Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30174
Run-off Storage in Sand Reservoirs as an Alternative Source of Water Supply for Rura land Semi-arid areas of South Africa
Abstract:Abstraction of water from the dry river sand-beds is well-known as an alternative source of water during dry seasons. Internally, because of the form of sand particles, voids are created which can store water in the riverbeds. Large rivers are rare in South Africa. Many rivers are sand river types and without water during the prolonged dry periods. South Africa has not taken full advantage of water storage in sand as a solution to the growing water scarcity both in urban and rural areas. The paper reviews the benefits of run-off storage in sand reservoirs gained from other arid areas and need for adoption in rural areas of South Africa as an alternative water supply where it is probable.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1330131Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1362
 L. Borst and S. De Haas, Hydrology of sand storage dams. A case study in the Kiindu catchment, Kitui district Kenya, VU University Amsterdam, 2006.
 J. J. Botha, J. J. Anderson, D. C. Gronenewald, N. Mdiben, M. N. Baiphethi, N. N, Nhlabatsi, and T. B. Zere, On farm application of infield rainwater techniques on small plots in the central region of South Africa, Pretoria: Water Research Commission Report TT 313/07, 2007.
 J. C. Cripps, F. G, Bell, and M. G. Culshaw (eds.), Groundwater in Engineering Geology. Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publication No.3. pp 1-23, 1986.
 CSS (Central Statistics Services), Census -96 preliminary estimates of the size of the population of South Africa, Pretoria, SA, 1997.
 DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry), National water resources strategy first edition, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, RSA, 2004.
 S. Foster and A. Tuinhof. (2004, December). Brazil, Kenya: subsurface dams to augment groundwater storage in basement terrain for human subsistence
[Online]. Available: http:// www.sistersairces.worldbank.org,
 G. Hanson and A. Nilson, Groundwater dams for rural water supplies in developing countries. National Water Well Association. Groundwater: Vol.24 No.4, 1986.
 A. M. Hassanli, A. E. Namegli, and S. Becham, Evaluation of the effect of porous check dam location on fine sediment retention (a case study). Environ Monit Assess 152: 319-326, 2009.
 R. Lasage, J. Aerts, G. C. M. Mutiso, and A. Vries, Potential for community based adaptation to droughts: sand dams in Kitui, Kenya. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth vol. 33, 67-73, 2006.
 J. keay-Bright, and J. Bordman, Evidence from field-based studies of rates of soil erosion on degraded land in the central Karoo, South Africa. Geomorphology, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.07.011, to be published.
 T. E. Kleynhans, Environment module South Africa, Role of agriculture project international conference. Agricultural and Development Economics Division (ESA). FAO Rome, Italy, 2003.
 P. Mukheibir, and D. Sparks, Climate variability, climate change and water resources strategies for small municipalities. Pretoria: Water Research Commission Report 1500/1/06, 2006.
 V. Mutakwa and S. Kusangaya, Contribution of rainwater harvester technologies to rural livelihoods in Zimbabwe: the case of Ngundu ward in Chivi District. Water SA vol. 32 No. 3, 2006.
 R. O. Quilis, M. Hoogmoed, M. Ertsen, J. W. Foppen, R. Hut, and A. Vries, Measuring and modelling hydrological process of sand-storage dams on different spatial scales. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, doi:10.1016/j.pce.2008.06.057, to be published.
 M. Van Dijk and S. J. Van Vuuren, "Reduction of evaporation from reservoirs", presented at the WISA The confluence of the water industry Sun City, May 18-22, 2008, Paper 076.
 M. J. Webster, Effective demand for rural water supply in South Africa, WEDC, Loughborough University UK, 1999.
 M. Wills, Artificial recharge gets real. The Water Wheel. Vol. 7 No. 4. Pretoria: Water Research Commission, 2008
 A. Yair and S. Berkowicz (eds.),Arid and Semi arid environments. Geomorpohlogical and Pedological Aspects. Catena pp 119-126, 1989.
 North West Province Environmental Outlook, 2008, A report on the state of the environment.
[Online]. Available: http:\\www.nwpg.gov.za/Agriculture/NWENVIRONMENTAL_ OUTLOOK