Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2179

Search results for: shear steel structures.

2179 Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall

Authors: Zhao Cai-qi, Ma Jun

Abstract:

Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimsate bearing capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. The analysis results indicate that: (1) the initial shear stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete, (2) both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in the construction of an 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls have great potential for future research and applications.

Keywords: Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear wall, huge statue of Buddha, shear capacity, initial lateral stiffness, overturning moment bearing.

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2178 Comparing the Behaviour of the FRP and Steel Reinforced Shear Walls under Cyclic Seismic Loading in Aspect of the Energy Dissipation

Authors: H. Rahman, T. Donchev, D. Petkova

Abstract:

Earthquakes claim thousands of lives around the world annually due to inadequate design of lateral load resisting systems particularly shear walls. Additionally, corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures is one of the main challenges in construction industry. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement can be used as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. FRP has several excellent mechanical properties than steel such as high resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength and light self-weight; additionally, it has electromagnetic neutrality advantageous to the structures where it is important such as hospitals, some laboratories and telecommunications. This paper is about results of experimental research and it is incorporating experimental testing of two medium-scale concrete shear wall samples; one reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP) bar and one reinforced with steel bars as a control sample. The samples are tested under quasi-static-cyclic loading following modified ATC-24 protocol standard seismic loading. The results of both samples are compared to allow a judgement about performance of BFRP reinforced against steel reinforced concrete shear walls. The results of the conducted researches show a promising momentum toward utilisation of the BFRP as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement with the aim of improving durability with suitable energy dissipation in the reinforced concrete shear walls.  

Keywords: Shear walls, internal FRP reinforcement, cyclic loading, energy dissipation and seismic behaviour.

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2177 Numerical Evaluation of Shear Strength for Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel

Authors: Rouaz Idriss, Bourahla Nour-Eddine, Kahlouche Farah, Rafa Sid Ali

Abstract:

The stability of structures made of light-gauge steel depends highly on the contribution of Shear Wall Panel (SWP) systems under horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake loads. Steel plate sheathing is often used with these panels made of cold formed steel (CFS) to improve its shear strength. In order to predict the shear strength resistance, two methods are presented in this paper. In the first method, the steel plate sheathing is modeled with plats strip taking into account only the tension and compression force due to the horizontal load, where both track and stud are modeled according to the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the specimen used in the experiments. The theoretical background and empirical formulations of this method are presented in this paper. However, the second method is based on a micro modeling of the cold formed steel Shear Wall Panel “CFS-SWP” using Abaqus software. A nonlinear analysis was carried out with an in-plan monotonic load. Finally, the comparison between these two methods shows that the micro modeling with Abaqus gives better prediction of shear resistance of SWP than strips method. However, the latter is easier and less time consuming than the micro modeling method.

Keywords: Cold Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel, CFS-SWP, micro modeling, nonlinear analysis, strip method.

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2176 Numerical Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panels Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: H. Meddah, M. Berediaf-Bourahla, B. El-Djouzi, N. Bourahla

Abstract:

Shear walls made of cold formed steel are used as lateral force resisting components in residential and low-rise commercial and industrial constructions. The seismic design analysis of such structures is often complex due to the slenderness of members and their instability prevalence. In this context, a simplified modeling technique across the panel is proposed by using the finite element method. The approach is based on idealizing the whole panel by a nonlinear shear link element which reflects its shear behavior connected to rigid body elements which transmit the forces to the end elements (studs) that resist the tension and the compression. The numerical model of the shear wall panel was subjected to cyclic loads in order to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure in terms of lateral displacement and energy dissipation capacity. In order to validate this model, the numerical results were compared with those from literature tests. This modeling technique is particularly useful for the design of cold formed steel structures where the shear forces in each panel and the axial forces in the studs can be obtained using spectrum analysis.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, cyclic loading, modeling technique, nonlinear analysis, shear wall panel.

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2175 Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members

Authors: J.-Y. Lee, H.-S. Lim, S.-E. Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

Keywords: PSC members, shear failure mode, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, shear behavior.

