO patrons. SBO patrons are more focused while MBO patrons are more into leisure shopping. Price is the most important predictor of satisfaction especially for MBO shoppers. The market shows three basic segments i.e experiential, relationship and value shoppers.

Keywords: demographic variables, degree of importance, degree of satisfaction, SBO and MBO

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
19 Small Traditional Retailers in Emerging Markets

Authors: Y. Boulaksil, J. C. Fransoo, E.E. Blanco, S. Koubida

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In this paper, we study the small traditional retailers that are located in the neighborhoods of big cities in emerging markets. Although modern retailing has grown in the last two decades in these markets, the number of small retailers is still increasing and serving a substantial part of the daily demand for many basic products, such as bread, milk, and cooking oil. We conduct an empirical study to understand the business environment of these small traditional retailers in emerging markets by collecting data from 333 small retailers, spread over 8 large cities in Morocco. We analyze the data and describe their business environment with a focus on the informal credits they offer to their customers. We find that smaller small retailers that are funded from personal savings and managed by the owner himself offer relatively the most credits. Our study also provides interesting insights about these small retailers that will help FMCG manufacturers that are (planning to be) active in Morocco and other emerging markets. We also discuss a number opportunities to improve the efficiency of the supply chains that serve them.

Keywords: small retailers, big cities, emerging markets, empirical study, supply chain management, Morocco

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18 A Model for Optimizing Inventory Replenishment and Shelf Space Management in Retail Industries

Authors: Nermine A. Harraz, Aliaa Abouali

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The retail stores put up for sale multiple items while the spaces in the backroom and display areas constitute a scarce resource. Availability, volume, and location of the product displayed in the showroom influence the customer’s demand. Managing these operations individually will result in sub-optimal overall retail store’s profit; therefore, a non-linear integer programming model (NLIP) is developed to determine the inventory replenishment and shelf space allocation decisions that together maximize the retailer’s profit under shelf space and backroom storage constraints taking into consideration that the demand rate is positively dependent on the amount and location of items displayed in the showroom. The developed model is solved using LINGO® software. The NLIP model is implemented in a real world case study in a large retail outlet providing a large variety of products. The proposed model is validated and shows logical results when using the experimental data collected from the market.

Keywords: retailing management, inventory replenishment, shelf space allocation, showroom, backroom

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
17 Developing Structured Sizing Systems for Manufacturing Ready-Made Garments of Indian Females Using Decision Tree-Based Data Mining

Authors: Hina Kausher, Sangita Srivastava

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In India, there is a lack of standard, systematic sizing approach for producing readymade garments. Garments manufacturing companies use their own created size tables by modifying international sizing charts of ready-made garments. The purpose of this study is to tabulate the anthropometric data which covers the variety of figure proportions in both height and girth. 3,000 data has been collected by an anthropometric survey undertaken over females between the ages of 16 to 80 years from some states of India to produce the sizing system suitable for clothing manufacture and retailing. This data is used for the statistical analysis of body measurements, the formulation of sizing systems and body measurements tables. Factor analysis technique is used to filter the control body dimensions from a large number of variables. Decision tree-based data mining is used to cluster the data. The standard and structured sizing system can facilitate pattern grading and garment production. Moreover, it can exceed buying ratios and upgrade size allocations to retail segments.

Keywords: anthropometric data, data mining, decision tree, garments manufacturing, sizing systems, ready-made garments

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16 A Proposed Model of E-Marketing Service-Oriented Architecture (E-MSOA)

Authors: Hussein Moselhy, Islam Salam

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There have been some challenges and problems which hinder the implementation of the e-marketing systems such as the high cost of information systems infrastructure and maintenance as well as their unavailability within the institution. Also, there is no system which supports all programming languages and different platforms. Another problem is the lack of integration between these systems on one hand and the operating systems and different web browsers on the other hand. No system for customer relationship management is established which recognizes their desires and puts them in consideration while performing e-marketing functions is available. Therefore, the service-oriented architecture emerged as one of the most important techniques and methodologies to build systems that integrate with various operating systems and different platforms and other technologies. This technology allows realizing the data exchange among different applications. The service-oriented architecture represents distributed computing concepts to demonstrate its success in achieving the requirements of systems through web services. It also reflects the appropriate design for the services to use different web services in supporting the requirements of business processes and software users. In a service-oriented environment, web services are deployed on the web in the form of independent services to be accessed without knowledge of the nature of the programs and systems with in. This Paper presents a proposal for a new model which contributes to the application of methods and means of e-marketing with the integration of marketing mix elements to improve marketing efficiency (E-MSOA). And apply it in the educational city of one of the Egyptian sector.

