Search results for: Dynamic properties
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4618

Search results for: Dynamic properties

4618 Investigation of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Jute/Carbon Reinforced Composites

Authors: H. Sezgin, O. B. Berkalp, R. Mishra, J. Militky

Abstract:

In the last few decades, due to their advanced properties, there has been an increasing interest in hybrid composite materials. In this study, the effect of different stacking sequences of jute and carbon fabric plies on dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates were investigated. Vacuum bagging system was used to fabricate the composite samples. Each composite laminate was reinforced with two plies of jute fabric and two plies of carbon fabric by varying the position of layers. Dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to examine the dynamic mechanical properties of composite laminates with increasing temperature. Results showed that the composite sample, which has carbon fabric at the outer layers, has the highest storage and loss modulus. Besides, it was observed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of samples are close to each other and at about 75 °C.

Keywords: Differential scanning calorimetry dynamic mechanical analysis, textile reinforced composites, thermogravimetric analysis.

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4617 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamic Systems

Authors: R. Masarova, M. Juhas, B. Juhasova, Z. Sutova

Abstract:

In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: Dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling.

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4616 Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges

Authors: I. Paeglite, A. Paeglitis

Abstract:

Paper presents a study about dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 prestressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicle passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and the bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge pavement in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.

Keywords: Bridge, dynamic effects, load testing, dynamic amplification factor.

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4615 Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Responses of the Plate Subjected to Impulsive Loads

Authors: Behzad Mohammadzadeh, Huyk Chun Noh

Abstract:

Plate is one of the popular structural elements used in a wide range of industries and structures. They may be subjected to blast loads during explosion events, missile attacks or aircraft attacks. This study is to investigate dynamic responses of the rectangular plate subjected to explosive loads. The effects of material properties and plate thickness on responses of the plate are to be investigated. The compressive pressure is applied to the surface of the plate. Different amounts of thickness in the range from 1mm to 30mm are considered for the plate to evaluate the changes in responses of the plate with respect to plate thickness. Two different properties are considered for the steel. First, the analysis is performed by considering only the elastic-plastic properties for the steel plate. Later on damping is considered to investigate its effects on the responses of the plate. To do analysis, numerical method using a finite element based package ABAQUS is applied. Finally, dynamic responses and graphs showing the relation between maximum displacement of the plate and aim parameters are provided.

Keywords: Impulsive loaded plates, dynamic analysis, abaqus, material nonlinearity.

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4614 Nonoscillation Criteria for Nonlinear Delay Dynamic Systems on Time Scales

Authors: Xinli Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the nonlinear delay dynamic system xΔ(t) = p(t)f1(y(t)), yΔ(t) = −q(t)f2(x(t − τ )). We obtain some necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of nonoscillatory solutions with special asymptotic properties of the system. We generalize the known results in the literature. One example is given to illustrate the results.

Keywords: Dynamic system, oscillation, time scales, two-dimensional.

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4613 Impact of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Modification on the High-Temperature Properties of Bitumen

Authors: Burak Yigit Katanalp, Murat Tastan, Perviz Ahmedzade, Çigdem Canbay Turkyilmaz, Emrah Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

This study evaluated the mechanical and rheological performance of fly ash-based geopolymer at high temperatures. A series of laboratory tests were conducted on neat bitumen and three modified bitumen samples, which incorporated fly ash-based geopolymer at various percentages. Low-calcium fly ash was used as the alumina-silica source. The dynamic shear rheometer and rotational viscometer were employed to determine high-temperature properties, while conventional tests such as penetration and softening point were used to evaluate the physical properties of bitumen. Short-term aging resistance of the samples was assessed using the rolling thin film oven. The results show that geopolymer has a compromising effect on bitumen properties, with improved stiffness, enhanced mechanical strength, and increased thermal susceptibility of the asphalt binder.

Keywords: Bitumen, geopolymer, rutting, dynamic mechanical analysis.