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2174 Finite Element Analysis of Thin Steel Plate Shear Walls

Authors: M. Lashgari

Abstract:

Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) in buildings are known to be an effective means for resisting lateral forces. By using un-stiffened walls and allowing them to buckle, their energy absorption capacity will increase significantly due to the postbuckling capacity. The post-buckling tension field action of SPSWs can provide substantial strength, stiffness and ductility. This paper presents the Finite Element Analysis of low yield point (LYP) steel shear walls. In this shear wall system, the LYP steel plate is used for the steel panel and conventional structural steel is used for boundary frames. A series of nonlinear cyclic analyses were carried out to obtain the stiffness, strength, deformation capacity, and energy dissipation capacity of the LYP steel shear wall. The effect of widthto- thickness ratio of steel plate on buckling behavior, and energy dissipation capacities were studied. Good energy dissipation and deformation capacities were obtained for all models.

Keywords: low yield point steel, steel plate shear wall, thin plates, elastic buckling, inelastic buckling, post-buckling.

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2173 Limited Component Evaluation of the Effect of Regular Cavities on the Sheet Metal Element of the Steel Plate Shear Wall

Authors: Seyyed Abbas Mojtabavi, Mojtaba Fatzaneh Moghadam, Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

Steel Metal Shear Wall is one of the most common and widely used energy dissipation systems in structures, which is used today as a damping system due to the increase in the construction of metal structures. In the present study, the shear wall of the steel plate with dimensions of 5×3 m and thickness of 0.024 m was modeled with 2 floors of total height from the base level with finite element method in Abaqus software. The loading is done as a concentrated load at the upper point of the shear wall on the second floor based on step type buckle. The mesh in the model is applied in two directions of length and width of the shear wall, equal to 0.02 and 0.033, respectively, and the mesh in the models is of sweep type. Finally, it was found that the steel plate shear wall with cavity (CSPSW) compared to the SPSW model, S (Mises), Smax (In-Plane Principal), Smax (In-Plane Principal-ABS), Smax (Min Principal) increased by 53%, 70%, 68% and 43%, respectively. The presence of cavities has led to an increase in the estimated stresses, but their presence has caused critical stresses and critical deformations created to be removed from the inner surface of the shear wall and transferred to the desired sections (regular cavities) which can be suggested as a solution in seismic design and improvement of the structure to transfer possible damage during the earthquake and storm to the desired and pre-designed location in the structure.

Keywords: Steel plate shear wall, Abacus software, finite element method, boundary element, seismic structural improvement, Von misses Stress.

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2172 Assessing the Effect of the Position of the Cavities on the Inner Plate of the Steel Shear Wall under Time History Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi, Mojtaba Farzaneh Moghadam

Abstract:

The seismic forces caused by the waves created in the depths of the earth during the earthquake hit the structure and cause the building to vibrate. Creating large seismic forces will cause low-strength sections in the structure to suffer extensive surface damage. The use of new steel shear walls in steel structures has caused the strength of the building and its main members (columns) to increase due to the reduction and depreciation of seismic forces during earthquakes. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate a type of steel shear wall that has regular holes in the inner sheet by modeling the finite element model with Abacus software. The shear wall of the steel plate, measuring 6000 × 3000 mm (one floor) and 3 mm thickness, was modeled with four different pores with a cross-sectional area. The shear wall was dynamically subjected to a time history of 5 seconds by three accelerators, El Centro, Imperial Valley and Kobe. The results showed that increasing the distance between the geometric center of the hole and the geometric center of the inner plate in the steel shear wall (increasing the RCS index) caused the total maximum acceleration to be transferred from the perimeter of the hole to horizontal and vertical beams. The results also show that there is no direct relationship between RCS index and total acceleration in steel shear wall and RCS index is separate from the peak ground acceleration value of earthquake.

Keywords: Hollow Steel plate shear wall, time history analysis, finite element method, Abaqus Software.

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2171 Steel–CFRP Composite (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips) and It-s Behavior as Stirrup in Beams

Authors: Faris Abbas Jawad Uriayer, Mehtab Alam

Abstract:

In this present study, experimental work was conducted to study the effectiveness of newly innovated steel-CFRP composite (CFRP laminates sandwiched between two steel strips) as stirrups. A total numbers of eight concrete beams were tested under four point loads. Each beam measured 1600 mm long, 160mm width and 240 mm depth. The beams were reinforced with different shear reinforcements; one without stirrups, one with steel stirrups and six with different types and numbers of steel-CRFR stirrups. Test results indicated that the steel-CFRP stirrups had enhanced the shear strength capacity of beams. Moreover, the tests revealed that steel- CFRP stirrups reached to their ultimate tensile strength unlike FRP stirrups which rupture at much lower level than their ultimate strength as werereported in various researches.

