Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: bending strength

12 Material and Parameter Analysis of the PolyJet Process for Mold Making Using Design of Experiments

Authors: A. Kampker, K. Kreisköther, C. Reinders

Abstract:

Since additive manufacturing technologies constantly advance, the use of this technology in mold making seems reasonable. Many manufacturers of additive manufacturing machines, however, do not offer any suggestions on how to parameterize the machine to achieve optimal results for mold making. The purpose of this research is to determine the interdependencies of different materials and parameters within the PolyJet process by using design of experiments (DoE), to additively manufacture molds, e.g. for thermoforming and injection molding applications. Therefore, the general requirements of thermoforming molds, such as heat resistance, surface quality and hardness, have been identified. Then, different materials and parameters of the PolyJet process, such as the orientation of the printed part, the layer thickness, the printing mode (matte or glossy), the distance between printed parts and the scaling of parts, have been examined. The multifactorial analysis covers the following properties of the printed samples: Tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, elongation at break, surface quality, heat deflection temperature and surface hardness. The key objective of this research is that by joining the results from the DoE with the requirements of the mold making, optimal and tailored molds can be additively manufactured with the PolyJet process. These additively manufactured molds can then be used in prototyping processes, in process testing and in small to medium batch production.

Keywords: design of experiments, Additive manufacturing, Mold Making, PolyJet

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 945
11 Theoretical and Experimental Bending Properties of Composite Pipes

Authors: M. Stefanovska, S. Risteska, B. Samakoski, G. Maneski, B. Kostadinoska

Abstract:

Aim of this work is to determine the theoretical and experimental properties of filament wound glass fiber/epoxy resin composite pipes with different winding design subjected under bending. For determination of bending strength of composite samples three point bending tests were conducted. Good correlation between theoretical and experimental results has been obtained, where sample No4 has shown the highest value of bending strength. All samples have demonstrated matrix cracking and fiber failure followed by layers delamination during testing. Also, it was found that smaller winding angles lead to an increase in bending stress. From presented results good merger between glass fibers and epoxy resin was confirmed by SEM analysis.

Keywords: composite pipe, bending properties, winding design

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3582
10 Study of Fly Ash Geopolymer Based Composites with Polyester Waste Addition

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Olesia Mikhailova

Abstract:

In the present work, fly ash geopolymer based composites including polyester (PES) waste were studied. Specimens of three compositions were prepared: (a) fly ash geopolymer with 5% PES waste; (b) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 5% PES waste; (c) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 6.25% PES waste. Compressive and bending strength measurements, water absorption test and determination of thermal conductivity coefficient were performed. The results showed that the addition of sand in a mixture of geopolymer with 5% PES content led to higher compressive strength, while it increased water absorption and reduced thermal conductivity coefficient. The increase of PES addition in geopolymer mortars resulted in a more dense structure, indicated by the increase of strength and thermal conductivity and the decrease of water absorption.

Keywords: Composites, geopolymers, fly ash, polyester waste

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1926
9 Physicochemical Characterization of MFI–Ceramic Hollow Fibres Membranes for CO2 Separation with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher

Abstract:

This paper present some preliminary work on the preparation and physicochemical caracterization of nanocomposite MFI-alumina structures based on alumina hollow fibres. The fibers are manufactured by a wet spinning process. α-alumina particles were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in NMP. The resulting slurry is pressed through the annular gap of a spinneret into a precipitation bath. The resulting green fibres are sintered. The mechanical strength of the alumina hollow fibres is determined by a three-point-bending test while the pore size is characterized by bubble-point testing. The bending strength is in the range of 110 MPa while the average pore size is 450 nm for an internal diameter of 1 mm and external diameter of 1.7 mm. To characterize the MFI membranes various techniques were used for physicochemical characterization of MFI–ceramic hollow fibres membranes: The nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy combined with X emission microanalysis. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Microanalysis by the X-ray were used to observe the morphology of the hollow fibre membranes (thickness, infiltration into the carrier, defects, homogeneity). No surface film, has been obtained, as observed by SEM and EDX analysis and confirmed by high temperature variation of N2 and CO2 gas permeances before cation exchange. Local analysis and characterise (SEM and EDX) and overall (by ICP elemental analysis) were conducted on two samples exchanged to determine the quantity and distribution of the cation of cesium on the cross section fibre of the zeolite between the cavities.

