Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)

17 Modelling Magnetohydrodynamics to Investigate Variation of Shielding Gases on Arc Characteristics in the GTAW Process

Authors: Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Norman A. McPherson, Duncan Camilleri, Daniel Micallef


Gas tungsten arc welding requires a gas shield to be present in order to protect the arc area from contamination by atmospheric gases. As a result of each gas having its own unique thermophysical properties, the shielding gas selected can have a major influence on the arc stability, welding speed, weld appearance and geometry, mechanical properties and fume generation. Alternating shielding gases is a relatively new method of discreetly supplying two different shielding gases to the welding region in order to take advantage of the beneficial properties of each gas, as well as the inherent pulsing effects generated. As part of an ongoing process to fully evaluate the effects of this novel supply method, a computational fluid dynamics model has been generated to include the gas dependent thermodynamic and transport properties in order to evaluate the effects that an alternating gas supply has on the arc plasma. Experimental trials have also been conducted to validate the model arc profile predictions.

Keywords: Alternating shielding gases, ANSYS CFX, Gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW), magnetohydrodynamics(MHD)

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16 Central Finite Volume Methods Applied in Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics: Applications in Disks and Jets

Authors: Raphael de Oliveira Garcia, Samuel Rocha de Oliveira


We have developed a new computer program in Fortran 90, in order to obtain numerical solutions of a system of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics partial differential equations with predetermined gravitation (GRMHD), capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk of matter up to his ejection. Initially we carried out a study on numerical methods of unidimensional Finite Volume, namely Lax-Friedrichs, Lax-Wendroff, Nessyahu-Tadmor method and Godunov methods dependent on Riemann problems, applied to equations Euler in order to verify their main features and make comparisons among those methods. It was then implemented the method of Finite Volume Centered of Nessyahu-Tadmor, a numerical schemes that has a formulation free and without dimensional separation of Riemann problem solvers, even in two or more spatial dimensions, at this point, already applied in equations GRMHD. Finally, the Nessyahu-Tadmor method was possible to obtain stable numerical solutions - without spurious oscillations or excessive dissipation - from the magnetized accretion disk process in rotation with respect to a central black hole (BH) Schwarzschild and immersed in a magnetosphere, for the ejection of matter in the form of jet over a distance of fourteen times the radius of the BH, a record in terms of astrophysical simulation of this kind. Also in our simulations, we managed to get substructures jets. A great advantage obtained was that, with the our code, we got simulate GRMHD equations in a simple personal computer.

Keywords: finite volume methods, central schemes, fortran 90, relativistic astrophysics, jet

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15 Analytical Solutions for Geodesic Acoustic Eigenmodes in Tokamak Plasmas

Authors: Victor I. Ilgisonis, Ludmila V. Konovaltseva, Vladimir P. Lakhin, Ekaterina A. Sorokina


The analytical solutions for geodesic acoustic eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas with circular concentric magnetic surfaces are found. In the frame of ideal magnetohydrodynamics the dispersion relation taking into account the toroidal coupling between electrostatic perturbations and electromagnetic perturbations with poloidal mode number |m| = 2 is derived. In the absence of such a coupling the dispersion relation gives the standard continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes. The analysis of the existence of global eigenmodes for plasma equilibria with both off-axis and on-axis maximum of the local geodesic acoustic frequency is performed.

Keywords: tokamak, MHD, geodesic acoustic mode, eigenmode

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14 Numerical Simulation of Lightning Strike Direct Effects on Aircraft Skin Composite Laminate

Authors: Muhammad Khalil, Nader Abuelfoutouh, Gasser Abdelal, Adrian Murphy


Nowadays, the direct effects of lightning to aircrafts are of great importance because of the massive use of composite materials. In comparison with metallic materials, composites present several weaknesses for lightning strike direct effects. Especially, their low electrical and thermal conductivities lead to severe lightning strike damage. The lightning strike direct effects are burning, heating, magnetic force, sparking and arcing. As the problem is complex, we investigated it gradually. A magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is developed to simulate the lightning strikes in order to estimate the damages on the composite materials. Then, a coupled thermal-electrical finite element analysis is used to study the interaction between the lightning arc and the composite laminate and to investigate the material degradation.

Keywords: composite structures, lightning multiphysics, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), coupled thermal-electrical analysis, thermal plasmas.