Keywords: service-oriented architecture, electronic commerce, virtual retailing, unified modeling language

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15 Measuring Service Recovery Quality of Electronic Shopping Customers: A Study of Select Cities in India

Authors: Ramanjaneyulu Mogili, G.V.R.K. Acharyulu

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Indian organized retail sector is growing at a faster pace and gaining popularity. Indian Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) reveals that the current market size of Indian retail industry is about US$ 520 billion with for growth rate 14 to 15 percent annually by 2018 the Indian retail sector is likely to grow at a CAGR of 13% to reach a size of US$ 950 billion. Developments in Information Technology have enabled online Retail sector that empowers customers to order products, conduct transactions without the need to interact physically with the retailers. In recent years, the online shopping industry has gained popularity to the point where certain categories of customers would consider buying electronic products online rather than visiting the stores. Conventionally the physical location of a store is seen as a source of competitive advantage. Online Retailing service sites provide virtual shopping space to the customers. Online Retail services are gaining momentum in India, with internet penetration improving in the country and smartphones becoming affordable along with changing lifestyles and preferences of customers. Although online shoppers prefer the convenience and choice available in online shopping, certain issues raised due to the occurrence of service failure. The proposed study attempts to measure the service recovery and failure process of electronic goods in Indian retail channels.

Keywords: service recovery, customer satisfaction, e-shopping, service failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
14 Construction 4.0: The Future of the Construction Industry in South Africa

Authors: Temidayo. O. Osunsanmi, Clinton Aigbavboa, Ayodeji Oke

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The construction industry is a renowned latecomer to the efficiency offered by the adoption of information technology. Whereas, the banking, manufacturing, retailing industries have keyed into the future by using digitization and information technology as a new approach for ensuring competitive gain and efficiency. The construction industry has yet to fully realize similar benefits because the adoption of ICT is still at the infancy stage with a major concentration on the use of software. Thus, this study evaluates the awareness and readiness of construction professionals towards embracing a full digitalization of the construction industry using construction 4.0. The term ‘construction 4.0’ was coined from the industry 4.0 concept which is regarded as the fourth industrial revolution that originated from Germany. A questionnaire was utilized for sourcing data distributed to practicing construction professionals through a convenience sampling method. Using SPSS v24, the hypotheses posed were tested with the Mann Whitney test. The result revealed that there are no differences between the consulting and contracting organizations on the readiness for adopting construction 4.0 concepts in the construction industry. Using factor analysis, the study discovers that adopting construction 4.0 will improve the performance of the construction industry regarding cost and time savings and also create sustainable buildings. In conclusion, the study determined that construction professionals have a low awareness towards construction 4.0 concepts. The study recommends an increase in awareness of construction 4.0 concepts through seminars, workshops and training, while construction professionals should take hold of the benefits of adopting construction 4.0 concepts. The study contributes to the roadmap for the implementation of construction industry 4.0 concepts in the South African construction industry.