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4612 Reinforcement Effect on Dynamic Properties of Saturated Sand

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Alibolandi

Abstract:

Dynamic behavior of soil are evaluated relative to a number of factors including: strain level, density, number of cycles, material type, fine content, geosynthetic inclusion, saturation, and effective stress .This paper investigate the dynamic behavior of saturated reinforced sand under cyclic stress condition. The cyclic triaxial tests are conducted on remolded specimens under various CSR which reinforced by different arrangement of non-woven geotextile. Aforementioned tests simulate field reinforced saturated deposits during earthquake or other cyclic loadings. This analysis revealed that the geotextile arrangement played dominant role on dynamic soil behavior and as geotextile close to top of specimen, the liquefaction resistance increased.

Keywords: Dynamic Behavior, Reinforced Sand, Triaxial Test, Non-woven Geotextile.

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4611 Experimental Investigations on Nanoclay (Cloisite-15A) Modified Bitumen

Authors: Ashish Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar Suman

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of Cloisite-15A nanoclay on the physical, performance, and mechanical properties of bitumen binder. Cloisite-15A was blended in the bitumen in variegated percentages from 1% to 9% with increment of 2%. The blended bitumen was characterized using penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity using rotational viscometer, and compared with unmodified bitumen equally penetration grade 60/70. The rheological parameters were investigated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and mechanical properties were investigated by using Marshall Stability test. The results indicated an increase in softening point, dynamic viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. Rheological properties of bitumen increase complex modulus, decrease phase angle and improve rutting resistances as well. There was significant improvement in Marshall Stability, rather marginal improvement in flow value. The best improvement in the modified binder was obtained with 5% Cloisite-15A nanoclay.

Keywords: Cloisite-15A, complex shear modulus, phase angle, rutting resistance.

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4610 Local Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Native Porcine Endplate

Authors: J. Sepitka, J. Lukes, J. Reznicek

Abstract:

Hysitron TriboIndenterTM TI 950 system has been used for studying the local viscoelastic properties of porcine intervertebral disc end plate by means of nanoscale mechanical dynamic analysis. The specimen of an endplate was cut from fresh porcine vertebra dissected from 16 month animal. The lumbar spine motion segments were dissected and 5 millimeter thick plates of vertebral body, endplate and annulus fibrosus were prepared for nanoindentation. The surface of the sample was kept in physiological solution during nanoindentation experiment. We obtained mechanical characteristics of different areas of native endplate (endplate middle and vertebra and annulus fibrosus boundary).

Keywords: nanoindentation, DMA, endplate, cartilage

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4609 Dynamic Active Earth Pressure on Flexible Cantilever Retaining Wall

Authors: Snehal R. Pathak, Sachin S. Munnoli

Abstract:

Evaluation of dynamic earth pressure on retaining wall is a topic of primary importance. In present paper, dynamic active earth pressure and displacement of flexible cantilever retaining wall has been evaluated analytically using 2-DOF mass-spring-dashpot model by incorporating both wall and backfill properties. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic active earth pressure and wall displacement are studied and presented in graphical form. The obtained results are then compared with the various conventional methods, experimental analysis and also with PLAXIS analysis. It is observed that the dynamic active earth pressure decreases with increase in the wall flexibility while wall displacement increases linearly with flexibility of the wall. The results obtained by proposed 2-DOF analytical model are found to be more realistic and economical.

Keywords: Earth pressure, earthquake, 2-DOF model, plaxis, wall movement, retaining walls.

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4608 Comparison of Rheological Properties for Polymer Modified Asphalt Produced in Riyadh

Authors: Ali M. Babalghaith, Hamad A. Alsoliman, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani

Abstract:

Flexible pavement made with neat asphalt binder is not enough to resist heavy traffic loads as well as harsh environmental condition found in Riyadh region. Therefore, there is a need to modify asphalt binder with polymers to satisfy such conditions. There are several types of polymers that are used to modify asphalt binder. The objective of this paper is to compare the rheological properties of six polymer modified asphalt binders (Lucolast7010, Anglomak2144, Paveflex140, SBS KTR401, EE-2 and Crumb rubber) obtained from asphalt manufacturer plants. The rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders were tested using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP tests such as dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer. The results have indicated that the polymer modified asphalt binders have lower penetration and higher softening point than neat asphalt indicating an improvement in stiffness of asphalt binder, and as a result, more resistant to rutting. Moreover, the dynamic shear rheometer results have shown that all modifiers used in this study improved the binder properties and satisfied the Superpave specifications except SBS KTR401 which failed to satisfy the rutting parameter (G*/sinδ).