Keywords: CO2, ion-exchange, physicochemical characterization of MFI, Ceramic hollow fibre

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1698
8 Study of Mechanical Properties for the Aluminum Bronze Matrix Composites of Hot Pressing

Authors: Shenq Yih Luo, Chung Hsien Lu

Abstract:

The aluminum bronze matrix alumina composites using hot press and resin infiltration were investigated to study their porosities, hardness, bending strengths, and microstructures. The experiment results show that the hardness of the sintered composites with the decrease of porosity increases. The composites without and with resin infiltration have about HRF 42-61 of about 34-40% of porosity and about HRF 62-83 of about 30-36% of porosity, respectively. Besides, the alumina composites contain a more amount of iron and nickel powders would cause a lower bending strength due to forming some weaker bonding among the iron, nickel, copper, aluminum under this hot pressing of shorter time.

Keywords: porosity, hot pressing, bending strength, Aluminum bronze matrix composite

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1986
7 Effects of the Sintering Process on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelain from Ugandan Ceramic Minerals

Authors: Peter W. Olupot, Stefan Jonsson, Joseph K. Byaruhanga

Abstract:

Porcelain specimens were fired at 6C/min to 1250C (dwell time 0.5-3h) and cooled at 6C/min to room temperature. Additionally, three different slower firing/cooling cycles were tried. Sintering profile and effects on MOR, crystalline phase content and morphology were investigated using dilatometry, 4-point bending strength, XRD and FEG-SEM respectively. Industrial-sized specimens prepared using the promising cycle were tested basing on the ANSI standards. Increasing dwell time from 1h to 3h at peak temperature of 1250C resulted in neither a significant effect on the quartz and mullite content nor MOR. Reducing the firing/cooling rate to below 6C/min, for peak temperature of 1250C (dwell time of 1h) does not result in improvement of strength of porcelain. The industrial sized specimen exhibited flashover voltages of 20.3kV (dry) and 9.3kV (wet) respectively, transverse strength of 12.5kN and bulk density of 2.27g/cm3, which are satisfactory. There was however dye penetration during porosity test. KeywordsDwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

Keywords: Microstructure, Strength, porcelain, dwell time

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2569
6 Inelastic Strength of Laterally Unsupported Top- Loaded Built-Up Slender Beams

Authors: M. Massoud El Sa'adawy, F. F. F. El Dib

Abstract:

Lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) is one of the phenomenae controlling the ultimate bending strength of steel Ibeams carrying distributed loads on top flange. Built-up I-sections are used as main beams and distributors. This study investigates the ultimate bending strength of such beams with sections of different classes including slender elements. The nominal strengths of the selected beams are calculated for different unsupported lengths according to the Provisions of the American Institute of Steel Constructions (AISC-LRFD). These calculations are compared with results of a nonlinear inelastic study using accurate FE model for this type of loading. The goal is to investigate the performance of the provisions for the selected sections. Continuous distributed load at the top flange of the beams was applied at the FE model. Imperfections of different values are implemented to the FE model to examine their effect on the LTB of beams at failure, and hence, their effect on the ultimate strength of beams. The study also introduces a procedure for evaluating the performance of the provisions compared with the accurate FEA results of the selected sections. A simplified design procedure is given and recommendations for future code updates are made.

Keywords: lateral buckling, ultimate load, Top Loading, Slender Sections

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2366
5 The Effects of Aggregate Sizes and Fiber Volume Fraction on Bending Toughness and Direct Tension of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho, Jae-Heum Moon, Jang-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

In order to supplement the brittle property of concrete, fibers are added into concrete mixtures. Compared to general concrete, various characteristics such as tensile strength, bending strength, bending toughness, and resistance to crack are superior, and even when cracks occur, improvements on toughness as well as resistance to shock are excellent due to the growth of fracture energy. Increased function of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be differentiated depending on the fiber dispersion, and sand percentage can be an important influence on the fiber dispersion. Therefore, in this research, experiments were planned on sand percentage in order to apprehend the influence of sand percentage on the bending properties and direct tension of SFRC and basic experiments were conducted on bending and direct tension in order to recognize the properties of bending properties and direct tension following the size of the aggregates and sand percentage.

