Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3863

Search results for: emerging market

3863 Analytical Approach to Reinsurance in Algeria as an Emerging Market

Authors: Nesrine Bouzaher, Okba Necira

Abstract:

The financial aspect of the Algerian economy is part of all sectors that have undergone great changes these two last decades; the goal is to enable economic mechanisms for real growth. Insurance is an indispensable tool for stabilizing these mechanisms. Therefore the national economy needs to develop the insurance market in order to support the investments, externally and internally; it turns out that reinsurance is one of the area which could prove their performance in several markets mainly emerging ones. The expansion of reinsurance in the domestic market is the preoccupation of this work, focusing on factors that could enhance the demand of reinsurance in the Algerian market. This work will be based on an analytical research of the economic contribution of the reinsurance and it’s collusion with insurance; market, then it will be necessary to provide an overview of the product in the national emerging market, finally we will try to investigate on the factors that could enhance the demand in the national reinsurance market so as to determine the potential of Algeria in this area.

Keywords: Algerian reinsurance data, demand trend of Algerian reinsurance, reinsurance, reinsurance market

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3862 Analytical Approach to Reinsurance in Algeria as an Emerging Market

Authors: Necira Okba, Nesrine Bouzaher

Abstract:

The financial aspect of the Algerian economy is part of all sectors that have undergone great changes these two last decades; the goal is to enable economic mechanisms for real growth. Insurance is an indispensable tool for stabilizing these mechanisms. Therefore, the national economy needs to develop the insurance market in order to support the investments, externally and intern ally; it turns out that reinsurance is one of the area which could prove their performance in several markets mainly emerging ones. The expansion of reinsurance in the domestic market is the preoccupation of this work, focusing on factors that could enhance the demand of reinsurance in the Algerian market. This work will be based on an analytical research of the economic contribution of the reinsurance and it’s collusion with insurance market, then it will be necessary to provide an overview of the product in the national emerging market, finally we will try to investigate on the factors that could enhance the demand in the national reinsurance market so as to determine the potential of Algeria in this area.

Keywords: Algerian reinsurance data, demand trend of Algerian reinsurance, reinsurance, reinsurance market

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
3861 Volatility Transmission between Oil Price and Stock Return of Emerging and Developed Countries

Authors: Algia Hammami, Abdelfatteh Bouri

Abstract:

In this work, our objective is to study the transmission of volatility between oil and stock markets in developed (USA, Germany, Italy, France and Japan) and emerging countries (Tunisia, Thailand, Brazil, Argentina, and Jordan) for the period 1998-2015. Our methodology consists of analyzing the monthly data by the GARCH-BEKK model to capture the effect in terms of volatility in the variation of the oil price on the different stock market. The empirical results in the emerging countries indicate that the relationships are unidirectional from the stock market to the oil market. For the developed countries, we find that the transmission of volatility is unidirectional from the oil market to stock market. For the USA and Italy, we find no transmission between the two markets. The transmission is bi-directional only in Thailand. Following our estimates, we also noticed that the emerging countries influence almost the same extent as the developed countries, while at the transmission of volatility there a bid difference. The GARCH-BEKK model is more effective than the others versions to minimize the risk of an oil-stock portfolio.

Keywords: GARCH, oil prices, stock market, volatility transmission

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3860 The Impact of Trade on Stock Market Integration of Emerging Markets

Authors: Anna M. Pretorius

Abstract:

The emerging markets category for portfolio investment was introduced in 1986 in an attempt to promote capital market development in less developed countries. Investors traditionally diversified their portfolios by investing in different developed markets. However, high growth opportunities forced investors to consider emerging markets as well. Examples include the rapid growth of the “Asian Tigers” during the 1980s, growth in Latin America during the 1990s and the increased interest in emerging markets during the global financial crisis. As such, portfolio flows to emerging markets have increased substantially. In 2002 7% of all equity allocations from advanced economies went to emerging markets; this increased to 20% in 2012. The stronger links between advanced and emerging markets led to increased synchronization of asset price movements. This increased level of stock market integration for emerging markets is confirmed by various empirical studies. Against the background of increased interest in emerging market assets and the increasing level of integration of emerging markets, this paper focuses on the determinants of stock market integration of emerging market countries. Various studies have linked the level of financial market integration with specific economic variables. These variables include: economic growth, local inflation, trade openness, local investment, budget surplus/ deficit, market capitalization, domestic bank credit, domestic institutional and legal environment and world interest rates. The aim of this study is to empirically investigate to what extent trade-related determinants have an impact on stock market integration. The panel data sample include data of 16 emerging market countries: Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey for the period 1998-2011. The integration variable for each emerging stock market is calculated as the explanatory power of a multi-factor model. These factors are extracted from a large panel of global stock market returns. Trade related explanatory variables include: exports as percentage of GDP, imports as percentage of GDP and total trade as percentage of GDP. Other macroeconomic indicators – such as market capitalisation, the size of the budget deficit and the effectiveness of the regulation of the securities exchange – are included in the regressions as control variables. An initial analysis on a sample of developed stock markets could not identify any significant determinants of stock market integration. Thus the macroeconomic variables identified in the literature are much more significant in explaining stock market integration of emerging markets than stock market integration of developed markets. The three trade variables are all statistically significant at a 5% level. The market capitalisation variable is also significant while the regulation variable is only marginally significant. The global financial crisis has highlighted the urgency to better understand the link between the financial and real sectors of the economy. This paper comes to the important finding that, apart from the level of market capitalisation (as financial indicator), trade (representative of the real economy) is a significant determinant of stock market integration of countries not yet classified as developed economies.

Keywords: emerging markets, financial market integration, panel data, trade

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3859 Stock Market Integration of Emerging Markets around the Global Financial Crisis: Trends and Explanatory Factors

Authors: Najlae Bendou, Jean-Jacques Lilti, Khalid Elbadraoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we examine stock market integration of emerging markets around the global financial turmoil of 2007-2008. Following Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009), we measure the integration of 46 emerging countries using the adjusted R-square from the regression of each country's daily index returns on global factors extracted from the covariance matrix computed using dollar-denominated daily index returns of 17 developed countries. Our sample surrounds the global financial crisis and ranges between 2000 and 2018. We analyze results using four cohorts of emerging countries: East Asia & Pacific and South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Middle East & Africa. We find that the level of integration of emerging countries increases at the commencement of the crisis and during the booming phase of the business cycles. It reaches a maximum point in the middle of the crisis and then tends to revert to its pre-crisis level. This pattern tends to be common among the four geographic zones investigated in this study. Finally, we investigate the determinants of stock market integration of emerging countries in our sample using panel regressions. Our results suggest that the degree of stock market integration of these countries should be put into perspective by some macro-economic factors, such as the size of the equity market, school enrollment rate, international liquidity level, stocks traded volume, tax revenue level, imports and exports volumes.

Keywords: correlations, determinants of integration, diversification, emerging markets, financial crisis, integration, markets co-movement, panel regressions, r-square, stock markets

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3858 The Term Structure of Government Bond Yields in an Emerging Market: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan Bond Market

Authors: Wali Ullah, Muhammad Nishat

Abstract:

The study investigates the extent to which the so called Nelson-Siegel model (DNS) and its extended version that accounts for time varying volatility (DNS-EGARCH) can optimally fit the yield curve and predict its future path in the context of an emerging economy. For the in-sample fit, both models fit the curve remarkably well even in the emerging markets. However, the DNS-EGARCH model fits the curve slightly better than the DNS. Moreover, both specifications of yield curve that are based on the Nelson-Siegel functional form outperform the benchmark VAR forecasts at all forecast horizons. The DNS-EGARCH comes with more precise forecasts than the DNS for the 6- and 12-month ahead forecasts, while the two have almost similar performance in terms of RMSE for the very short forecast horizons.