Keywords: building information technology, Construction 4.0, Industry 4.0, smart site

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
13 Explore Customers' Perceptions of U.K. Fast Fashion Retailers' Identities

Authors: Ranis Cheng

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Corporate identity is an asset of a company that is unique, valuable and provides a source of competitive advantage. This research taking a holistic view to explore all dimensions of corporate identity and influence of each on customers’ shopping experience in the fast fashion retail sector in the U.K. Unfortunately these issues have not been explored sufficiently in the extant literature, especially in the area of the identity gap. To date, there is still a lack of empirical research on corporate identity, especially in the retail sector despite the importance of the concept to all organisations. Furthermore, although customer group is one of the essential audiences of organisations and the importance of customers in corporate identity management cannot be ignored, to date limited studies have been conducted in order to understand how customers interpret and perceive corporate identity (perceived identity). Therefore, this research investigates customers’ perceptions of corporate identity in the fast fashion retail sector. 1) To explore customers’ perceptions of fast fashion retailers’ corporate identities; 2) To uncover the important constructs of corporate identity which contribute to the U.K. fast fashion retail sector. 40 semi-structured interviews with the fast fashion consumers have been carried out to identify their perceptions of fast fashion retailers' corporate identities. Secondary research on retailers' websites and press releases have been evaluated to identify their desired corporate identities. The findings have revealed that there are significant gaps between how fast fashion retailers present their identities and how their consumers perceive them. This has posed customers' negative perceptions towards the retailers and their shopping experience as a whole. This study has studied how the corporate identity constructs could be applied in the fashion context and has helped retailers to shed lights on how to minimise the gap between desired and perceived identity.

Keywords: corporate identity, fast fashion, fashion retailing, identity gap

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12 Drape Simulation by Commercial Software and Subjective Assessment of Virtual Drape

Authors: Evrim Buyukaslan, Simona Jevsnik, Fatma Kalaoglu

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Simulation of fabrics is more difficult than any other simulation due to complex mechanics of fabrics. Most of the virtual garment simulation software use mass-spring model and incorporate fabric mechanics into simulation models. The accuracy and fidelity of these virtual garment simulation software is a question mark. Drape is a subjective phenomenon and evaluation of drape has been studied since 1950’s. On the other hand, fabric and garment simulation is relatively new. Understanding drape perception of subjects when looking at fabric simulations is critical as virtual try-on becomes more of an issue by enhanced online apparel sales. Projected future of online apparel retailing is that users may view their avatars and try-on the garment on their avatars in the virtual environment. It is a well-known fact that users will not be eager to accept this innovative technology unless it is realistic enough. Therefore, it is essential to understand what users see when they are displaying fabrics in a virtual environment. Are they able to distinguish the differences between various fabrics in virtual environment? The purpose of this study is to investigate human perception when looking at a virtual fabric and determine the most visually noticeable drape parameter. To this end, five different fabrics are mechanically tested, and their drape simulations are generated by commercial garment simulation software (Optitex®). The simulation images are processed by an image analysis software to calculate drape parameters namely; drape coefficient, node severity, and peak angles. A questionnaire is developed to evaluate drape properties subjectively in a virtual environment. Drape simulation images are shown to 27 subjects and asked to rank the samples according to their questioned drape property. The answers are compared to the calculated drape parameters. The results show that subjects are quite sensitive to drape coefficient changes while they are not very sensitive to changes in node dimensions and node distributions.

Keywords: drape simulation, drape evaluation, fabric mechanics, virtual fabric

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11 Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

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This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing more democratic development in the country; the government has proceeded with friendly foreign policy with the states in order to bring funds into the state. The foreign policy of Malaysia is not much changed as there is no changing in the leader; the policy of Malaysia has reconciled relations with main city of Indian and Chinese residing in the country in order to bring investments into the country and to relieve tensions in the country. The foreign policy of the Philippines has proceeded with policy under the ASEAN framework and emphasized on international Islam communities. The foreign policy of Singapore has the least changed as the Singapore's policy focuses on internal trade since the state was found. As for the foreign policy of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei has a little role in the international stage; the state having closest relationship as from the view of history is Singapore as the Singaporean has invested in retailing business in Brunei. The foreign policy of Vietnam has emphasized on an omnidirectional foreign policy in order to compete with several states in global stage. The foreign policy of Myanmar has proceeded with a friendly foreign policy with all ASEAN member states, the East-west Corridor transportation line from Myanmar through Thailand and Lao to Vietnam has been developed. As for the foreign policy of Lao, In 2001, the Thai government and Lao government held a discussion which Thailand reaffirmed the position not to support the anti-Lao group. The foreign policy of Cambodia has proceeded with more openness, having good relation with China, Russia and USA as these states has invested in the state, especially the US company.