Keywords: Steel-CFRP Composite, Stirrups, Concrete Beams, Shear Span.

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2170 Simulation of Non-Linear Behavior of Shear Wall under Seismic Loading

Authors: M. A. Ghorbani, M. Pasbani Khiavi

Abstract:

The seismic response of steel shear wall system considering nonlinearity effects using finite element method is investigated in this paper. The non-linear finite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code. A numerical model based on the finite element method for the seismic analysis of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code in this research. To develop the finite element code, the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation is used. Two-dimensional plane stress model and total Lagrangian formulation was carried out to present the shear wall response and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The presented model in this paper can be developed for analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.

Keywords: Finite element, steel shear wall, nonlinear, earthquake

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2169 Evaluation of Hybrid Viscoelastic Damper for Passive Energy Dissipation

Authors: S. S. Ghodsi, M. H. Mehrabi, Zainah Ibrahim, Meldi Suhatril

Abstract:

This research examines the performance of a hybrid passive control device for enhancing the seismic response of steel frame structures. The device design comprises a damper which employs a viscoelastic material to control both shear and axial strain. In the design, energy is dissipated through the shear strain of a two-layer system of viscoelastic pads which are located between steel plates. In addition, viscoelastic blocks have been included on either side of the main shear damper which obtains compressive strains in the viscoelastic blocks. These dampers not only dissipate energy but also increase the stiffness of the steel frame structure, and the degree to which they increase the stiffness may be controlled by the size and shape. In this research, the cyclical behavior of the damper was examined both experimentally and numerically with finite element modeling. Cyclic loading results of the finite element modeling reveal fundamental characteristics of this hybrid viscoelastic damper. The results indicate that incorporating a damper of the design can significantly improve the seismic performance of steel frame structures.

Keywords: Cyclic loading, energy dissipation, hybrid damper, passive control system, viscoelastic damper.

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2168 Structural Behaviour of Partially Filled Steel Grid Composite Deck

Authors: Hyun-Seop Shin, Chin-Hyung Lee, Ki-Tae Park

Abstract:

In order to apply partially filled steel grid composite deck as the horizontal supporting structure of various kinds of infrastructures, the variation of its flexural strength according to design parameters such as cross and longitudinal bars constituting the steel grid and the type of shear connection is evaluated and compared experimentally. The result shows that the design sensitivity of the deck to the spacing of the cross bars is insignificant in the case of structure with low risk of punching failure or without load distribution problem. By means of shear connection composed by transverse rebar and longitudinal bar without additional shear stud bolts, the complete interaction between steel grid and concrete slab is able to be achieved and the composite deck can develop its bending resistance capacity.

Keywords: bending strength, composite action, shear connection, steel grid composite deck

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2167 Experimental Investigation on Shear Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Steel Fibres

Authors: G. Beulah Gnana Ananthi, A. Jaffer Sathick, M. Abirami

Abstract:

Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has been widely used in industrial pavements and non-structural elements such as pipes, culverts, tunnels, and precast elements. The strengthening effect of fibres in the concrete matrix is achieved primarily due to the bridging effect of fibres at the crack interfaces. The workability of the concrete was reduced on addition of high percentages of steel fibres. The optimum percentage of addition of steel fibres varies with its aspect ratio. For this study, 1% addition of steel has resulted to be the optimum percentage for both Hooked and Crimped Steel Fibres and was added to the beam specimens. The fibres restrain efficiently the cracks and take up residual stresses beyond the cracking. In this sense, diagonal cracks are effectively stitched up by fibres crossing it. The failure of beams within the shear failure range changed from shear to flexure in the presence of sufficient steel fibre quantity. The shear strength is increased with the addition of steel fibres and had exceeded the enhancement obtained with the transverse reinforcement. However, such increase is not directly in proportion with the quantity of fibres used. Considering all the clarification made in the present experimental investigation, it is concluded that 1% of crimped steel fibres with an aspect ratio of 50 is the best type of steel fibres for replacement of transverse stirrups in high strength concrete beams when compared to the steel fibres with hooked ends.

Keywords: Fibre reinforced concrete, steel fibre, shear strength, crack pattern.