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13 2D RF ICP Torch Modelling with Fluid Plasma

Authors: Mokhtar Labiod, Nabil Ikhlef, Keltoum Bouherine, Olivier Leroy


A numerical model for the radio-frequency (RF) Argon discharge chamber is developed to simulate the low pressure low temperature inductively coupled plasma. This model will be of fundamental importance in the design of the plasma magnetic control system. Electric and magnetic fields inside the discharge chamber are evaluated by solving a magnetic vector potential equation. To start with, the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics theory will be presented describing the basic behaviour of magnetically confined plasma and equations are discretized with finite element method in cylindrical coordinates. The discharge chamber is assumed to be axially symmetric and the plasma is treated as a compressible gas. Plasma generation due to ionization is added to the continuity equation. Magnetic vector potential equation is solved for the electromagnetic fields. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

Keywords: direct-coupled model, magnetohydrodynamic, modelling, plasma torch simulation

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12 Numerical Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Blood Flow in a Stenosed Artery

Authors: Sreeparna Majee, G. C. Shit


Unsteady blood flow has been numerically investigated through stenosed arteries to achieve an idea about the physiological blood flow pattern in diseased arteries. The blood is treated as Newtonian fluid and the arterial wall is considered to be rigid having deposition of plaque in its lumen. For direct numerical simulation, vorticity-stream function formulation has been adopted to solve the problem using implicit finite difference method by developing well known Peaceman-Rachford Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The effects of magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on velocity and wall shear stress are being studied and presented quantitatively over the entire arterial segment. The streamlines have been plotted to understand the flow pattern in the stenosed artery, which has significant alterations in the downstream of the stenosis in the presence of magnetic field. The results show that there are nominal changes in the flow pattern when magnetic field strength is enhanced upto 8T which can have remarkable usage to MRI machines.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics, blood flow, stenosis, energy dissipation

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11 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay


The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, fluid dynamics

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10 Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Boundary Layer Flow Past A Stretching Plate with Heat Transfer and Viscous Dissipation

Authors: Jiya Mohammed, Tsadu Shuaib, Yusuf Abdulhakeem


The research work focuses on the cases of MHD boundary layer flow past a stretching plate with heat transfer and viscous dissipation. The non-linear of momentum and energy equation are transform into ordinary differential equation by using similarity transformation, the resulting equation are solved using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). An attempt has been made to show the potentials and wide range application of the Adomian decomposition method in the comparison with the previous one in solving heat transfer problems. The Pade approximates value (η= 11[11, 11]) is use on the difficulty at infinity. The results are compared by numerical technique method. A vivid conclusion can be drawn from the results that ADM provides highly precise numerical solution for non-linear differential equations. The result where accurate especially for η ≤ 4, a general equating terms of Eckert number (Ec), Prandtl number (Pr) and magnetic parameter ( ) is derived which was used to investigate velocity and temperature profiles in boundary layer.

Keywords: MHD, Adomian decomposition, boundary layer, viscous dissipation

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9 MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Mania Goyal


The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.

Keywords: viscoelastic nanofluid, partial slip, stretching sheet, heat generation/absorption, MHD flow, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
8 An Entropy Stable Three Dimensional Ideal MHD Solver with Guaranteed Positive Pressure

Authors: Andrew R. Winters, Gregor J. Gassner


A high-order numerical magentohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight traveling wave solutions will be described. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities due to its strong stability without the need to enforce artificial low density or energy limits. Furthermore, a new formulation of the numerical algorithm to guarantee positivity of the pressure during the simulation is described and presented. By construction, the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. High spatial order is obtained through the use of a third order limiting technique. High temporal order is achieved by utilizing the family of strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge-Kutta methods. Main attributes of the solver are presented as well as details on an implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale simulation code FLASH. The accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency is demonstrated with a variety of numerical tests. Comparisons are also made between the new solver and existing methods already present in FLASH framework.

