**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**564

# Search results for: shear connector

##### 564 Strengthen of Cold-Formed Steel Column with Ferrocement Jacket: Push out Tests

**Authors:**
Khaled Alenezi,
Talal Alhajri,
M. M. Tahir,
Mohamed Ragaee K. Badr,
S. O. Bamaga

**Abstract:**

The population growth in the world requires an increase in demand of residential and housing construction. Using lightweight construction materials such as cold formed steel sections and ferrocement could be an alternate solution to foster the construction industry. In this study, a new composite column is introduced. It consists of cold formed steel section and ferrocement jacket. The ferrocement jacket was constructed using self-compacting mortar with two wire steel mesh of 550 MPa yield strength. Experimental push out tests was conducted to investigate the strength capacities and behavior of proposed shear connectors namely, bolt, bar-angle and self-drilling screw shear connectors. It was found that bolt connector showed the best behavior followed by bar-angle. Also, it was concluded that the ferrocement could be used to strength and improve the behavior of cold formed steel column.

**Keywords:**
Cold formed steel,
composite column,
push out test,
shear connector,
ferrocement,
strengthen method.

##### 563 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

**Authors:**
R. Alias,
A. Kasa,
M. R. Taha

**Abstract:**

The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200 and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength increases as particle size increases.

**Keywords:**
Particle size,
shear strength,
granular material,
direct
shear test.

##### 562 Effect of Silt Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Unsaturated Sandy Soils

**Authors:**
R. Ziaie Moayed,
E. Khavaninzadeh,
M. Ghorbani Tochaee

**Abstract:**

Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.

**Keywords:**
Shear strength parameters,
direct shear test,
silty sand,
shear stress,
shear deformation.

##### 561 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

**Authors:**
J. Y. Lee,
H. S. Lim,
S. H. Yoon

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Diagonal crack width,
high strength stirrups,
high strength concrete,
RC members,
shear behavior.

##### 560 Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members

**Authors:**
J.-Y. Lee,
H.-S. Lim,
S.-E. Kim

**Abstract:**

Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

**Keywords:**
PSC members,
shear failure mode,
high strength stirrups,
high strength concrete,
shear behavior.

##### 559 Bone Ash Impact on Soil Shear Strength

**Authors:**
G. M. Ayininuola,
A. O. Sogunro

**Abstract:**

Most failures of soil have been attributed to poor shear strength. Consequently, the present paper investigated the suitability of cattle bone ash as a possible additive to improve the shear strength of soils. Four soil samples were collected and stabilized with prepared bone ash in proportions of 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%, 15% and 20% by dry weight. Chemical analyses of the bone ash; followed by classification, compaction, and triaxial shear tests of the treated soil samples were conducted. Results obtained showed that bone ash contained high proportion of calcium oxide and phosphate. Addition of bone ash to soil samples led to increase in soil shear strengths within the range of 22.40% to 105.18% over the strengths of the respective control tests. Conversely, all samples attained maximum shear strengths at 7% bone ash stabilization. The use of bone ash as an additive will therefore improve the shear strength of soils; however, using bone ash quantities in excess of 7% may not yield ample results.

**Keywords:**
Bone ash,
Shear strength,
Stabilization,
Soil.

##### 558 Study on Connecting Method of Box Pontoons

**Authors:**
Young-Jun You,
Youn-Ju Jeong,
Min-Su Park,
Du-Ho Lee

**Abstract:**

Due to a lot of limited conditions, a large box type floating structure is inevitably constructed by connecting many pontoons. When a floating structure is made with concrete, concrete shear key with saw-teeth shape is often used to carry shear force. Match casting for the shear key and precise construction on a sea are very important for making separated two pontoons as one body but those are not easy work and may increase construction time and cost. To solve this problem, one-way shear key is studied in this paper for a connected part where there is some difference between upward and downward shear force. It has only one inclined plane and can resist shear force in one direction. Big shear force is resisted by concrete which forms an inclined plane and small shear force is resisted by steel bar. This system can reduce manufacturing cost of individual pontoon and construction time and cost for constructing a floating structure on a sea. In this paper, the feasibility study about one-way shear key system is performed by comparing with design example.