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2166 Investigation into the Bond between CFRP and Steel Plates

Authors: S. Fawzia, M. A. Karim

Abstract:

The use of externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) reinforcement has proven to be an effective technique to strengthen steel structures. An experimental study on CFRP bonded steel plate with double strap joint has been conducted and specimens are tested under tensile loadings. An empirical model has been developed using stress-based approach to predict ultimate capacity of the CFRP bonded steel structure. The results from the model are comparable with the experimental result with a reasonable accuracy.

Keywords: Carbon fibre reinforced polymer, shear stress, slip, effective bond, steel structure.

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2165 Identification of Micromechanical Fracture Model for Predicting Fracture Performance of Steel Wires for Civil Engineering Applications

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Julia M. Race, Steve J. Bull

Abstract:

The fracture performance of steel wires for civil engineering applications remains a major concern in civil engineering construction and maintenance of wire reinforced structures. The need to employ approaches that simulate micromechanical material processes which characterizes fracture in civil structures has been emphasized recently in the literature. However, choosing from the numerous micromechanics-based fracture models, and identifying their applicability and reliability remains an issue that still needs to be addressed in a greater depth. Laboratory tensile testing and finite element tensile testing simulations with the shear, ductile and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman’s micromechanics-based models conducted in this work reveal that the shear fracture model is an appropriate fracture model to predict the fracture performance of steel wires used for civil engineering applications. The need to consider the capability of the micromechanics-based fracture model to predict the “cup and cone” fracture exhibited by the wire in choosing the appropriate fracture model is demonstrated.

Keywords: Fracture performance, FE simulation, Shear fracture model, Ductile fracture model, Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman fracture model, Wires.

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2164 Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Steel Shear Wall with Opening with Hardener and Beam with Reduced Cross Section under Cycle Loading with Finite Element Analysis Method

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

During an earthquake, the structure is subjected to seismic loads that cause tension in the members of the building. The use of energy dissipation elements in the structure reduces the percentage of seismic forces on the main members of the building (especially the columns). Steel plate shear wall, as one of the most widely used types of energy dissipation element, has evolved today, and regular drilling of its inner plate is one of the common cases. In the present study, using a finite element method, the shear wall of the steel plate is designed as a floor (with dimensions of 447 × 6/246 cm) with Abacus software and in three different modes on which a cyclic load has been applied. The steel shear wall has a horizontal element (beam) with a reduced beam section (RBS). The hole in the interior plate of the models is created in such a way that it has the process of increasing the area, which makes the effect of increasing the surface area of the hole on the seismic performance of the steel shear wall completely clear. In the end, it was found that with increasing the opening level in the steel shear wall (with reduced cross-section beam), total displacement and plastic strain indicators increased, structural capacity and total energy indicators decreased and the Mises Monson stress index did not change much.

Keywords: Steel plate shear wall with opening, cyclic loading, reduced cross-section beam, finite element method, Abaqus Software.

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2163 Strengthen of Cold-Formed Steel Column with Ferrocement Jacket: Push out Tests

Authors: Khaled Alenezi, Talal Alhajri, M. M. Tahir, Mohamed Ragaee K. Badr, S. O. Bamaga

Abstract:

The population growth in the world requires an increase in demand of residential and housing construction. Using lightweight construction materials such as cold formed steel sections and ferrocement could be an alternate solution to foster the construction industry. In this study, a new composite column is introduced. It consists of cold formed steel section and ferrocement jacket. The ferrocement jacket was constructed using self-compacting mortar with two wire steel mesh of 550 MPa yield strength. Experimental push out tests was conducted to investigate the strength capacities and behavior of proposed shear connectors namely, bolt, bar-angle and self-drilling screw shear connectors. It was found that bolt connector showed the best behavior followed by bar-angle. Also, it was concluded that the ferrocement could be used to strength and improve the behavior of cold formed steel column.

Keywords: Cold formed steel, composite column, push out test, shear connector, ferrocement, strengthen method.

