Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 765

Search results for: Cold Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel

765 Numerical Evaluation of Shear Strength for Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel

Authors: Rouaz Idriss, Bourahla Nour-Eddine, Kahlouche Farah, Rafa Sid Ali

Abstract:

The stability of structures made of light-gauge steel depends highly on the contribution of Shear Wall Panel (SWP) systems under horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake loads. Steel plate sheathing is often used with these panels made of cold formed steel (CFS) to improve its shear strength. In order to predict the shear strength resistance, two methods are presented in this paper. In the first method, the steel plate sheathing is modeled with plats strip taking into account only the tension and compression force due to the horizontal load, where both track and stud are modeled according to the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the specimen used in the experiments. The theoretical background and empirical formulations of this method are presented in this paper. However, the second method is based on a micro modeling of the cold formed steel Shear Wall Panel “CFS-SWP” using Abaqus software. A nonlinear analysis was carried out with an in-plan monotonic load. Finally, the comparison between these two methods shows that the micro modeling with Abaqus gives better prediction of shear resistance of SWP than strips method. However, the latter is easier and less time consuming than the micro modeling method.

Keywords: Cold Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel, CFS-SWP, micro modeling, nonlinear analysis, strip method.

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764 Numerical Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panels Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: H. Meddah, M. Berediaf-Bourahla, B. El-Djouzi, N. Bourahla

Abstract:

Shear walls made of cold formed steel are used as lateral force resisting components in residential and low-rise commercial and industrial constructions. The seismic design analysis of such structures is often complex due to the slenderness of members and their instability prevalence. In this context, a simplified modeling technique across the panel is proposed by using the finite element method. The approach is based on idealizing the whole panel by a nonlinear shear link element which reflects its shear behavior connected to rigid body elements which transmit the forces to the end elements (studs) that resist the tension and the compression. The numerical model of the shear wall panel was subjected to cyclic loads in order to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure in terms of lateral displacement and energy dissipation capacity. In order to validate this model, the numerical results were compared with those from literature tests. This modeling technique is particularly useful for the design of cold formed steel structures where the shear forces in each panel and the axial forces in the studs can be obtained using spectrum analysis.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, cyclic loading, modeling technique, nonlinear analysis, shear wall panel.

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763 Experimental Investigation on Cold-formed Steel Wall Plate System

Authors: A. L. Y. Ng, W. H. Hii

Abstract:

A series of tests on cold-formed steel (CFS) wall plate system subjected to uplift force at the mid span of the wall plate is presented. The aim of the study was to study the behaviour and identify the modes of failure of CFS wall plate system. Two parameters were considered in these studies: 1) different dimension of U-bracket at the supports and 2) different sizes of lipped C-channel. The lipped C-channels used were C07508, C07512 and C10012. The dimensions of the leg of U-bracket were 50x35 mm and 50x60 mm respectively, where 25 mm clearance was provided to the connections for specimens with clearance. Results show that specimens with and without clearance experienced the same mode of failure. Failure began with the yielding of the connectors followed by distortional buckling of the wall plate. However, when C075 sections were used as wall plate, the system behaved differently. There was a large deformation in the wall plate and failure began in the distortional buckling of the wall plate followed by bearing of the connecting plates at the supports (U-bracket). The ultimate strength of the system also decreased dramatically when C075 sections were used.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, wall plate system, distortional buckling, full scale laboratory test.

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762 Experimental Investigation on Cold-Formed Steel Foamed Concrete Composite Wall under Compression

Authors: Zhifeng Xu, Zhongfan Chen

Abstract:

A series of tests on cold-formed steel foamed concrete (CSFC) composite walls subjected to axial load were proposed. The primary purpose of the experiments was to study the mechanical behavior and identify the failure modes of CSFC composite walls. Two main factors were considered in this study: 1) specimen with pouring foamed concrete or without and 2) different foamed concrete density ranks (corresponding to different foamed concrete strength). The interior space between two pieces of straw board of the specimen W-2 and W-3 were poured foamed concrete, and the specimen W-1 does not have foamed concrete core. The foamed concrete density rank of the specimen W-2 was A05 grade, and that of the specimen W-3 was A07 grade. Results showed that the failure mode of CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete was distortional buckling of cold-formed steel (CFS) column, and that poured foamed concrete includes the local crushing of foamed concrete and local buckling of CFS column, but the former prior to the later. Compared with CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete, the ultimate bearing capacity of spec imens poured A05 grade and A07 grade foamed concrete increased 1.6 times and 2.2 times respectively, and specimen poured foamed concrete had a low vertical deformation. According to these results, the simplified calculation formula for the CSFC wall subjected to axial load was proposed, and the calculated results from this formula are in very good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, composite wall, foamed concrete, axial behavior test.