**Keywords:**
Connection,
floating container terminal,
pontoon,
pre-stressing,
shear key.

##### 557 Mathematical Approach for Large Deformation Analysis of the Stiffened Coupled Shear Walls

**Authors:**
M. J. Fadaee,
H. Saffari,
H. Khosravi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Buckling load,
differential equation,
energy method,
geometrically nonlinear analysis,
mathematical method,
Stiffened
coupled shear walls.

##### 556 Study on the Impact of Size and Position of the Shear Field in Determining the Shear Modulus of Glulam Beam Using Photogrammetry Approach

**Authors:**
Niaz Gharavi,
Hexin Zhang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Shear field test method,
structural-sized test,
shear
modulus of Glulam beam,
photogrammetry approach.

##### 555 Image Processing on Geosynthetic Reinforced Layers to Evaluate Shear Strength and Variations of the Strain Profiles

**Authors:**
S. K. Khosrowshahi,
E. Güler

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Image processing,
soil reinforcement,
geosynthetics,
simple shear test,
shear strain profile.

##### 554 Flexure of Cantilever Thick Beams Using Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory

**Authors:**
Yuwaraj M. Ghugal,
Ajay G. Dahake

**Abstract:**

A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick cantilever isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the. Results obtained are discussed critically with those of other theories.

**Keywords:**
Trigonometric shear deformation,
thick beam,
flexure,
principle of virtual work,
equilibrium equations,
stress.

##### 553 Flexure of Simply Supported Thick Beams Using Refined Shear Deformation Theory

**Authors:**
Yuwaraj M. Ghugal,
Ajay G. Dahake

**Abstract:**

A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick simply supported isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the results obtained is discussed critically with those of other theories.

**Keywords:**
Trigonometric shear deformation,
thick beam,
flexure,
principle of virtual work,
equilibrium equations,
stress.

##### 552 Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall

**Authors:**
Zhao Cai-qi,
Ma Jun

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear wall,
huge statue of Buddha,
shear capacity,
initial lateral stiffness,
overturning moment bearing.

##### 551 Numerical Modeling of Direct Shear Tests on Sandy Clay

**Authors:**
R. Ziaie Moayed ,
S. Tamassoki ,
E. Izadi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Shear strength,
Finite element analysis,
Large direct
shear test,
Sandy clay.

##### 550 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

**Authors:**
Anas M. Fares

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cantilever shear walls,
flexural deformation,
lateral deflection,
lateral loads,
reinforced concrete shear walls,
rigidity,
shear deformation,
virtual work theorem.

##### 549 Seismic Behavior of Thin Shear Wall under the Exerted Loads

**Authors:**
Ali A. Ofoghi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Thin shear wall,
nonlinear dynamic analysis,
reinforced concrete,
plasticity.

##### 548 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

**Authors:**
Shahriar Shahbazpanahi,
Alaleh Kamgar

**Abstract:**

So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

**Keywords:**
Crack,
FRP,
shear,
strengthening.

##### 547 Effect of Salt Solution and Plasticity Index on undrain Shear Strength of Clays

**Authors:**
S .A. Naeini,
M. A. Jahanfar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
landfill liner,
shear resistant,
plasticity,
salt solution

##### 546 Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Plates under the Combined Action of Shear and Uniaxial Stresses

**Authors:**
V. Piscopo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Buckling analysis,
Shear,
Uniaxial Stresses.

##### 545 Shear-Layer Instabilities of a Pulsed Stack-Issued Transverse Jet

**Authors:**
Ching M. Hsu,
Rong F. Huang,
Michael E. Loretero

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Acoustic excitation,
jet in crossflow,
shear-layer instability.

##### 544 Numerical Investigation of Instabilities in Free Shear Layer Produced by NS-DBD Actuator

**Authors:**
Ilya Popov,
Steven Hulshoff

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
NS-DBD,
plasma,
actuator,
flow control,
instability,
shear layer

##### 543 Semi Empirical Equations for Peak Shear Strength of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls

**Authors:**
Ali Kezmane,
Said Boukais,
Mohand Hamizi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Shear strength,
reinforced concrete walls,
rectangular walls,
shear walls,
models.

##### 542 Shear Buckling of a Large Pultruded Composite I-Section under Asymmetric Loading

**Authors:**
Jin Y. Park,
Jeong Wan Lee

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Strain sensor,
displacement sensor,
shear buckling,
polymer composite I-section,
asymmetric loading.