Keywords: entropy stability, finite volume scheme, magnetohydrodynamics, pressure positivity

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7 On a Transient Magnetohydrodynamics Heat Transfer Within Radiative Porous Channel Due to Convective Boundary Condition

Authors: Bashiru Abdullahi, Isah Bala Yabo, Ibrahim Yakubu Seini


In this paper, the steady/transient MHD heat transfer within radiative porous channel due to convective boundary conditions is considered. The solution of the steady-state and that of the transient version were conveyed by Perturbation and Finite difference methods respectively. The heat transfer mechanism of the present work ascertains the influence of Biot number〖(B〗_i1), magnetizing parameter (M), radiation parameter(R), temperature difference, suction/injection(S) Grashof number (Gr) and time (t) on velocity (u), temperature(θ), skin friction(τ), and Nusselt number (Nu). The results established were discussed with the help of a line graph. It was found that the velocity, temperature, and skin friction decay with increasing suction/injection and magnetizing parameters while the Nusselt number upsurges with suction/injection at y = 0 and falls at y =1. The steady-state solution was in perfect agreement with the transient version for a significant value of time t. It is interesting to report that the Biot number has a cogent influence consequently, as its values upsurge the result of the present work slant the extended literature.

Keywords: heat transfer, thermal radiation, porous channel, MHD, transient, convective boundary condition

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6 Magnetohydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer in a Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid due to a Rotating Disk with Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump

Authors: Nur Dayana Khairunnisa Rosli, Seripah Awang Kechil


Swirling flows with velocity slip are important in nature and industrial processes. The present work considers the effects of velocity slip, temperature jump and suction/injection on the flow and heat transfer of power-law fluids due to a rotating disk in the presence of magnetic field. The system of the partial differential equations is highly non-linear. The number of independent variables is reduced by transforming the system into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The effects of suction/injection, velocity slip and temperature jump on the flow rates are investigated for various cases of shear thinning and shear thickening power law fluids. The thermal and velocity jump strongly reduce the heat transfer rate and skin friction coefficient. Suction decreases the radial and tangential skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer. It is also observed that the effects are more pronounced in the case of shear thinning fluids as compared to shear thickening fluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, power-law fluids, rotating disk, suction or injection, temperature jump, velocity slip

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5 FEM Simulation of Triple Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamics Effect of Nanofluid Flow over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet

Authors: Rangoli Goyal, Rama Bhargava


The triple diffusive boundary layer flow of nanofluid under the action of constant magnetic field over a non-linear stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The model includes the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and cross-diffusion; slip mechanisms which are primarily responsible for the enhancement of the convective features of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (by using group theory transformations) and solved numerically by using variational finite element method. The effects of various controlling parameters, such as the magnetic influence number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter, modified Dufour parameter, and Dufour solutal Lewis number, on the fluid flow as well as on heat and mass transfer coefficients (both of solute and nanofluid) are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. The present study has industrial applications in aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, coating and suspensions, melt spinning, hot rolling, wire drawing, glass-fibre production, and manufacture of polymer and rubber sheets, where the quality of the desired product depends on the stretching rate as well as external field including magnetic effects.

Keywords: FEM, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian motion

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4 Performance Analysis of Air Conditioning System Working on the Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle under Magnetohydrodynamic Influence

Authors: Nikhil S. Mane, Mukund L. Harugade, Narayan V. Hargude, Vishal P. Patil


The fluids exposed to magnetic field can enhance the convective heat transfer by inducing secondary convection currents due to Lorentz force. The use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in power generation and mass transfer is increasing steadily but its application to enhance the convective currents in fluids needed to be explored. The enhancement in convective heat transfer using MHD forces can be employed in heat exchangers, cooling of molten metal, vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) systems etc. The effective increase in the convective heat transfer without any additional energy consumption will lead to the energy efficient heat exchanging devices. In this work, the effect of MHD forces on the performance of air conditioning system working on the VCR system is studied. The refrigerant in VCR system is exposed to the magnetic field which influenced the flow of refrigerant. The different intensities of magnets are used on the different liquid refrigerants and investigation on performance of split air conditioning system is done under different loading conditions. The results of this research work show that the application of magnet on refrigerant flow has positive influence on the coefficient of performance (COP) of split air conditioning system. It is also observed that with increasing intensity of magnetic force the COP of split air conditioning system also increases.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics, heat transfer enhancement, VCRS, air conditioning, refrigeration

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3 Effect of Radiation on Magnetohydrodynamic Two Phase Stenosed Arterial Blood Flow with Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Bhavya Tripathi, Bhupendra Kumar Sharma