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761 Experimental Investigation of Cold-Formed Steel-Timber Board Composite Floor Systems

Authors: Samar Raffoul, Martin Heywood, Dimitrios Moutaftsis, Michael Rowell

Abstract:

This paper comprises an experimental investigation into the structural performance of cold formed steel (CFS) and timber board composite floor systems. The tests include a series of small-scale pushout tests and full-scale bending tests carried out using a refined loading system to simulate uniformly distributed constant load. The influence of connection details (screw spacing and adhesives) on floor performance was investigated. The results are then compared to predictions from relevant existing models for composite floor systems. The results of this research demonstrate the significant benefits of considering the composite action of the boards in floor design. Depending on connection detail, an increase in flexural stiffness of up to 40% was observed in the floor system, when compared to designing joists individually.

Keywords: Cold formed steel joists, composite action, flooring systems, shear connection.

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760 Strengthen of Cold-Formed Steel Column with Ferrocement Jacket: Push out Tests

Authors: Khaled Alenezi, Talal Alhajri, M. M. Tahir, Mohamed Ragaee K. Badr, S. O. Bamaga

Abstract:

The population growth in the world requires an increase in demand of residential and housing construction. Using lightweight construction materials such as cold formed steel sections and ferrocement could be an alternate solution to foster the construction industry. In this study, a new composite column is introduced. It consists of cold formed steel section and ferrocement jacket. The ferrocement jacket was constructed using self-compacting mortar with two wire steel mesh of 550 MPa yield strength. Experimental push out tests was conducted to investigate the strength capacities and behavior of proposed shear connectors namely, bolt, bar-angle and self-drilling screw shear connectors. It was found that bolt connector showed the best behavior followed by bar-angle. Also, it was concluded that the ferrocement could be used to strength and improve the behavior of cold formed steel column.

Keywords: Cold formed steel, composite column, push out test, shear connector, ferrocement, strengthen method.

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759 Shear Strength of Reinforced Web Openings in Steel Beams

Authors: K. S. Sivakumaran, Bo Chen

Abstract:

The floor beams of steel buildings, cold-formed steel floor joists in particular, often require large web openings, which may affect their shear capacities. A cost effective way to mitigate the detrimental effects of such openings is to weld/fasten reinforcements. A difficulty associated with an experimental investigation to establish suitable reinforcement schemes for openings in shear zone is that moment always coexists with the shear, and thus, it is impossible to create pure shear state in experiments, resulting in moment influenced results. However, Finite Element Method (FEM) based analysis can be conveniently used to investigate the pure shear behaviour of webs including webs with reinforced openings. This paper presents the details associated with the finite element analysis of thick/thin-plates (representing the web of hot-rolled steel beam, and the web of a cold-formed steel member) having a large reinforced opening. The study considered simply-supported rectangular plates subjected to in-plane shear loadings until failure (including post-buckling behaviour). The plate was modelled using geometrically non-linear quadrilateral shell elements, and non-linear stress-strain relationship based on experiments. Total Langrangian with large displacement/small strain formulation was used for such analyses. The model also considered the initial geometric imperfections. This study considered three reinforcement schemes, namely, flat, lip, and angle reinforcements. This paper discusses the modelling considerations and presents the results associated with the various reinforcement schemes under consideration.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, finite element analysis, opening, reinforcement, shear resistance.

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758 Buckling Performance of Irregular Section Cold-Formed Steel Columns under Axially Concentric Loading

Authors: Chayanon Hansapinyo

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental investigation and finite element analysis on buckling behavior of irregular section coldformed steel columns under axially concentric loading. For the experimental study, four different sections of columns were tested to investigate effect of stiffening and width-to-thickness ratio on buckling behavior. For each of the section, three lengths of 230, 950 and 1900 mm. were studied representing short, intermediate long and long columns, respectively. Then, nonlinear finite element analyses of the tested columns were performed. The comparisons in terms of load-deformation response and buckling mode show good agreement and hence the FEM models were validated. Parametric study of stiffening element and thickness of 1.0, 1.15, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0 mm. was analyzed. The test results showed that stiffening effect pays a large contribution to prevent distortional mode. The increase in wall thickness enhanced buckling stress beyond the yielding strength in short and intermediate columns, but not for the long columns.