Keywords: globalization, public policy analysis, foreign policy, ASEAN member states

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10 Fruits and Vegetable Consumers' Behaviour towards Organised Retailers: Evidence from India

Authors: K. B. Ramappa, A. V. Manjunatha

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Consumerism in India is witnessing unprecedented growth driven by favourable demographics, rising young and working population, rising income levels, urbanization and growing brand orientation. In addition, the increasing level of awareness on health, hygiene and quality has made the consumers to think on the fairly traded goods and brands. This has made retailing extremely important to everyone because without retailers’ consumers would not have access to day-to-day products. The increased competition among different retailers has contributed significantly towards rising consumer awareness on quality products and brand loyalty. Many existing empirical studies have mainly focused on net saving of consumers at organised retail via-a-vis unorganised retail shops. In this article, authors have analysed the Bangalore consumers' attitudes towards buying of fruits and vegetables and their choice of retail outlets. The primary data was collected from 100 consumers belonging to the Bangalore City during October 2014. Sample consumers buying at supermarkets, convenience stores and hypermarkets were purposively selected. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logit model. It was found that among all variables, quality and prices were major accountable factors for buying fruits and vegetables at organized retail shops. The empirical result of multinomial logit model reveals that annual net income was positively associated with the Big Bazar and Food World consumers and negatively associated with the Reliance Fresh, More and Niligiris consumers, as compared with the HOPCOMS consumers. Per month expenditure on fruits and vegetables was positively and age of the consumer was negatively related to the consumers’ choice of buying at modern retail markets. Consumers were willing to buy at modern retail outlets irrespective of the distance.

Keywords: organized retailers, consumers' attitude, consumers' preference, fruits, vegetables, multinomial logit, Bangalore

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9 Methodology of Automation and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition for Restructuring Industrial Systems

Authors: Lakhoua Najeh

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Introduction: In most situations, an industrial system already existing, conditioned by its history, its culture and its context are in difficulty facing the necessity to restructure itself in an organizational and technological environment in perpetual evolution. This is why all operations of restructuring first of all require a diagnosis based on a functional analysis. After a presentation of the functionality of a supervisory system for complex processes, we present the concepts of industrial automation and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). Methods: This global analysis exploits the various available documents on the one hand and takes on the other hand in consideration the various testimonies through investigations, the interviews or the collective workshops; otherwise, it also takes observations through visits as a basis and even of the specific operations. The exploitation of this diagnosis enables us to elaborate the project of restructuring thereafter. Leaving from the system analysis for the restructuring of industrial systems, and after a technical diagnosis based on visits, an analysis of the various technical documents and management as well as on targeted interviews, a focusing retailing the various levels of analysis has been done according a general methodology. Results: The methodology adopted in order to contribute to the restructuring of industrial systems by its participative and systemic character and leaning on a large consultation a lot of human resources that of the documentary resources, various innovating actions has been proposed. These actions appear in the setting of the TQM gait requiring applicable parameter quantification and a treatment valorising some information. The new management environment will enable us to institute an information and communication system possibility of migration toward an ERP system. Conclusion: Technological advancements in process monitoring, control and industrial automation over the past decades have contributed greatly to improve the productivity of virtually all industrial systems throughout the world. This paper tries to identify the principles characteristics of a process monitoring, control and industrial automation in order to provide tools to help in the decision-making process.

Keywords: automation, supervision, SCADA, TQM

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8 Perception of Customers towards Service Quality: A Comparative Analysis of Organized and Unorganised Retail Stores (with Special Reference to Bhopal City)