Keywords: steel fiber reinforced concrete, Bending Toughness, Direct tension

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1325
4 Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Rough Rice Drying in Infrared-assisted Hot Air Dryer Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: D. Zare, H. Naderi, A. A. Jafari

Abstract:

Drying characteristics of rough rice (variety of lenjan) with an initial moisture content of 25% dry basis (db) was studied in a hot air dryer assisted by infrared heating. Three arrival air temperatures (30, 40 and 500C) and four infrared radiation intensities (0, 0.2 , 0.4 and 0.6 W/cm2) and three arrival air speeds (0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 m.s-1) were studied. Bending strength of brown rice kernel, percentage of cracked kernels and time of drying were measured and evaluated. The results showed that increasing the drying arrival air temperature and radiation intensity of infrared resulted decrease in drying time. High bending strength and low percentage of cracked kernel was obtained when paddy was dried by hot air assisted infrared dryer. Between this factors and their interactive effect were a significant difference (p<0.01). An intensity level of 0.2 W/cm2 was found to be optimum for radiation drying. Furthermore, in the present study, the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for predicting the moisture content during drying (output parameter for ANN modeling) was investigated. Infrared Radiation intensity, drying air temperature, arrival air speed and drying time were considered as input parameters for the model. An ANN model with two hidden layers with 8 and 14 neurons were selected for studying the influence of transfer functions and training algorithms. The results revealed that a network with the Tansig (hyperbolic tangent sigmoid) transfer function and trainlm (Levenberg-Marquardt) back propagation algorithm made the most accurate predictions for the paddy drying system. Mean square error (MSE) was calculated and found that the random errors were within and acceptable range of ±5% with coefficient of determination (R2) of 99%.

Keywords: Rough rice, Infrared-hot air, Artificial Neural Network

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1528
3 Comparison of Eurocodes EN310 and EN789 in Determining the Bending Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Red Seraya Plywood Panel

Authors: S.F. Tsen, M. Zamin Jumaat

Abstract:

The characteristic bending strength (MOR) and mean modulus of elasticity (MOE) of tropical hardwood red seraya (Shorea spp.) plywood were determined using European Standard EN310 and EN789. The thickness of the test specimen was 4.0mm, 7.0mm, 9.0mm, 12.0mm and 15.0mm. The experiment found that the MOR of red seraya plywood in EN310 is about 12% to 20% and 7% to 24% higher than EN789 whereas MOE were about 28% to 41% and 30% to 36% lower than those obtained from EN 789 for test specimens parallel and perpendicular to the grain direction. The linear regression shows that MOR and MOE for EN789 is about 0.8 times less and 1.5 times more than EN310. The experiment also found that the MOR and MOE of EN310 and EN789 also depend on the wood species that used in the experiment.

Keywords: modulus of elasticity, bending strength, EN310, EN789

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3846
2 Structural Behaviour of Partially Filled Steel Grid Composite Deck

Authors: Hyun-Seop Shin, Chin-Hyung Lee, Ki-Tae Park

Abstract:

In order to apply partially filled steel grid composite deck as the horizontal supporting structure of various kinds of infrastructures, the variation of its flexural strength according to design parameters such as cross and longitudinal bars constituting the steel grid and the type of shear connection is evaluated and compared experimentally. The result shows that the design sensitivity of the deck to the spacing of the cross bars is insignificant in the case of structure with low risk of punching failure or without load distribution problem. By means of shear connection composed by transverse rebar and longitudinal bar without additional shear stud bolts, the complete interaction between steel grid and concrete slab is able to be achieved and the composite deck can develop its bending resistance capacity.

Keywords: Composite Action, bending strength, shear connection, steel grid composite deck

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1187
1 Site Inspection and Evaluation Behavior of Qing Shang Concrete Bridge

Authors: Haleem K. Hussain, Liu Gui Wei, Zhang Lian Zhen, Yongxue Li

Abstract:

It is necessary to evaluate the bridges conditions and strengthen bridges or parts of them. The reinforcement necessary due to some reasons can be summarized as: First, a changing in use of bridge could produce internal forces in a part of structural which exceed the existing cross-sectional capacity. Second, bridges may also need reinforcement because damage due to external factors which reduced the cross-sectional resistance to external loads. One of other factors could listed here its misdesign in some details, like safety of bridge or part of its.This article identify the design demands of Qing Shan bridge located in is in Heilongjiang Province He gang - Nen Jiang Road 303 provincial highway, Wudalianchi area, China, is an important bridge in the urban areas. The investigation program was include the observation and evaluate the damage in T- section concrete beams , prestressed concrete box girder bridges section in additional evaluate the whole state of bridge includes the pier , abutments , bridge decks, wings , bearing and capping beam, joints, ........etc. The test results show that the bridges in general structural condition are good. T beam span No 10 were observed, crack extended upward along the ribbed T beam, and continue to the T beam flange. Crack width varying between 0.1mm to 0.4mm, the maximum about 0.4mm. The bridge needs to be improved flexural bending strength especially at for T beam section.

Keywords: Maintenance, Field Investigation, prestressed concrete box girder, Qing Shan Bridge

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1478