Keywords: Buckling behavior, Irregular section, Cold-formed steel, Concentric loading.

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757 Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall

Authors: Zhao Cai-qi, Ma Jun

Abstract:

Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimsate bearing capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. The analysis results indicate that: (1) the initial shear stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete, (2) both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in the construction of an 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls have great potential for future research and applications.

Keywords: Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear wall, huge statue of Buddha, shear capacity, initial lateral stiffness, overturning moment bearing.

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756 Simulation of Non-Linear Behavior of Shear Wall under Seismic Loading

Authors: M. A. Ghorbani, M. Pasbani Khiavi

Abstract:

The seismic response of steel shear wall system considering nonlinearity effects using finite element method is investigated in this paper. The non-linear finite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code. A numerical model based on the finite element method for the seismic analysis of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code in this research. To develop the finite element code, the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation is used. Two-dimensional plane stress model and total Lagrangian formulation was carried out to present the shear wall response and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The presented model in this paper can be developed for analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.

Keywords: Finite element, steel shear wall, nonlinear, earthquake

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755 Experimental Behavior of Composite Shear Walls Having L Shape Steel Sections in Boundary Regions

Authors: S. Bahadır Yüksel, Alptuğ Ünal

Abstract:

The Composite Shear Walls (CSW) with steel encased profiles can be used as lateral-load resisting systems for buildings that require considerable large lateral-load capacity. The aim of this work is to propose the experimental work conducted on CSW having L section folded plate (L shape steel made-up sections) as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The study in this paper present the experimental test conducted on CSW having L section folded plate as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The tested 1/3 geometric scaled CSW has aspect ratio of 3.2. L-shape structural steel materials with 2L-19x57x7mm dimensions were placed in shear wall boundary zones. The seismic behavior of CSW test specimen was investigated by evaluating and interpreting the hysteresis curves, envelope curves, rigidity and consumed energy graphs of this tested element. In addition to this, the experimental results, deformation and cracking patterns were evaluated, interpreted and suggestions of the design recommendations were proposed.

Keywords: Shear wall, composite shear wall, boundary reinforcement, earthquake resistant structural design, L section.

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754 The Effects of Bolt Spacing on Composite Shear Wall Behavior

Authors: Amir Ayazi, Hamde Ahmadi, Soheil Shafaei

Abstract:

Composite steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system which consists of a steel plate with concrete wall attached to one or both sides to prevent it from elastic buckling. The composite behavior is ensured by utilizing high-strength bolts. This paper investigates the effect of distance between bolts, and for this purpose 14 one-story one-bay specimens with various bolts spacing were modeled by finite element code which is developed by the authors. To verify the model, numerical results were compared with a valid experiment which illustrate proper agreement. Results depict increasing the distance between bolts would improve the seismic ever, this increase must be limited, because of large distances will cause widespread buckling of the steel plate in free subpanels between bolts and would result in no improvement. By comparing the results in elastic region, it was observed initial stiffness is not affected by changing the distance.

Keywords: Composite steel shear wall, bolt, buckling, finite element.

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753 Seismic Excitation of Steel Frame Retrofitted by a Multi-Panel PMC Infill Wall

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

A multi-panel PMC infilled system, using polymer matrix composite (PMC) material, was introduced as new conceptual design for seismic retrofitting. A proposed multi panel PMC infilled system was composed of two basic structural components: inner PMC sandwich infills and outer FRP damping panels. The PMC material had high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios. Therefore, the addition of PMC infill panels into existing structures would not significantly alter the weight of the structure, while providing substantial structural enhancement.

In this study, an equivalent linearized dynamic analysis for a proposed multi-panel PMC infilled frame was performed, in order to assess their effectiveness and their responses under the simulated earthquake loading. Upon comparing undamped (without PMC panel) and damped (with PMC panel) structures, numerical results showed that structural damping with passive interface damping layer could significantly enhance the seismic response.

Keywords: Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC), Panel, Piece-wise linear, Earthquake, FRP.