Keywords: yield curve, forecasting, emerging markets, Kalman filter, EGARCH

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3857 Impact of Marketing Orientation on Environment and Firm’s Performance

Authors: Sabita Mahapatra

Abstract:

‘Going green’ has been an emerging issue worldwide driving companies to continuously enhance their green capabilities and implement innovative green practices to protect the environment and improve business performance. Green has become a contemporary business environmental issue. The resource advantage theory is adopted in the present study to observe the impact of marketing orientation and green innovation practices on environmental and firm’s performance. The small and medium firms compared to large firms have different approach towards market orientation as a strategic tool. The present study proposes a conceptual framework regarding the impact of market orientation on environmental and firm’s performance through green innovation practices in the context of small and medium scale industries (SMEs). The propositions developed in the present paper would provide scope for future research study to validate the conceptual framework in the emerging economy like India.

Keywords: market orientation, green innovation practices, environment performance, corporate performance, emerging market

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3856 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context

Authors: Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick

Abstract:

Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirms the number of factor retention using an alternative factor retention criterion, ‘Parallel Analysis’. 500 entrepreneurs, engaged in start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper concludes with the factor structure of ‘market uncertainty’ having dimensions of uncertainty in industry orientation, uncertainty in customer orientation and uncertainty in marketing orientation.

Keywords: uncertainty, market, orientation, competitor, demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
3855 Factors Affecting Mobile Internet Adoption in an Emerging Market

Authors: Maha Mourad, Fady Todros

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to find an explanatory model to define the most important variables and factors that affect the acceptance of Mobile Internet in the Egyptian market. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted to support the conceptual framework followed with a quantitative research in the form of a survey distributed among 411 respondents. It was clear that relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, perceived price level and perceived playfulness have a dominant role in influencing consumers to adopt mobile internet, while observability is correlated to the adoption but when measured with the other factors it lost its value. The perceived price level has a negative relationship with the adoption as well the compatibility.

Keywords: innovation, Egypt, communication technologies, diffusion, innovation adoption, emerging market

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3854 Audit Committee Financial Expertise and Financial Reporting Timeliness in Emerging Market: The Role of Audit Committee Chair

Authors: Saeed Rabea Baatwah, Zalailah Salleh, Norsiah Ahmad

Abstract:

This study examines whether audit committee chair with financial expertise enhances the audit committee role in financial reporting quality in emerging market. We investigate this influence by employing the direct effect and moderating effect of audit committee chair with financial expertise on financial reporting timeliness. By using Omani data and the panel data method for two proxies for financial reporting timeliness, we find that audit committee chair with financial expertise enhances the timeliness of financial reporting through making the disclosure of annual reports timely. Further, we report evidence showing that both accounting and non-accounting financial expertise on the audit committee have a positive and significant influence on the timeliness of financial reporting. We also document that the association between financial expertise and the timeliness of financial reporting is more pronounced when the chair of the audit committee has financial expertise. This study is among the first to comprehensively prove that audit committee chair with financial expertise contributes to the quality of financial reporting in emerging market.

Keywords: audit committee, chair with financial expertise, timeliness of financial reporting, Oman

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3853 Contagion of the Global Financial Crisis and Its Impact on Systemic Risk in the Banking System: Extreme Value Theory Analysis in Six Emerging Asia Economies

Authors: Ratna Kuswardani

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the impact of recent Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on 6 selected emerging Asian economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Singapore, and South Korea). We first figure out the contagion of GFC from the US and Europe to the selected emerging Asian countries by studying the tail dependence of market stock returns between those countries. We apply the concept of Extreme Value Theory (EVT) to model the dependence between multiple returns series of variables under examination. We explore the factors causing the contagion between the regions. We find dependencies between markets that are influenced by their size, especially for large markets in emerging Asian countries that tend to have a higher dependency to the market in the more advanced country such as the U.S. and some countries in Europe. The results also suggest that the dependencies between market returns and bank stock returns in the same region tend to be higher than dependencies between these returns across two different regions. We extend our analysis by studying the impact of GFC on the systemic in the banking system. We also find that larger institution has more dependencies with the market stock, suggesting that larger size bank can cause disruption in the market. Further, the higher probability of extreme loss can be seen during the crisis period, which is shown by the non-linear dependency between the pre-crisis and the post-crisis period. Finally, our analysis suggests that systemic risk appears in the domestic banking systems in emerging Asia, as shown by the extreme dependencies within banks in the system. Overall, our results provide caution to policy makers and investors alike on the possible contagion of the impact of global financial crisis across different markets.