Authors: Abdul Rashid, Varsha Rokade

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Service Quality within retail units is pivotal for satisfying customers and retaining them. This study on customer perception towards Service Quality variables in Retail aims to identify the dimensions and their impact on customers. An analytical study of the different retail service quality variables was done to understand the relationship between them. The study tries exploring the factors that attract the customers towards the organised and unorganised retail stores in the capital city of Madhya Pradesh, India. As organised retailers are seen as offering similar products in the outlets, improving service quality is seen as critical to ensuring competitive advantage over unorganised retailers. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale from existing walk-in customers of selected organised and unorganised retail stores in Bhopal City of Madhya Pradesh, India. The data was then analysed by factor analysis using (SPSS) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences especially Percentage analysis, ANOVA and Chi-Square. This study tries to find interrelationship between various Retail Service Quality dimensions, which will help the retailers to identify the steps needed to improve the overall quality of service. Thus, the findings of the study prove to be helpful in understanding the service quality variables which should be considered by organised and unorganised retail stores in Capital city of Madhya Pradesh, India.Also, findings of this empirical research reiterate the point of view that dimensions of Service Quality in Retail play an important role in enhancing customer satisfaction – a sector with high growth potential and tremendous opportunities in rapidly growing economies like India’s. With the introduction of FDI in multi-brand retailing, a large number of international retail players are expected to enter the Indian market, this intern will bring more competition in the retail sector. For benchmarking themselves with global standards, the Indian retailers will have to improve their service quality.

Keywords: organized retail, unorganised retail, retail service quality, service quality dimension

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7 Customer Segmentation Revisited: The Case of the E-Tailing Industry in Emerging Market

Authors: Sanjeev Prasher, T. Sai Vijay, Chandan Parsad, Abhishek Banerjee, Sahakari Nikhil Krishna, Subham Chatterjee

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With rapid rise in internet retailing, the industry is set for a major implosion. Due to the little difference among competitors, companies find it difficult to segment and target the right shoppers. The objective of the study is to segment Indian online shoppers on the basis of the factors – website characteristics and shopping values. Together, these cover extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect shoppers as they visit web retailers. Data were collected using questionnaire from 319 Indian online shoppers, and factor analysis was used to confirm the factors influencing the shoppers in their selection of web portals. Thereafter, cluster analysis was applied, and different segments of shoppers were identified. The relationship between income groups and online shoppers’ segments was tracked using correspondence analysis. Significant findings from the study include that web entertainment and informativeness together contribute more than fifty percent of the total influence on the web shoppers. Contrary to general perception that shoppers seek utilitarian leverages, the present study highlights the preference for fun, excitement, and entertainment during browsing of the website. Four segments namely Information Seekers, Utility Seekers, Value Seekers and Core Shoppers were identified and profiled. Value seekers emerged to be the most dominant segment with two-fifth of the respondents falling for hedonic as well as utilitarian shopping values. With overlap among the segments, utilitarian shopping value garnered prominence with more than fifty-eight percent of the total respondents. Moreover, a strong relation has been established between the income levels and the segments of Indian online shoppers. Web shoppers show different motives from being utility seekers to information seekers, core shoppers and finally value seekers as income levels increase. Companies can strategically use this information for target marketing and align their web portals accordingly. This study can further be used to develop models revolving around satisfaction, trust and customer loyalty.

Keywords: online shopping, shopping values, effectiveness of information content, web informativeness, web entertainment, information seekers, utility seekers, value seekers, core shoppers

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6 Systematic Analysis of Logistics Location Search Methods under Aspects of Sustainability

Authors: Markus Pajones, Theresa Steiner, Matthias Neubauer

Abstract:

Selecting a logistics location is vital for logistics providers, food retailing and other trading companies since the selection poses an essential factor for economic success. Therefore various location search methods like cost-benefit analysis and others are well known and under usage. The development of a logistics location can be related to considerable negative effects for the eco system such as sealing the surface, wrecking of biodiversity or CO2 and noise emissions generated by freight and commuting traffic. The increasing importance of sustainability demands for taking an informed decision when selecting a logistics location for the future. Sustainability considers economic, ecologic and social aspects which should be equally integrated in the process of location search. Objectives of this paper are to define various methods which support the selection of sustainable logistics locations and to generate knowledge about the suitability, assets and limitations of the methods within the selection process. This paper investigates the role of economical, ecological and social aspects when searching for new logistics locations. Thereby, related work targeted towards location search is analyzed with respect to encoded sustainability aspects. In addition, this research aims to gain knowledge on how to include aspects of sustainability and take an informed decision when searching for a logistics location. As a result, a decomposition of the various location search methods in there components leads to a comparative analysis in form of a matrix. The comparison within a matrix enables a transparent overview about the mentioned assets and limitations of the methods and their suitability for selecting sustainable logistics locations. A further result is to generate knowledge on how to combine the separate methods to a new method for a more efficient selection of logistics locations in the context of sustainability. Future work will especially investigate the above mentioned combination of various location search methods. The objective is to develop an innovative instrument, which supports the search for logistics locations with a focus on a balanced sustainability (economy, ecology, social). Because of an ideal selection of logistics locations, induced traffic should be reduced and a mode shift to rail and public transport should be facilitated.