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752 Finite Element Analysis of Thin Steel Plate Shear Walls

Authors: M. Lashgari

Abstract:

Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) in buildings are known to be an effective means for resisting lateral forces. By using un-stiffened walls and allowing them to buckle, their energy absorption capacity will increase significantly due to the postbuckling capacity. The post-buckling tension field action of SPSWs can provide substantial strength, stiffness and ductility. This paper presents the Finite Element Analysis of low yield point (LYP) steel shear walls. In this shear wall system, the LYP steel plate is used for the steel panel and conventional structural steel is used for boundary frames. A series of nonlinear cyclic analyses were carried out to obtain the stiffness, strength, deformation capacity, and energy dissipation capacity of the LYP steel shear wall. The effect of widthto- thickness ratio of steel plate on buckling behavior, and energy dissipation capacities were studied. Good energy dissipation and deformation capacities were obtained for all models.

Keywords: low yield point steel, steel plate shear wall, thin plates, elastic buckling, inelastic buckling, post-buckling.

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751 Effect of Shear Wall Openings on the Fundamental Period of Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares, A. Touqan

Abstract:

A common approach in resisting lateral forces is the use of reinforced concrete shear walls in buildings. These walls represent the main elements to resist the lateral forces due to their large strength and stiffness. However, such walls may contain many openings due to functional requirements, and this may largely affect the overall lateral stiffness of them. It is thus of prime importance to quantify the effect of openings on the dynamic performance of the shear walls. SAP2000 structural analysis program is used as a main source after verifying the results. This study is made by using linear elastic analysis. The results are compared to ASCE7-16 code empirical equations for estimating the fundamental period of shear wall structures. Finally, statistical regression is used to fit an equation for estimating the increase in the fundamental period of shear-walled regular structures due to windows openings in the walls.

Keywords: Concrete, earthquake-resistant design, finite element, fundamental period, lateral stiffness, linear analysis, modal analysis, rayleigh, SAP2000, shear wall, ASCE7-16.

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750 The Effect of Shear Wall Positions on the Seismic Response of Frame-Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The configuration of shear walls in plan of building will affect the seismic design of structure. The position of these walls will change the stiffness of each floor in the structure, the diaphragm center of mass displacement, and the drift of floor. Structural engineers preferred to distribute the walls in buildings to make the center of mass almost close enough to the center of rigidity, but to make this condition satisfied, they have many choices: construct the walls on the perimeter, or use intermediate walls, or use walls as core. In this paper and by using ETABS, each case is studied and compared to other cases according to three parameters: lateral stiffness, diaphragm displacement, and drift. It is found that the core walls are the best choice for the position of the walls in the buildings to resist earthquake loads.

Keywords: Lateral loads, lateral displacement, reinforced concrete, shear wall, seismic, ASCE7-16 code, ACI code, stiffness, drift.

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749 Analytical Evaluation on Hysteresis Performance of Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

The idea of adding metallic energy dissipaters to a structure to absorb a large part of the seismic energy began four decades ago. There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of both stiffened and non stiffened circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. Diameter-to-thickness ratio is employed as main parameter to investigate the hysteresis performance of stiffened and unstiffened circular shear panel. Depending on these parameters three different buckling mode and hysteretic behavior was found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. Hence, the hysteresis behavior is identified, specimens which deform without strength degradation so it will be used as passive energy dissipating device in civil engineering structures.

Keywords: Circular shear panel damper, FE analysis, Hysteretic behavior, Large deformation.

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748 Seismic Behavior of Thin Shear Wall under the Exerted Loads

Authors: Ali A. Ofoghi

Abstract:

While the shear walls are not economical in buildings, thin shear walls are widely used in the buildings. In the present study, the ratio of different loads to their plasticity and seismic behavior of the wall under different loads have been investigated. Modeling and analysis are carried out by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results show that any increase in the exerted loads will have adverse effects on the seismic behavior of the thin shear walls and causes the wall to collapse by small displacements.

Keywords: Thin shear wall, nonlinear dynamic analysis, reinforced concrete, plasticity.