Keywords: contagion, extreme value theory, global financial crisis, systemic risk

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3852 Testing the Weak Form Efficiency of Islamic Stock Market: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Herjuno Bagus Wicaksono, Emma Almira Fauni, Salma Amelia Dina

Abstract:

The Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) states that, in an efficient capital market, price fully reflects the information available in the market. This theory has influenced many investors behavior in trading in the stock market. Advanced researches have been conducted to test the efficiency of the stock market in particular countries. Indonesia, as one of the emerging countries, has performed substantial growth in the past years. Hence, this paper aims to examine the efficiency of Islamic stock market in Indonesia in its weak form. The daily stock price data from Indonesia Sharia Stock Index (ISSI) for the period October 2015 to October 2016 were used to do the statistical tests: Run Test and Serial Correlation Test. The results show that there is no serial correlation between the current price with the past prices and the market follows the random walk. This research concludes that Indonesia Islamic stock market is weak form efficient.

Keywords: efficient market hypothesis, Indonesia sharia stock index, random walk, weak form efficiency

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3851 Financial Literacy and Stock Market Participation: Does Gender Matter?

Authors: Irfan Ullah Munir, Shen Yue, Muhammad Shahzad Ijaz, Saad Hussain, Syeda Yumna Zaidi

Abstract:

Financial literacy is fundamental to every decision-making process and has received attention from researchers, regulatory bodies and policy makers in the recent past. This study is an attempt to evaluate financial literacy in an emerging economy, particularly Pakistan, and its influence on people's stock market participation. Data of this study was collected through a structured questionnaire from a sample of 300 respondents. EFA is used to check the convergent and discriminant validity. Data is analyzed using Hayes (2013) approach. A set of demographic control variables that have passed the mean difference test is used. We demonstrate that participants with financial literacy tend to invest more in the stock market. We also find that association among financial literacy and participation in stock market gets moderated by gender.

Keywords: Financial literacy, Stock market participation, Gender, PSX

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3850 Clustering of Extremes in Financial Returns: A Comparison between Developed and Emerging Markets

Authors: Sara Ali Alokley, Mansour Saleh Albarrak

Abstract:

This paper investigates the dependency or clustering of extremes in the financial returns data by estimating the extremal index value θ∈[0,1]. The smaller the value of θ the more clustering we have. Here we apply the method of Ferro and Segers (2003) to estimate the extremal index for a range of threshold values. We compare the dependency structure of extremes in the developed and emerging markets. We use the financial returns of the stock market index in the developed markets of US, UK, France, Germany and Japan and the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China and Saudi Arabia. We expect that more clustering occurs in the emerging markets. This study will help to understand the dependency structure of the financial returns data.

Keywords: clustring, extremes, returns, dependency, extermal index

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
3849 Sensitivity of Credit Default Swaps Premium to Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Oguzhan Cepni, Doruk Kucuksarac, M. Hasan Yilmaz

Abstract:

Risk premium of emerging markets are moving altogether depending on the momentum and shifts in the global risk appetite. However, the magnitudes of these changes in the risk premium of emerging market economies might vary. In this paper, we focus on how global risk factor affects credit default swaps (CDS) premiums of emerging markets using principal component analysis (PCA) and rolling regressions. PCA results indicate that the first common component accounts for almost 76% of common variation in CDS premiums of emerging markets. Additionally, the explanatory power of the first factor seems to be high over sample period. However, the sensitivity to the global risk factor tends to change over time and across countries. In this regard, fixed effects panel regressions are employed to identify the macroeconomic factors driving the heterogeneity across emerging markets. There are two main macroeconomic variables that affect the sensitivity; government debt to GDP and international reserves to GDP. The countries with lower government debt and higher reserves tend to be less subject to the variations in the global risk appetite.