In blood, the concentration of red blood cell varies with the arterial diameter. In the case of narrow arteries, red blood cells concentrate around the center of the artery and there exists a cell-free plasma layer near the arterial wall due to Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. Due to non- uniformity of the fluid in the narrow arteries, it is preferable to consider the two-phase model of the blood flow. In the present article, coupled nonlinear differential equations have been developed for momentum, energy and concentration of two phase model of the blood flow assuming the Newtonian fluid in both central core and cell free plasma layer and the exact solutions have been found for the problem. For having an adequate insight into the stenosed arterial two-phase blood flow, major components of the flow as flow resistance, total flow rate, and wall shear stress have been estimated for different values of magnetic and radiation parameter. Results show that the increase in the effects of magnetic field decreases the velocity of both cores as well as plasma regions. This result can be helpful to control the blood flow in narrow arteries during surgical process. Temperature of core as well plasma regions decrease as value of radiation parameter increases. The present result is implemented in the form of radiation therapy which is very helpful for cancer patients.

Keywords: two phase blood flow, radiation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), stenosis

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2 Full-Scale 3D Simulation of the Electroslag Rapid Remelting Process

Authors: E. Karimi-Sibaki, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig


The standard electroslag remelting (ESR) process can ideally control the solidification of an ingot and produce homogeneous structure with minimum defects. However, the melt rate of electrode is rather low that makes the whole process uneconomical especially to produce small ingot sizes. In contrast, continuous casting is an economical process to produce small ingots such as billets at high casting speed. Unfortunately, deep liquid melt pool forms in the billet ingot of continuous casting that leads to center porosity and segregation. As such, continuous casting is not suitable to produce segregation prone alloys like tool steel or several super alloys. On the other hand, the electro slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process has advantages of both traditional ESR and continuous casting processes to produce billets. In the ESRR process, a T-shaped mold is used including a graphite ring that takes major amount of current through the mold. There are only a few reports available in the literature discussing about this topic. The research on the ESRR process is currently ongoing aiming to improve the design of the T-shaped mold, to decrease overall heat loss in the process, and to obtain a higher temperature at metal meniscus. In the present study, a 3D model is proposed to investigate the electromagnetic, thermal, and flow fields in the whole process as well as solidification of the billet ingot. We performed a fully coupled numerical simulation to explore the influence of the electromagnetically driven flow (MHD) on the thermal field in the slag and ingot. The main goal is to obtain some fundamental understanding of the formation of melt pool of the solidifying billet ingot in the ESRR process.

Keywords: billet ingot, magnetohydrodynamics (mhd), numerical simulation, remelting, solidification, t-shaped mold.

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1 Boundary Layer Control Using a Magnetic Field: A Case Study in the Framework of Ferrohydrodynamics

Authors: C. F. Alegretti, F. R. Cunha, R. G. Gontijo


This work investigates the effects of an applied magnetic field on the geometry-driven boundary layer detachment flow of a ferrofluid over a sudden expansion. Both constitutive equation and global magnetization equation for a ferrofluid are considered. Therefore, the proposed formulation consists in a coupled magnetic-hydrodynamic problem. Computational simulations are carried out in order to explore, not only the viability to control flow instabilities, but also to evaluate the consistency of theoretical aspects. The unidirectional sudden expansion in a ferrofluid flow is investigated numerically under the perspective of Ferrohydrodynamics in a two-dimensional domain using a Finite Differences Method. The boundary layer detachment induced by the sudden expansion results in a recirculating zone, which has been extensively studied in non-magnetic hydrodynamic problems for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Similar investigations can be found in literature regarding the sudden expansion under the magnetohydrodynamics framework, but none considering a colloidal suspension of magnetic particles out of the superparamagnetic regime. The vorticity-stream function formulation is implemented and results in a clear coupling between the flow vorticity and its magnetization field. Our simulations indicate a systematic decay on the length of the recirculation zone as increasing physical parameters of the flow, such as the intensity of the applied field and the volume fraction of particles. The results all are discussed from a physical point of view in terms of the dynamical non-dimensional parameters. We argue that the decrease/reduction in the recirculation region of the flow is a direct consequence of the magnetic torque balancing the action of the torque produced by viscous and inertial forces of the flow. For the limit of small Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds parameters, the diffusion of vorticity balances the diffusion of the magnetic torque on the flow. These mechanics control the growth of the recirculation region.

Keywords: boundary layer detachment, ferrofluid, ferrohydrodynamics, magnetization, sudden expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 142