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747 Tribological Aspects of Advanced Roll Material in Cold Rolling of Stainless Steel

Authors: Mohammed Tahir, Jonas Lagergren

Abstract:

Vancron 40, a nitrided powder metallurgical tool Steel, is used in cold work applications where the predominant failure mechanisms are adhesive wear or galling. Typical applications of Vancron 40 are among others fine blanking, cold extrusion, deep drawing and cold work rolls for cluster mills. Vancron 40 positive results for cold work rolls for cluster mills and as a tool for some severe metal forming process makes it competitive compared to other type of work rolls that require higher precision, among others in cold rolling of thin stainless steel, which required high surface finish quality. In this project, three roll materials for cold rolling of stainless steel strip was examined, Vancron 40, Narva 12B (a high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel alloyed with tungsten) and Supra 3 (a Chromium-molybdenum tungsten-vanadium alloyed high speed steel). The purpose of this project was to study the depth profiles of the ironed stainless steel strips, emergence of galling and to study the lubrication performance used by steel industries. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine scratch of the strip, galling and surface roughness of the roll materials under severe tribological conditions. The critical sliding length for onset of galling was estimated for stainless steel with four different lubricants. Laboratory experiments result of performance evaluation of resistance capability of rolls toward adhesive wear under severe conditions for low and high reductions. Vancron 40 in combination with cold rolling lubricant gave good surface quality, prevents galling of metal surfaces and good bearing capacity.

Keywords: Adhesive wear, Cold rolling, Lubricant, Stainless steel, Surface finish, Vancron 40.

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746 Design Application Procedures of 15 Storied 3D Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall-Frame Structure

Authors: H. Nikzad, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

This paper presents the design application and reinforcement detailing of 15 storied reinforced concrete shear wall-frame structure based on linear static analysis. Databases are generated for section sizes based on automated structural optimization method utilizing Active-set Algorithm in MATLAB platform. The design constraints of allowable section sizes, capacity criteria and seismic provisions for static loads, combination of gravity and lateral loads are checked and determined based on ASCE 7-10 documents and ACI 318-14 design provision. The result of this study illustrates the efficiency of proposed method, and is expected to provide a useful reference in designing of RC shear wall-frame structures.

Keywords: Structural optimization, linear static analysis, ETABS, MATLAB, RC shear wall-frame structures.

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745 Structural Optimization Method for 3D Reinforced Concrete Building Structure with Shear Wall

Authors: H. Nikzad, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

In this paper, an optimization procedure is applied for 3D Reinforced concrete building structure with shear wall.  In the optimization problem, cross sections of beams, columns and shear wall dimensions are considered as design variables and the optimal cross sections can be derived to minimize the total cost of the structure. As for final design application, the most suitable sections are selected to satisfy ACI 318-14 code provision based on static linear analysis. The validity of the method is examined through numerical example of 15 storied 3D RC building with shear wall.  This optimization method is expected to assist in providing a useful reference in design early stage, and to be an effective and powerful tool for structural design of RC shear wall structures.

Keywords: Structural optimization, linear static analysis, ETABS, MATLAB, RC moment frame, RC shear wall structures.

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744 Development and Structural Performance Evaluation on Slit Circular Shear Panel Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

There are several types of metal-based devices conceived as dampers for the seismic energy absorber whereby damages to the major structural components could be minimized for both new and existing structures. This paper aimed to develop and evaluate structural performance of slit circular shear panel damper for passive seismic energy protection by inelastic deformation. Structural evaluation was done using commercially available nonlinear FE simulation program. The main parameters considered are: diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio and slit length-to-width ratio (l/w). Depending on these parameters three different buckling mode and hysteretic behavior was found: yielding prior to buckling without strength degradation, yielding prior to buckling with strength degradation and yielding with buckling and strength degradation which forms pinching at initial displacement. The susceptible location at which the possible crack is initiated is also identified for selected specimens using rupture index.

Keywords: Slit circular shear panel damper, Hysteresis Characteristics, Slip length-to-width ratio, D/t ratio, FE analysis.

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743 Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Wall Using Finite Element Model

Authors: M. A. Ghorbani, M. Pasbani Khiavi, F. Rezaie Moghaddam

Abstract:

In the analysis of structures, the nonlinear effects due to large displacement, large rotation and materially-nonlinear are very important and must be considered for the reliable analysis. The non-linear fmite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of fmite element code using the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation. Two-dimensional plane stress model was carried out to present the shear wall response. Total Lagangian formulation, which is computationally more effective, is used in the formulation of stiffness matrices and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The details of the program formulation are highlighted and the results of the analyses are presented, along with a comparison of the response of the structure with Ansys software results. The presented model in this paper can be developed for nonlinear analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.

Keywords: Finite element, large displacements, materially nonlinear, shear wall.