Keywords: emerging markets, principal component analysis, credit default swaps, sovereign risk

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3848 The Sensitivity of Credit Defaults Swaps Premium to Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Oguzhan Cepni, Doruk Kucuksarac, M. Hasan Yilmaz

Abstract:

Changes in the global risk appetite cause co-movement in emerging market risk premiums. However, the sensitivity of the changes in risk premium to the global risk appetite may vary across emerging markets. In this study, how the global risk appetite affects Credit Default Swap (CDS) premiums in emerging markets are analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and rolling regressions. The PCA results indicate that the first common component derived by the PCA accounts for almost 76 percent of the common variation in CDS premiums. Additionally, the explanatory power of the first factor seems to be high over the sample period. However, the sensitivity to the global risk factor tends to change over time and across countries. In this regard, fixed effects panel regressions are used to identify the macroeconomic factors driving the heterogeneity across emerging markets. The panel regression results point to the significance of government debt to GDP and international reserves to GDP in explaining sensitivity. Accordingly, countries with lower government debt and higher reserves tend to be less subject to the variations in the global risk appetite.

Keywords: credit default swaps, emerging markets, principal components analysis, sovereign risk

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3847 Examining Motivational Strategies of Foreign Manufacturing Firms in Ghana

Authors: Samuel Ato Dadzie

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the influence of eclectic paradigm on motivational strategy of foreign subsidiaries in Ghana. This study uses binary regression model, and the analysis was based on 75 manufacturing investments made by MNEs from different countries in 1994–2008. The results indicated that perceived market size increases the probability of foreign firms undertaking a market seeking (MS) in Ghana, while perceived cultural distance between Ghana and foreign firm’s home countries decreased the probability of foreign firms undertaking an market seeking (MS) foreign direct investment (FDI) in Ghana. Furthermore, extensive international experience decreases the probability of foreign firms undertaking a market seeking (MS) foreign direct investment (FDI) in Ghana. Most of the studies done by earlier researchers were based on the advanced and emerging countries and offered support for the theory, which was used in generalizing the result that multinational corporations (MNCs) normally used the theory regarding investment strategy outside their home country. In using the same theory in the context of Ghana, the result does not offer strong support for the theory. This means that MNCs that come to Sub-Sahara Africa cannot rely much on eclectic paradigm for their motivational strategies because prevailing economic conditions in Ghana are different from that of the advanced and emerging economies where the institutional structures work.

Keywords: foreign subsidiary, motives, Ghana, foreign direct investment

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3846 Opportunities and Challenges of Omni Channel Retailing in the Emerging Market

Authors: Salma Ahmed, Anil Kumar

Abstract:

This paper develops and estimates a model for understanding the drivers and barriers for Omni-Channel retail. This study serves as one of the first attempt to empirically test the effect of various factors on Omni-channel retail. Omni-channel is relative new and evolving, we hypothesize three drivers: (1) Innovative sales and marketing opportunities, (2) channel migration, (3) Cross channel synergies; and three barriers: (1) Integrated sales and marketing operations, (2) Visibility and synchronization (3) Integration and Technology challenges. The findings from the study strongly support that Omni-channel effects exist between cross channel synergy and channel migration. However, it partially supports innovative sales and marketing operations. We also found the variables which we identified as barriers to Omni-channel retail have a strong impact on Omni-channel retail.