Keywords: commuting traffic, freight traffic, logistics location search, location search method

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5 Multimodality in Storefront Windows: The Impact of Verbo-Visual Design on Consumer Behavior

Authors: Angela Bargenda, Erhard Lick, Dhoha Trabelsi

Abstract:

Research in retailing has identified the importance of atmospherics as an essential element in enhancing store image, store patronage intentions, and the overall shopping experience in a retail environment. However, in the area of atmospherics, store window design, which represents an essential component of external store atmospherics, remains a vastly underrepresented phenomenon in extant scholarship. This paper seeks to fill this gap by exploring the relevance of store window design as an atmospheric tool. In particular, empirical evidence of theme-based theatrical store front windows, which put emphasis on the use of verbo-visual design elements, was found in Paris and New York. The purpose of this study was to identify to what extent such multimodal window designs of high-end department stores in metropolitan cities have an impact on store entry decisions and attitudes towards the retailer’s image. As theoretical construct, the linguistic concept of multimodality and Mehrabian’s and Russell’s model in environmental psychology were applied. To answer the research question, two studies were conducted. For Study 1 a case study approach was selected to define three different types of store window designs based on different types of visual-verbal relations. Each of these types of store window design represented a different level of cognitive elaboration required for the decoding process. Study 2 consisted of an on-line survey carried out among more than 300 respondents to examine the influence of these three types of store window design on the consumer behavioral variables mentioned above. The results of this study show that the higher the cognitive elaboration needed to decode the message of the store window, the lower the store entry propensity. In contrast, the higher the cognitive elaboration, the higher the perceived image of the retailer’s image. One important conclusion is that in order to increase consumers’ propensity to enter stores with theme-based theatrical store front windows, retailers need to limit the cognitive elaboration required to decode their verbo-visual window design.

Keywords: consumer behavior, multimodality, store atmospherics, store window design

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4 Urban Livelihoods and Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies for Urban Poor in Douala, Cameroon

Authors: Agbortoko Manyigbe Ayuk Nkem, Eno Cynthia Osuh

Abstract:

This paper sets to examine the relationship between climate change and urban livelihood through a vulnerability assessment of the urban poor in Douala. Urban development in Douala places priority towards industrial and city-centre development with little focus on the urban poor in terms of housing units and areas of sustenance. With the high rate of urbanisation and increased land prices, the urban poor are forced to occupy marginal lands which are mainly wetlands, wastelands and along abandoned neighbourhoods prone to natural hazards. Due to climate change and its effects, these wetlands are constantly flooded thereby destroying homes, properties, and crops. Also, most of these urban dwellers have found solace in urban agriculture as a means for survival. However, since agriculture in tropical regions like Cameroon depends largely on seasonal rainfall, the changes in rainfall pattern has led to misplaced periods for crop planting and a huge wastage of resources as rainfall becomes very unreliable with increased temperature levels. Data for the study was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources included published materials related to climate change and vulnerability. Primary data was obtained through focus-group discussions with some urban farmers while a stratified sampling of residents within marginal lands was done. Each stratum was randomly sampled to obtain information on different stressors related to climate change and their effect on livelihood. Findings proved that the high rate of rural-urban migration into Douala has led to increased prevalence of the urban poor and their vulnerability to climate change as evident in their constant fight against flood from unexpected sea level rise and irregular rainfall pattern for urban agriculture. The study also proved that women were most vulnerable as they depended solely on urban agriculture and its related activities like retailing agricultural products in different urban markets which to them serves as a main source of income in the attainment of basic needs for the family. Adaptation measures include the constant use of sand bags, raised makeshifts as well as cultivation along streams, planting after evidence of constant rainfall has become paramount for sustainability.