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742 Practical Design Procedures of 3D Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall-Frame Structure Based on Structural Optimization Method

Authors: H. Nikzad, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

This study investigates and develops the structural optimization method. The effect of size constraints on practical solution of reinforced concrete (RC) building structure with shear wall is proposed. Cross-sections of beam and column, and thickness of shear wall are considered as design variables. The objective function to be minimized is total cost of the structure by using a simple and efficient automated MATLAB platform structural optimization methodology. With modification of mathematical formulations, the result is compared with optimal solution without size constraints. The most suitable combination of section sizes is selected as for the final design application based on linear static analysis. The findings of this study show that defining higher value of upper bound of sectional sizes significantly affects optimal solution, and defining of size constraints play a vital role in finding of global and practical solution during optimization procedures. The result and effectiveness of proposed method confirm the ability and efficiency of optimal solutions for 3D RC shear wall-frame structure.

Keywords: Structural optimization, linear static analysis, ETABS, MATLAB, RC shear wall-frame structures.

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741 Panel Zone Rigidity Effects on Special Steel Moment-Resisting Frames According to the Performance Based Design

Authors: Mahmoud Miri, Morteza Naghipour, Amir Kashiryfar

Abstract:

The unanticipated destruct of more of the steel moment frames in Northridge earthquake, altered class of regard to the beamto- column connections in moment frames. Panel zone is one the significant part of joints which, it-s stiffness and rigidity has an important effect on the behavior and ductility of the frame. Specifically that behavior of panel zone has a very significant effect on the special moment frames. In this paper , meanwhile the relations for modeling of panel zone in frames are expressed , special moment frames with different spans and stories were studied in the way of performance-based design. The frames designed in according with Iranian steel building code. The effect of panel zone is also considered and in the case of non-existence of performance level, by changing in intimacies and parameter of panel zone, performance level is considered.

Keywords: steel moment frame, panel zone, performance based design

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740 Application Problems of Anchor Dowels in Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall and Frame Connections

Authors: Musa H. Arslan

Abstract:

Strengthening of the existing seismically deficient reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions. Addition of RC shear wall as infill or external walls into the structural system has been a commonly preferred strengthening technique since the Big Erzincan Earthquake occurred in Turkey, 1992. The newly added rigid infill walls act primarily as shear walls and relieve the non-ductile existing frames from being subjected to large shear demands providing that new RC inner or external walls are adequately anchored to the existing weak RC frame. The performance of the RC shear walls-RC weak frame connections by steel anchor dowels depends on some parameters such as compressive strength of the existing RC frame concrete, diameter and embedment length of anchored rebar, type of rebar, yielding stress of bar, properties of used chemicals, position of the anchor bars in RC. In this study, application problems of the steel anchor dowels have been checked with some field studies such as tensile test. Two different RC buildings which will be strengthened were selected, and before strengthening, some tests have been performed in the existing RC buildings. According to the field observation and experimental studies, if the concrete compressive strength is lower than 10 MPa, the performance of the anchors is reduced by 70%.

Keywords: Anchor dowel, concrete, damage, reinforced concrete, shear wall, frame.

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739 Structural Behavior of Precast Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel Subjected to Vertical In-Plane Shear Loading

Authors: Y. H. Mugahed Amran, Raizal S. M. Rashid, Farzad Hejazi, Nor Azizi Safiee, A. A. Abang Ali

Abstract:

Experimental and analytical studies were accomplished to examine the structural behavior of precast foamed concrete sandwich panel (PFCSP) under vertical in-plane shear load. PFCSP full-scale specimens with total number of six were developed with varying heights to study an important parameter slenderness ratio (H/t). The production technique of PFCSP and the procedure of test setup were described. The results obtained from the experimental tests were analysed in the context of in-plane shear strength capacity, load-deflection profile, load-strain relationship, slenderness ratio, shear cracking patterns and mode of failure. Analytical study of finite element analysis was implemented and the theoretical calculations of the ultimate in-plane shear strengths using the adopted ACI318 equation for reinforced concrete wall were determined aimed at predicting the in-plane shear strength of PFCSP. The decrease in slenderness ratio from 24 to 14 showed an increase of 26.51% and 21.91% on the ultimate in-plane shear strength capacity as obtained experimentally and in FEA models, respectively. The experimental test results, FEA models data and theoretical calculation values were compared and provided a significant agreement with high degree of accuracy. Therefore, on the basis of the results obtained, PFCSP wall has the potential use as an alternative to the conventional load-bearing wall system.

