Assessing the Suitability of South African Waste Foundry Sand as an Additive in Clay Masonry Products
The foundry industry generates large quantities of solid waste in the form of waste foundry sand. The ever-increasing quantities of this type of industrial waste put pressure on land-filling space and its proper management has become a global concern. The South African foundry industry is not different when it comes to this solid waste generation. Utilizing the foundry waste sand in other applications has become an attractive avenue to deal with this waste stream. In the present paper, an evaluation was done on the suitability of foundry waste sand as an additive in clay masonry products. Purchased clay was added to the foundry waste sand sample in a 50/50 ratio. The mixture was named FC sample. The FC sample was mixed with water in a pan mixer until the mixture was consistent and suitable for extrusion. The FC sample was extruded and cut into briquettes. Water absorption, shrinkage and modulus of rupture tests were conducted on the resultant briquettes. Foundry waste sand and FC samples were respectively characterized mineralogically using X-Ray Diffraction, and the major and trace elements were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Adding purchased clay to the foundry waste sand positively influenced the workability of the test sample. Another positive characteristic was the low linear shrinkage, which indicated that products manufactured from the FC sample would not be susceptible to cracking. The water absorption values were acceptable and the unfired and fired strength values of the briquette’s samples were acceptable. In conclusion, tests showed that foundry waste sand can be used as an additive in masonry clay bricks, provided it is blended with good quality clay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 173
 S. Monosi, D. Sani, and F. Tittarelli, “Used foundry sand in cement mortars and concrete production”. The open waste management Journal, 3(1), 2010.
 Y. Aggarwal, and R. Siddique, “Microstructure and properties of concrete using bottom ash and waste foundry sand as partial replacement of fine aggregates”, Construction and Building Materials, 54, 2014, pp, 210-223.
 N. Hossiney, P. Das, M.K. Mohan, and J. George, “In-plant production of bricks containing waste foundry sand”— A study with Belgaum foundry industry. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 9, p.e00170, 2018.
 A.A. Shakir, S. Naganathan, and K.N.B. “Mustapha, Development of bricks from waste material”: A review paper. Australian Journal of basic and applied sciences, 7(8), pp.812-818, 2013.
 H.H. Abdeen, “Properties of Fired Clay Bricks Mixed with Waste Glass” (Doctoral dissertation, The Islamic University–Gaza), 2016.
 M. Ganeshan, V. Sreevidya, and P.M. Salim, “Waste Foundry Sand as a Replacement for Fine Aggregate in High Strength Solid Masonry Blocks,” 2016.
 N. Quijorna, A. Coz, A. Andres, and C. Cheeseman, “Recycling of Waelz slag and waste foundry sand in red clay bricks”. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 65, pp.1-10, 2012.
 M. Arsenović, L. Pezo, L. Mančić, and Z. Radojević, “Thermal and mineralogical characterization of loess heavy clays for potential use in brick industry”. Thermochimica acta, 580, pp.38-45, 2014.
 N.P. Mahumapelo, “Characterising properties of bricks produced by rural Small Micro Medium Enterprises” in Emuze, F.A. 4th Construction Management Conference Proceedings, 2015.
 W. Clark, Marble XRD results. Mineralogy Division, Mintek, Randburg, South Africa, 2013.
 N.P. Mahumapelo, Minerals evaluation report. Small scale mining and beneficiation division, Mintek, Randburg, South Africa, 2017.
 B.D. Brubaker, Residual stress development in laminated ceramic bodies (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University), 1962.
 S.K. Duggal, Building materials. Routledge, 2017.
 D. Eliche-Quesada, F.A. Corpas-Iglesias, L. Pérez-Villarejo, and F.J. Iglesias-Godino, “Recycling of sawdust, spent earth from oil filtration, compost and marble residues for brick manufacturing”. Construction and Building Materials, 34, pp.275-284, 2012.
 A. Ukwatta, A. Mohajerani, N. Eshtiaghi, and S. Setunge, “Variation in physical and mechanical properties of fired-clay bricks incorporating ETP biosolids”. Journal of Cleaner Production, 119, pp.76-85, 2016.
 A.A. Kadir, M.I.H. Hassan, N.A. Sarani, A.A. Rahim, and N. Ismail, “Physical and mechanical properties of quarry dust waste incorporated into fired clay brick”. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1835, No. 1, p. 020040). AIP Publishing, Apr. 2017.