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2162 Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Composite Structural System with Separated Gravity and Lateral Resistant Systems

Authors: Zi-Ang Li, Mu-Xuan Tao

Abstract:

During the process of the industrialization of steel structure housing, a composite structural system with separated gravity and lateral resistant systems has been applied in engineering practices, which consists of composite frame with hinged beam-column joints, steel brace and RC shear wall. As an attempt in steel structural system area, seismic performance evaluation of the separated composite structure is important for further application in steel housing. This paper focuses on the seismic performance comparison of the separated composite structural system and traditional steel frame-shear wall system under the same inter-story drift ratio (IDR) provision limit. The same architectural layout of a high-rise building is designed as two different structural systems at the same IDR level, and finite element analysis using pushover method is carried out. Static pushover analysis implies that the separated structural system exhibits different lateral deformation mode and failure mechanism with traditional steel frame-shear wall system. Different indexes are adopted and discussed in seismic performance evaluation, including IDR, safe factor (SF), shear wall damage, etc. The performance under maximum considered earthquake (MCE) demand spectrum shows that the shear wall damage of two structural systems are similar; the separated composite structural system exhibits less plastic hinges; and the SF index value of the separated composite structural system is higher than the steel frame shear wall structural system.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, seismic performance evaluation, separated composite structural system, static pushover analysis.

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2161 Shear Strength of Reinforced Web Openings in Steel Beams

Authors: K. S. Sivakumaran, Bo Chen

Abstract:

The floor beams of steel buildings, cold-formed steel floor joists in particular, often require large web openings, which may affect their shear capacities. A cost effective way to mitigate the detrimental effects of such openings is to weld/fasten reinforcements. A difficulty associated with an experimental investigation to establish suitable reinforcement schemes for openings in shear zone is that moment always coexists with the shear, and thus, it is impossible to create pure shear state in experiments, resulting in moment influenced results. However, Finite Element Method (FEM) based analysis can be conveniently used to investigate the pure shear behaviour of webs including webs with reinforced openings. This paper presents the details associated with the finite element analysis of thick/thin-plates (representing the web of hot-rolled steel beam, and the web of a cold-formed steel member) having a large reinforced opening. The study considered simply-supported rectangular plates subjected to in-plane shear loadings until failure (including post-buckling behaviour). The plate was modelled using geometrically non-linear quadrilateral shell elements, and non-linear stress-strain relationship based on experiments. Total Langrangian with large displacement/small strain formulation was used for such analyses. The model also considered the initial geometric imperfections. This study considered three reinforcement schemes, namely, flat, lip, and angle reinforcements. This paper discusses the modelling considerations and presents the results associated with the various reinforcement schemes under consideration.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, finite element analysis, opening, reinforcement, shear resistance.

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2160 Experimental Behavior of Composite Shear Walls Having L Shape Steel Sections in Boundary Regions

Authors: S. Bahadır Yüksel, Alptuğ Ünal

Abstract:

The Composite Shear Walls (CSW) with steel encased profiles can be used as lateral-load resisting systems for buildings that require considerable large lateral-load capacity. The aim of this work is to propose the experimental work conducted on CSW having L section folded plate (L shape steel made-up sections) as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The study in this paper present the experimental test conducted on CSW having L section folded plate as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The tested 1/3 geometric scaled CSW has aspect ratio of 3.2. L-shape structural steel materials with 2L-19x57x7mm dimensions were placed in shear wall boundary zones. The seismic behavior of CSW test specimen was investigated by evaluating and interpreting the hysteresis curves, envelope curves, rigidity and consumed energy graphs of this tested element. In addition to this, the experimental results, deformation and cracking patterns were evaluated, interpreted and suggestions of the design recommendations were proposed.

Keywords: Shear wall, composite shear wall, boundary reinforcement, earthquake resistant structural design, L section.

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2159 The Effect of Vertical Shear-Link in Improving the Seismic Performance of Structures with Eccentrically Bracing Systems

Authors: Mohammad Reza Baradaran, Farhad Hamzezarghani, Mehdi Rastegari Ghiri, Zahra Mirsanjari

Abstract:

Passive control methods can be utilized to build earthquake resistant structures, and also to strengthen the vulnerable ones. In this paper, we studied the effect of this system in increasing the ductility and energy dissipation and also modeled the behavior of this type of eccentric bracing, and compared the hysteresis diagram of the modeled samples with the laboratory samples. We studied several samples of frames with vertical shear-links in order to assess the behavior of this type of eccentric bracing. Each of these samples was modeled in finite element software ANSYS 9.0, and was analyzed under the static cyclic loading. It was found that vertical shear-links have a more stable hysteresis loops. Another analysis showed that using honeycomb beams as the horizontal beam along with steel reinforcement has no negative effect on the hysteresis behavior of the sample.