Keywords: retailing, multichannel, Omni-channel, emerging market

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
3845 Relationship between ISO 14001 and Market Performance of Firms in China: An Institutional and Market Learning Perspective

Authors: Hammad Riaz, Abubakr Saeed

Abstract:

Environmental Management System (EMS), i.e., ISO 14001 helps to build corporate reputation, legitimacy and can also be considered as firms’ strategic response to institutional pressure to reduce the impact of business activity on natural environment. The financial outcomes of certifying with ISO 14001 are still unclear and equivocal. Drawing on institutional and market learning theories, the impact of ISO 14001 on firms’ market performance is examined for Chinese firms. By employing rigorous event study approach, this paper compared ISO 14001 certified firms with non-certified counterpart firms based on different matching criteria that include size, return on assets and industry. The results indicate that the ISO 14001 has been negatively signed by the investors both in the short and long-run. This paper suggested implications for policy makers, managers, and other nonprofit organizations.

Keywords: ISO 14001, legitimacy, institutional forces, event study approach, emerging markets

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3844 State of Freelancing in IT and Future Trends

Authors: Mihai Gheorghe

Abstract:

Freelancing in IT has seen an increased popularity during the last years mainly because of the fast Internet adoption in the countries with emerging economies, correlated with the continuous seek for reduced development costs as well with the rise of online platforms which address planning, coordination, and various development tasks. This paper conducts an overview of the most relevant Freelance Marketplaces available and studies the market structure, distribution of the workforce and trends in IT freelancing.

Keywords: freelancing in IT, freelance marketplaces, freelance market structure, globalization, online staffing, trends in freelancing

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3843 Electricity Market Categorization for Smart Grid Market Testing

Authors: Rebeca Ramirez Acosta, Sebastian Lenhoff

Abstract:

Decision makers worldwide need to determine if the implementation of a new market mechanism will contribute to the sustainability and resilience of the power system. Due to smart grid technologies, new products in the distribution and transmission system can be traded; however, the impact of changing a market rule will differ between several regions. To test systematically those impacts, a market categorization has been compiled and organized in a smart grid market testing toolbox. This toolbox maps all actual energy products and sets the basis for running a co-simulation test with the new rule to be implemented. It will help to measure the impact of the new rule, based on the sustainable and resilience indicators.

Keywords: co-simulation, electricity market, smart grid market, market testing

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3842 Islamic Equity Markets Response to Volatility of Bitcoin

Authors: Zakaria S. G. Hegazy, Walid M. A. Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper examines the dependence structure of Islamic stock markets on Bitcoin’s realized volatility components in bear, normal, and bull market periods. A quantile regression approach is employed, after adjusting raw returns with respect to a broad set of relevant global factors and accounting for structural breaks in the data. The results reveal that upside volatility tends to exert negative influences on Islamic developed-market returns more in bear than in bull market conditions, while downside volatility positively affects returns during bear and bull conditions. For emerging markets, we find that the upside (downside) component exerts lagged negative (positive) effects on returns in bear (all) market regimes. By and large, the dependence structures turn out to be asymmetric. Our evidence provides essential implications for investors.

Keywords: cryptocurrency markets, bitcoin, realized volatility measures, asymmetry, quantile regression

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3841 The Voluntary Review Decision of Quarterly Consolidated Financial Statements in Emerging Market: Evidence from Taiwan

Authors: Shuofen Hsu, Ya-Yi Chao, Chao-Wei Li

Abstract:

This paper investigates the factors of whether firms’ quarterly consolidated financial statements to be voluntary reviewed by auditor. To promote the information transparency, the Financial Supervisory Commission of Executive Yuan in Taiwan ruled the Taiwanese listed companies should announce the first and third quarterly consolidated financial statements since 2008 to 2012, while the Commission didn’t require the consolidated financial statements should be reviewed by auditors. This is a very special practice in emerging market, especially in Taiwan. The valuable data of this period is suitable for us to research the determinants of firms’ voluntary review decision in emerging markets. We collected the auditors' report of each company and each year of Taiwanese listed companies since 2008 to 2012 for our research samples. We use probit model to test and analyze the determinants of voluntary review decision of the first and third quarterly consolidated financial statements. Our empirical result shows that the firms whose first and third quarterly consolidated financial statements are voluntary to be reviewed by auditors have better ranking of information transparency, higher audit quality, and better corporate governance, suggesting that voluntary review is a good signal to firms’ better information and corporate governance quality.