Keywords: adaptation, Douala, Cameroon, climate change, development, livelihood, vulnerability

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3 Modelling the Antecedents of Supply Chain Enablers in Online Groceries Using Interpretive Structural Modelling and MICMAC Analysis

Authors: Rose Antony, Vivekanand B. Khanapuri, Karuna Jain

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Online groceries have transformed the way the supply chains are managed. These are facing numerous challenges in terms of product wastages, low margins, long breakeven to achieve and low market penetration to mention a few. The e-grocery chains need to overcome these challenges in order to survive the competition. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a structural analysis of the enablers in e-grocery chains by applying Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis in the Indian context. The research design is descriptive-explanatory in nature. The enablers have been identified from the literature and through semi-structured interviews conducted among the managers having relevant experience in e-grocery supply chains. The experts have been contacted through professional/social networks by adopting a purposive snowball sampling technique. The interviews have been transcribed, and manual coding is carried using open and axial coding method. The key enablers are categorized into themes, and the contextual relationship between these and the performance measures is sought from the Industry veterans. Using ISM, the hierarchical model of the enablers is developed and MICMAC analysis identifies the driver and dependence powers. Based on the driver-dependence power the enablers are categorized into four clusters namely independent, autonomous, dependent and linkage. The analysis found that information technology (IT) and manpower training acts as key enablers towards reducing the lead time and enhancing the online service quality. Many of the enablers fall under the linkage cluster viz., frequent software updating, branding, the number of delivery boys, order processing, benchmarking, product freshness and customized applications for different stakeholders, depicting these as critical in online food/grocery supply chains. Considering the perishability nature of the product being handled, the impact of the enablers on the product quality is also identified. Hence, study aids as a tool to identify and prioritize the vital enablers in the e-grocery supply chain. The work is perhaps unique, which identifies the complex relationships among the supply chain enablers in fresh food for e-groceries and linking them to the performance measures. It contributes to the knowledge of supply chain management in general and e-retailing in particular. The approach focus on the fresh food supply chains in the Indian context and hence will be applicable in developing economies context, where supply chains are evolving.

Keywords: interpretive structural modelling (ISM), India, online grocery, retail operations, supply chain management

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2 How Can Food Retailing Benefit from Neuromarketing Research: The Influence of Traditional and Innovative Tools of In-Store Communication on Consumer Reactions

Authors: Jakub Berčík, Elena Horská, Ľudmila Nagyová

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Nowadays, the point of sale remains one of the few channels of communication which is not oversaturated yet and has great potential for the future. The fact that purchasing decisions are significantly affected by emotions, while up to 75 % of them are implemented at the point of sale, only demonstrates its importance. The share of impulsive purchases is about 60-75 %, depending on the particular product category. Nevertheless, habits predetermine the content of the shopping cart above all and hence in this regard the role of in-store communication is to disrupt the routine and compel the customer to try something new. This is the reason why it is essential to know how to work with this relatively young branch of marketing communication as efficiently as possible. New global trend in this discipline is evaluating the effectiveness of particular tools in the in-store communication. To increase the efficiency it is necessary to become familiar with the factors affecting the customer both consciously and unconsciously, and that is a task for neuromarketing and sensory marketing. It is generally known that the customer remembers the negative experience much longer and more intensely than the positive ones, therefore it is essential for marketers to avoid this negative experience. The final effect of POP (Point of Purchase) or POS (Point of Sale) tools is conditional not only on their quality and design, but also on the location at the point of sale which contributes to the overall positive atmosphere in the store. Therefore, in-store advertising is increasingly in the center of attention and companies are willing to spend even a third of their marketing communication budget on it. The paper deals with a comprehensive, interdisciplinary research of the impact of traditional as well as innovative tools of in-store communication on the attention and emotional state (valence and arousal) of consumers on the food market. The research integrates measurements with eye camera (Eye tracker) and electroencephalograph (EEG) in real grocery stores as well as in laboratory conditions with the purpose of recognizing attention and emotional response among respondents under the influence of selected tools of in-store communication. The object of the research includes traditional (e.g. wobblers, stoppers, floor graphics) and innovative (e.g. displays, wobblers with LED elements, interactive floor graphics) tools of in-store communication in the fresh unpackaged food segment. By using a mobile 16-channel electroencephalograph (EEG equipment) from the company EPOC, a mobile eye camera (Eye tracker) from the company Tobii and a stationary eye camera (Eye tracker) from the company Gazepoint, we observe the attention and emotional state (valence and arousal) to reveal true consumer preferences using traditional and new unusual communication tools at the point of sale of the selected foodstuffs. The paper concludes with suggesting possibilities for rational, effective and energy-efficient combination of in-store communication tools, by which the retailer can accomplish not only captivating and attractive presentation of displayed goods, but ultimately also an increase in retail sales of the store.