Keywords: Vertical shear-link, passive control, cyclic analysis, energy dissipation, honeycomb beam.

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2158 The Effects of Bolt Spacing on Composite Shear Wall Behavior

Authors: Amir Ayazi, Hamde Ahmadi, Soheil Shafaei

Abstract:

Composite steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system which consists of a steel plate with concrete wall attached to one or both sides to prevent it from elastic buckling. The composite behavior is ensured by utilizing high-strength bolts. This paper investigates the effect of distance between bolts, and for this purpose 14 one-story one-bay specimens with various bolts spacing were modeled by finite element code which is developed by the authors. To verify the model, numerical results were compared with a valid experiment which illustrate proper agreement. Results depict increasing the distance between bolts would improve the seismic ever, this increase must be limited, because of large distances will cause widespread buckling of the steel plate in free subpanels between bolts and would result in no improvement. By comparing the results in elastic region, it was observed initial stiffness is not affected by changing the distance.

Keywords: Composite steel shear wall, bolt, buckling, finite element.

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2157 Effect of Shear Wall Openings on the Fundamental Period of Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares, A. Touqan

Abstract:

A common approach in resisting lateral forces is the use of reinforced concrete shear walls in buildings. These walls represent the main elements to resist the lateral forces due to their large strength and stiffness. However, such walls may contain many openings due to functional requirements, and this may largely affect the overall lateral stiffness of them. It is thus of prime importance to quantify the effect of openings on the dynamic performance of the shear walls. SAP2000 structural analysis program is used as a main source after verifying the results. This study is made by using linear elastic analysis. The results are compared to ASCE7-16 code empirical equations for estimating the fundamental period of shear wall structures. Finally, statistical regression is used to fit an equation for estimating the increase in the fundamental period of shear-walled regular structures due to windows openings in the walls.

Keywords: Concrete, earthquake-resistant design, finite element, fundamental period, lateral stiffness, linear analysis, modal analysis, rayleigh, SAP2000, shear wall, ASCE7-16.

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2156 Finite Element Approach to Evaluate Time Dependent Shear Behavior of Connections in Hybrid Steel-PC Girder under Sustained Loading

Authors: Mohammad Najmol Haque, Takeshi Maki, Jun Sasaki

Abstract:

Headed stud shear connections are widely used in the junction or embedded zone of hybrid girder to achieve whole composite action with continuity that can sustain steel-concrete interfacial tensile and shear forces. In Japan, Japan Road Association (JRA) specifications are used for hybrid girder design that utilizes very low level of stud capacity than those of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) specifications, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) specifications and EURO code. As low design shear strength is considered in design of connections, the time dependent shear behavior due to sustained external loading is not considered, even not fully studied. In this study, a finite element approach was used to evaluate the time dependent shear behavior for headed studs used as connections at the junction. This study clarified, how the sustained loading distinctively impacted on changing the interfacial shear of connections with time which was sensitive to lodging history, positions of flanges, neighboring studs, position of prestress bar and reinforcing bar, concrete strength, etc. and also identified a shear influence area. Stud strength was also confirmed through pushout tests. The outcome obtained from the study may provide an important basis and reference data in designing connections of hybrid girders with enhanced stud capacity with due consideration of their long-term shear behavior.

Keywords: Finite element approach, hybrid girder, headed stud shear connections, sustained loading, time dependent shear behavior.

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2155 Studying Frame-Resistant Steel Structures under Near Field Ground Motion

Authors: S. A. Hashemi, A. Khoshraftar

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of the vertical seismic component on the non-linear dynamics analysis of three different structures. The subject structures were analyzed and designed according to recent codes. This paper considers three types of buildings: 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings. The non-linear dynamics analysis of the structures with assuming elastic-perfectlyplastic behavior was performed using RAM PERFORM-3D software; the horizontal component was taken into consideration with and without the incorporation of the corresponding vertical component. Dynamic responses obtained for the horizontal component acting alone were compared with those obtained from the simultaneous application of both seismic components. The results show that the effect of the vertical component of ground motion may increase the axial load significantly in the interior columns and, consequently, the stories. The plastic mechanisms would be changed. The P-Delta effect is expected to increase. The punching base plate shear of the columns should be considered. Moreover, the vertical component increases the input energy when the structures exhibit inelastic behavior and are taller.

Keywords: Inelastic behavior, non-linear dynamic analysis, steel structure, vertical component.