Keywords: voluntary review, information transparency, audit quality, quarterly consolidated financial statements

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3840 A Historical Overview of the General Implementation of the European Union Market Abuse Directive in the United Kingdom before the Brexit and Its Future Implications

Authors: Howard Chitimira

Abstract:

The European Union (EU) was probably the first body to establish multinational anti-market abuse laws aimed at enhancing the detection and curbing of cross-border market abuse activities in its member states. Put differently, the EU Insider Dealing Directive was adopted in 1989 and was the first law that harmonised the insider trading ban among the EU member states. Thereafter, the European Union Directive on Insider Dealing and Market Manipulation (EU Market Abuse Directive) was adopted in a bid to improve and effectively discourage all the forms of market abuse in the EU’s securities and financial markets. However, the EU Market Abuse Directive had its own gaps and flaws. In light of this, the Market Abuse Regulation and the Criminal Sanctions for Market Abuse Directive were enacted to repeal and replace the EU Market Abuse Directive in 2016. The article examines the adequacy of the EU Market Abuse Directive and its implementation in the United Kingdom (UK) prior to the British exit (Brexit). This is done to investigate the possible implications of the Brexit referendum outcome of 23 June 2016 on the future regulation of market abuse in the UK.

Keywords: market abuse, insider trading, market manipulation, European Union, United Kingdom

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3839 Comparitive Analysis of Islamic and Conventional Banking Systems in Terms of Profitability: A Study on Emerging Market Economies

Authors: Alimshan Faizulayev, Eralp Bektas, Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Bezhan Rustamov

Abstract:

This paper performs empirical analysis on determinants of profitability in Islamic and Conventional Banks. The main focus of this study is to evaluate and measure of financial performance of Islamic banking firms operating in Egypt, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Turkey, UAE in contrast to Conventional ones in those countries. To evaluate empirically performance of the banks, various financial ratios are employed. We measure performance in terms of liquidity, profitability, solvency, and efficiency. In this work, t-test, F-test, and OLS analysis are used to make hypothesis tests. Our findings reveal that there are similarities and differences in profitability determinants of Islamic and Conventional banking firms. The cost to revenue ratio has inverse relationship with profitability indicators in both banking systems. However, there are differences in financial performances between Conventional Banks and Islamic banks which are found in overall picture of all banks in terms of net income margin.

Keywords: Islamic banking, conventional banking, GDP growth, emerging market economies

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3838 A-Score, Distress Prediction Model with Earning Response during the Financial Crisis: Evidence from Emerging Market

Authors: Sumaira Ashraf, Elisabete G.S. Félix, Zélia Serrasqueiro

Abstract:

Traditional financial distress prediction models performed well to predict bankrupt and insolvent firms of the developed markets. Previous studies particularly focused on the predictability of financial distress, financial failure, and bankruptcy of firms. This paper contributes to the literature by extending the definition of financial distress with the inclusion of early warning signs related to quotation of face value, dividend/bonus declaration, annual general meeting, and listing fee. The study used five well-known distress prediction models to see if they have the ability to predict early warning signs of financial distress. Results showed that the predictive ability of the models varies over time and decreases specifically for the sample with early warning signs of financial distress. Furthermore, the study checked the differences in the predictive ability of the models with respect to the financial crisis. The results conclude that the predictive ability of the traditional financial distress prediction models decreases for the firms with early warning signs of financial distress and during the time of financial crisis. The study developed a new model comprising significant variables from the five models and one new variable earning response. This new model outperforms the old distress prediction models before, during and after the financial crisis. Thus, it can be used by researchers, organizations and all other concerned parties to indicate early warning signs for the emerging markets.