Keywords: Deflection profiles, foamed concrete, load-strain relationships, precast foamed concrete sandwich panel, slenderness ratio, vertical in-plane shear strength capacity.

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738 Influence of Deep Cold Rolling and Low Plasticity Burnishing on Surface Hardness and Surface Roughness of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma

Abstract:

Deep cold rolling (DCR) and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) process are cold working processes, which easily produce a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. The present study focuses on the surface roughness and surface hardness aspects of AISI 4140 work material, using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in order to identify the predominant factors amongst the selected parameters. They were then categorized in order of significance followed by setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. In the present work, the influence of main process parameters (force, feed rate, number of tool passes/overruns, initial roughness of the work piece, ball material, ball diameter and lubricant used) on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied for both LPB and DCR process and the results are compared. It was observed that by using LPB process surface hardness has been improved by 167% and in DCR process surface hardness has been improved by 442%. It was also found that the force, ball diameter, number of tool passes and initial roughness of the workpiece are the most pronounced parameters, which has a significant effect on the work piece-s surface during deep cold rolling and low plasticity burnishing process.

Keywords: Deep cold rolling, burnishing, surface roughness, surface hardness, design of experiments, AISI4140 steel.

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737 Hygrothermal Assessment of Internally Insulated Prefabricated Concrete Wall in Polish Climatic Condition

Authors: D. Kaczorek

Abstract:

Internal insulation of external walls is often problematic due to increased moisture content in the wall and interstitial or surface condensation risk. In this paper, the hygrothermal performance of prefabricated, concrete, large panel, external wall typical for WK70 system, commonly used in Poland in the 70’s, with inside, additional insulation was investigated. Thermal insulation board made out of hygroscopic, natural materials with moisture buffer capacity and extruded polystyrene (EPS) board was used as interior insulation. Experience with this natural insulation is rare in Poland. The analysis was performed using WUFI software. First of all, the impact of various standard boundary conditions on the behavior of the different wall assemblies was tested. The comparison of results showed that the moisture class according to the EN ISO 13788 leads to too high values of total moisture content in the wall since the boundary condition according to the EN 15026 should be usually applied. Then, hygrothermal 1D-simulations were conducted by WUFI Pro for analysis of internally added insulation, and the weak point like the joint of the wall with the concrete ceiling was verified using 2D simulations. Results showed that, in the Warsaw climate and the indoor conditions adopted in accordance with EN 15026, in the tested wall assemblies, regardless of the type of interior insulation, there would not be any problems with moisture - inside the structure and on the interior surface.

Keywords: Concrete large panel wall, hygrothermal simulation, internal insulation, moisture related issues.

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736 Shear Capacity of Rectangular Duct Panel Experiencing Internal Pressure

Authors: K. S. Sivakumaran, T. Thanga, B. Halabieh

Abstract:

The end panels of a large rectangular industrial duct, which experience significant internal pressures, also experience considerable transverse shear due to transfer of gravity loads to the supports. The current design practice of such thin plate panels for shear load is based on methods used for the design of plate girder webs. The structural arrangements, the loadings and the resulting behavior associated with the industrial duct end panels are, however, significantly different from those of the web of a plate girder. The large aspect ratio of the end panels gives rise to multiple bands of tension fields, whereas the plate girder web design is based on one tension field. In addition to shear, the industrial end panels are subjected to internal pressure which in turn produces significant membrane action. This paper reports a study which was undertaken to review the current industrial analysis and design methods and to propose a comprehensive method of designing industrial duct end panels for shear resistance. In this investigation, a nonlinear finite element model was developed to simulate the behavior of industrial duct end panel, along with the associated edge stiffeners, subjected to transverse shear and internal pressures. The model considered the geometric imperfections and constitutive relations for steels. Six scale independent dimensionless parameters that govern the behavior of such end panel were identified and were then used in a parametric study. It was concluded that the plate slenderness dominates the shear strength of stockier end panels, and whereas, both the plate slenderness and the aspect ratio influence the shear strength of slender end panels. Based on these studies, this paper proposes design aids for estimating the shear strength of rectangular duct end panels.

Keywords: Thin plate, transverse shear, tension field, finite element analysis, parametric study, design.

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