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2154 Study on Buckling and Yielding Behaviors of Low Yield Point Steel Plates

Authors: David Boyajian, Tadeh Zirakian

Abstract:

Stability and performance of steel plates are characterized by geometrical buckling and material yielding. In this paper, the geometrical buckling and material yielding behaviors of low yield point (LYP) steel plates are studied from the point of view of their application in steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems. Use of LYP steel facilitates the design and application of web plates with improved buckling and energy absorption capacities in SPSW systems. LYP steel infill plates may yield first and then undergo inelastic buckling. Hence, accurate determination of the limiting plate thickness corresponding to simultaneous buckling and yielding can be effective in seismic design of such lateral force-resisting and energy dissipating systems. The limiting thicknesses of plates with different loading and support conditions are determined theoretically and verified through detailed numerical simulations. Effects of use of LYP steel and plate aspect ratio parameter on the limiting plate thickness are investigated as well. In addition, detailed studies are performed on determination of the limiting web-plate thickness in code-designed SPSWs. Some practical recommendations are accordingly provided for efficient seismic design of SPSW systems with LYP steel infill plates.

Keywords: Plates, buckling, yielding, low yield point steel, steel plate shear walls.

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2153 Study on Connecting Method of Box Pontoons

Authors: Young-Jun You, Youn-Ju Jeong, Min-Su Park, Du-Ho Lee

Abstract:

Due to a lot of limited conditions, a large box type floating structure is inevitably constructed by connecting many pontoons. When a floating structure is made with concrete, concrete shear key with saw-teeth shape is often used to carry shear force. Match casting for the shear key and precise construction on a sea are very important for making separated two pontoons as one body but those are not easy work and may increase construction time and cost. To solve this problem, one-way shear key is studied in this paper for a connected part where there is some difference between upward and downward shear force. It has only one inclined plane and can resist shear force in one direction. Big shear force is resisted by concrete which forms an inclined plane and small shear force is resisted by steel bar. This system can reduce manufacturing cost of individual pontoon and construction time and cost for constructing a floating structure on a sea. In this paper, the feasibility study about one-way shear key system is performed by comparing with design example.

Keywords: Connection, floating container terminal, pontoon, pre-stressing, shear key.

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2152 Studying Frame-Resistant Steel Structures under near Field Ground Motion

Authors: S. A. Hashemi, A. Khoshraftar

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of the vertical seismic component on the non-linear dynamics analysis of three different structures. The subject structures were analyzed and designed according to recent codes. This paper considers three types of buildings: 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings. The non-linear dynamics analysis of the structures with assuming elastic-perfectly-plastic behavior was performed using RAM PERFORM-3D software; the horizontal component was taken into consideration with and without the incorporation of the corresponding vertical component. Dynamic responses obtained for the horizontal component acting alone were compared with those obtained from the simultaneous application of both seismic components. The results show that the effect of the vertical component of ground motion may increase the axial load significantly in the interior columns and, consequently, the stories. The plastic mechanisms would be changed. The P-Delta effect is expected to increase. The punching base plate shear of the columns should be considered. Moreover, the vertical component increases the input energy when the structures exhibit inelastic behavior and are taller.

Keywords: Inelastic behavior, non-linear dynamic analysis, steel structure, vertical component.

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2151 Effect of Silt Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Unsaturated Sandy Soils

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Khavaninzadeh, M. Ghorbani Tochaee

Abstract:

Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.

Keywords: Shear strength parameters, direct shear test, silty sand, shear stress, shear deformation.

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2150 Structural Optimization Method for 3D Reinforced Concrete Building Structure with Shear Wall

Authors: H. Nikzad, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

In this paper, an optimization procedure is applied for 3D Reinforced concrete building structure with shear wall.  In the optimization problem, cross sections of beams, columns and shear wall dimensions are considered as design variables and the optimal cross sections can be derived to minimize the total cost of the structure. As for final design application, the most suitable sections are selected to satisfy ACI 318-14 code provision based on static linear analysis. The validity of the method is examined through numerical example of 15 storied 3D RC building with shear wall.  This optimization method is expected to assist in providing a useful reference in design early stage, and to be an effective and powerful tool for structural design of RC shear wall structures.

Keywords: Structural optimization, linear static analysis, ETABS, MATLAB, RC moment frame, RC shear wall structures.

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