Keywords: financial distress, emerging market, prediction models, Z-Score, logit analysis, probit model

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3837 Price Regulation in Domestic Market: Incentives to Collude in the Deregulated Market

Authors: S. Avdasheva, D. Tsytsulina

Abstract:

In many regulated industries over the world price cap as a method of price regulation replaces cost-plus pricing. It is a kind of incentive regulation introduced in order to enhance productive efficiency by strengthening sellers’ incentives for cost reduction as well as incentives for more efficient pricing. However pricing under cap is not neutral for competition in the market. We consider influence on competition on the markets where benchmark for cap is chosen from when sellers are multi-market. We argue that the impact of price cap regulation on market competition depends on the design of cap. More specifically if cap for one (regulated) market depends on the price of the supplier in other (non-regulated) market, there is sub-type of price cap regulation (known in Russian tariff regulation as ‘netback minus’) that enhance incentives to collude in non-regulated market.

Keywords: price regulation, competition, collusion

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3836 Focusing of Technology Monitoring Activities Using Indicators

Authors: Günther Schuh, Christina König, Toni Drescher

Abstract:

One of the key factors for the competitiveness and market success of technology-driven companies is the timely provision of information about emerging technologies, changes in existing technologies, as well as relevant related changes in the market's structures and participants. Therefore, many companies conduct technology intelligence (TI) activities to ensure an early identification of appropriate technologies and other (weak) signals. One base activity of TI is technology monitoring, which is defined as the systematic tracking of developments within a specified topic of interest as well as related trends over a long period of time. Due to the very large number of dynamically changing parameters within the technological and the market environment of a company as well as their possible interdependencies, it is necessary to focus technology monitoring on specific indicators or other criteria, which are able to point out technological developments and market changes. In addition to the execution of a literature review on existing approaches, which mainly propose patent-based indicators, it is examined in this paper whether indicator systems from other branches such as risk management or economic research could be transferred to technology monitoring in order to enable an efficient and focused technology monitoring for companies.

Keywords: technology forecasting, technology indicator, technology intelligence, technology management, technology monitoring

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3835 The Islamic Advertising Standardisation Revisited of Food Products

Authors: Nurzahidah Haji Jaapar, Anis Husna Abdul Halim, Mohd Faiz Mohamed Yusof, Mohd Dani Muhamad, Sharifah Fadylawaty Syed Abdullah

Abstract:

The growing size of Muslim is recognised with significant increasing of purchasing power in the market. The realm of trade and business has embedded religious values as the new market segments are emerging in offering food products to meet needs and demands of Muslim consumer. The emergence of new market in food industry, advertising is charged with all sort of negative effects includes promoting controversial unsafety and harmful products, wasteful spending and exploiting women and kids. Therefore, this research attempts to examine between previous examinations of advertising standardisation in ancient era and current practices in the market. This paper is based on content analysis of the literature. The results show that there are a bridge gap between the implementation of practices as the advent in industrial 4.0 in using digital advertising by food industry. Thus, this paper is able to recognize the differences between two era and significant in determining the best practices in advertising by following Islamic principles.

Keywords: Islamic advertising, unethical advertising, ethical advertising, Islamic principles

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3834 Varieties of State Role: Through the Case of East Asia's Broadband Policy

Authors: Heesu Kim

Abstract:

This paper determines the varieties of state roles played in East Asia’s telecommunication market, regarding broadband industry. Technological capacity and the relationship between state and market affect the varieties of state role. In explaining the state’s engagement in the market, technology has always been considered as a necessary and sufficient condition. However technology variable has been useful in only explaining the extent of state’s involvement. This paper contributes by bringing in the political-economic factor, which is the relationship between state and market. This factor aids in distinguishing the varieties of state role played in emerging industries. Interaction between these two variables distinguishes 4 types of state roles played in the broadband industry. These roles are distinguished and characterized by the intensity of state’s intervention and the existence of technological capacity. This paper classifies four types of state role through the case of Singapore, China, Taiwan and Korea’s broadband industrial policy.

Keywords: East Asia, entrpreneurial state, industrial policy, regulatory state, technological capacity

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