##### 541 Developing a New Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Over-Consolidation Ratio

**Authors:**
Wael M Albadri,
Hassnen M Jafer,
Ehab H Sfoog

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Shear strength,
over-consolidation ratio,
vane shear test,
clayey soil.

##### 540 Experimental Investigation on the Shear Strength Parameters of Sand-Slag Mixtures

**Authors:**
Ayad Salih Sabbar,
Amin Chegenizadeh,
Hamid Nikraz

**Abstract:**

Utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has a positive influence on the environment by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and issues associated with waste disposal. Granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is a by-product of the iron and steel industry, with millions of tons of slag being annually produced worldwide. Slag has been widely used in structural engineering and for stabilizing clay soils; however, studies on the effect of slag on sandy soils are scarce. This article investigates the effect of slag content on shear strength parameters through direct shear tests and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests on mixtures of Perth sand and slag. For this purpose, sand-slag mixtures, with slag contents of 2%, 4%, and 6% by weight of samples, were tested with direct shear tests under three normal stress values, namely 100 kPa, 150 kPa, and 200 kPa. Unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed under a single confining pressure of 100 kPa and relative density of 80%. The internal friction angles and shear stresses of the mixtures were determined via the direct shear tests, demonstrating that shear stresses increased with increasing normal stress and the internal friction angles and cohesion increased with increasing slag. There were no significant differences in shear stresses parameters when slag content rose from 4% to 6%. The unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests demonstrated that shear strength increased with increasing slag content.

**Keywords:**
Direct shear,
shear strength,
slag,
UU test.

##### 539 Structural Optimization Method for 3D Reinforced Concrete Building Structure with Shear Wall

**Authors:**
H. Nikzad,
S. Yoshitomi

**Abstract:**

In this paper, an optimization procedure is applied for 3D Reinforced concrete building structure with shear wall. In the optimization problem, cross sections of beams, columns and shear wall dimensions are considered as design variables and the optimal cross sections can be derived to minimize the total cost of the structure. As for final design application, the most suitable sections are selected to satisfy ACI 318-14 code provision based on static linear analysis. The validity of the method is examined through numerical example of 15 storied 3D RC building with shear wall. This optimization method is expected to assist in providing a useful reference in design early stage, and to be an effective and powerful tool for structural design of RC shear wall structures.

**Keywords:**
Structural optimization,
linear static analysis,
ETABS,
MATLAB,
RC moment frame,
RC shear wall structures.

##### 538 Experimental Characterization of the Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements in Chips

**Authors:**
Djamal Atlaoui,
Youcef Bouafia

**Abstract:**

^{3}. The fibers are characterized by mechanical resistance and tearing. The optimal composition of the concrete was determined by the workability test. Two fiber contents are selected for this study (W = 0.6% and W = 0.8%) and a BT control concrete (W = 0%) of the same composition as the matrix is developed to serve as a reference with a sand-to-gravel ratio (S/G) of concrete matrix equal to 1. The comparison of the different results obtained shows that the chips fibers confer a significant ductility to the material after cracking of the concrete. Also, the fibers used limit diagonal cracks in shear and improve strength and rigidity.

**Keywords:**
Characterization,
chips fibers,
cracking mode,
ductility,
undulation,
shear.

##### 537 Effect of Shear Wall Openings on the Fundamental Period of Shear Wall Structures

**Authors:**
Anas M. Fares,
A. Touqan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Concrete,
earthquake-resistant design,
finite element,
fundamental period,
lateral stiffness,
linear analysis,
modal analysis,
rayleigh,
SAP2000,
shear wall,
ASCE7-16.

##### 536 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface

**Authors:**
Jipeng Yan,
Xingchen Yang,
Xiaowei Zhou,
Mengxing Tang,
Honghai Liu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Shear elastic modulus,
skeletal muscle,
ultrasound,
wearable human-machine interface.

##### 535 Development of a New Method for T-joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

**Authors:**
R. Doubrava,
R. Růžek

**Abstract:**

Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

**Keywords:**
T-joint,
shear,
composite,
mechanical testing,
Finite
Element analysis,
methodology.