Keywords: electroencephalograph (EEG), emotion, eye tracker, in-store communication

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1 Beyond Black Friday: The Value of Collaborative Research on Seasonal Shopping Events and Behavior

Authors: Jasmin H. Kwon , Thomas M. Brinthaupt

Abstract:

There is a general lack of consumer behavior research on seasonal shopping events. Studying these kinds of events is interesting and important for several reasons. First, global shopping opportunities have implications for cross-cultural shopping events and effects on seasonal events in other countries. Second, seasonal shopping events are subject to economic conditions and may wane in popularity, especially with e-commerce options. Third, retailers can expand the success of their seasonal shopping events by taking advantage of cross-cultural opportunities. Fourth, it is interesting to consider how consumers from other countries might take advantage of different countries’ seasonal shopping events. Many countries have seasonal shopping events such as Black Friday. Research on these kinds of events can lead to the identification of cross-cultural similarities and differences in consumer behavior. We compared shopping motivations of college students who did (n=36) and did not (n=81) shop on Cyber Monday. The results showed that the groups did not differ significantly on any of the shopping motivation subscales. The Cyber Monday shoppers reported being significantly more likely to agree than disagree that their online shopping experience was enjoyable and exciting. They were more likely to disagree than agree that their experience was overwhelming. In addition, they agreed that they shopped only for deals, purchased the exact items they wanted, and thought that their efforts were worth it. Finally, they intended to shop again at next year’s Cyber Monday. It appears that there are many positive aspects to online seasonal shopping, independent of one’s typical shopping motivations. Different countries have seasonal events similar to the Black Friday and Cyber Monday shopping holiday (e.g., Boxing Day, Fukubukuro, China’s Singles Day). In Korea, there is increasing interest in taking advantage of U.S. Black Friday and Cyber Monday opportunities. Government officials are interested in adapting the U.S. holiday to Korean retailers, essentially recreating the Black Friday/Cyber Monday holiday there. Similarly, the Japanese Fukubukuro ('Lucky Bag') holiday is being adapted by other countries such as Korea and the U.S. International shipping support companies are also emerging that help customers to identify and receive products from other countries. U.S. department stores also provide free shipping on international orders for certain items. As these structural changes are occurring and new options for global shopping emerge, the need to understand the role of shoppers’ motivations becomes even more important. For example, the Cyber Monday results are particularly relevant to the new landscape with e-commerce and cross-cultural opportunities, since many of these events involve e-commerce. Within today’s global market, physical location of a retail store is no longer a limitation to growing one’s market share. From a consumer perspective, it is important to investigate how shopping motivations are related to e-commerce seasonal events. From a retail perspective, understanding the shopping motivations of international customers would help retailers to expand and better tailor their seasonal shopping events beyond the boundaries of their own countries. From a collaborative perspective, research on this topic can include interdisciplinary researchers, including those from fashion merchandising, marketing, retailing, and psychology.

Keywords: Black Friday, cross-cultural research, Cyber Monday, seasonal shopping behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 317