Keywords: Polymer modified asphalt, rheological properties, SBS, crumb rubber, EE-2.

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4607 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain

Authors: M. Kakavand, S. A. Naeini

Abstract:

Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.

Keywords: Dynamic properties, shear modulus, damping ratio, clean sand, density, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear.

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4606 Analysis of a Self-Acting Air Journal Bearing: Effect of Dynamic Deformation of Bump Foil

Authors: H. Bensouilah, H. Boucherit, M. Lahmar

Abstract:

A theoretical investigation on the effects of both steady-state and dynamic deformations of the foils on the dynamic performance characteristics of a self-acting air foil journal bearing operating under small harmonic vibrations is proposed. To take into account the dynamic deformations of foils, the perturbation method is used for determining the gas-film stiffness and damping coefficients for given values of excitation frequency, compressibility number, and compliance factor of the bump foil. The nonlinear stationary Reynolds’ equation is solved by means of the Galerkins’ finite element formulation while the finite differences method are used to solve the first order complex dynamic equations resulting from the perturbation of the nonlinear transient compressible Reynolds’ equation. The stiffness of a bump is uniformly distributed throughout the bearing surface (generation I bearing). It was found that the dynamic properties of the compliant finite length journal bearing are significantly affected by the compliance of foils especially whenthe dynamic deformation of foils is considered in addition to the static one by applying the principle of superposition.

Keywords: Elasto-aerodynamic lubrication, Air foil bearing, Steady-state deformation, Dynamic deformation, Stiffness and damping coefficients, Perturbation method, Fluid-structure interaction, Galerk infinite element method, Finite difference method.

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4605 Analysis of Dynamic Loads Induced by Spectator Movements in Stadium

Authors: Gee-Cheol Kim, Sang-Hoon Lee, Joo-Won Kang

Abstract:

In the stadium structure, the significant dynamic responses such as resonance or similar behavior can be occurred by spectator rhythmical activities. Thus, accurate analysis and precise investigation of stadium structure that is subjected to dynamic loads are required for practical design and serviceability check of stadium structures. Moreover, it is desirable to measure and analyze the dynamic loads of spectator activities because these dynamic loads can not be easily expressed in numerical formula. In this study, various dynamic loads induced by spectator movements are measured and analyzed. These dynamic loads induced by spectators movement of stadium structure can be classified into the impact load and the periodic load. These dynamic loads can be expressed as Fourier harmonic load. And, these dynamic loads could be applied for the accurate vibration analysis of a stadium structure.

Keywords: stadium structure, spectator rhythmical activities, vibration analysis.

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4604 Movies and Dynamic Mathematical Objects on Trigonometry for Mobile Phones

Authors: Kazuhisa Takagi

Abstract:

This paper is about movies and dynamic objects for mobile phones. Dynamic objects are the software programmed by JavaScript. They consist of geometric figures and work on HTML5-compliant browsers. Mobile phones are very popular among teenagers. They like watching movies and playing games on them. So, mathematics movies and dynamic objects would enhance teaching and learning processes. In the movies, manga characters speak with artificially synchronized voices. They teach trigonometry together with dynamic mathematical objects. Many movies are created. They are Windows Media files or MP4 movies. These movies and dynamic objects are not only used in the classroom but also distributed to students. By watching movies, students can study trigonometry before or after class.

Keywords: Dynamic mathematical object, JavaScript, Google drive, transfer jet.

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4603 The Nematode Fauna Dynamics Peculiarities of Highlands Different Ecosystems (Eastern Georgia)

Authors: E. Tskitishvili, I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, L. Zghenti, M. Gigolashvili

Abstract:

There was studied dynamic of the number of nematodes fauna of various ecosystems of Gombori Mountain Ridge that belongs to peak of fauna dynamic. The nature of dynamic is in general similar in all six biotypes and the difference is evident only in total number of nematodes.

Keywords: Nematoda, dynamic, highland, ecosystem

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4602 Research on Static and Dynamic Behavior of New Combination of Aluminum Honeycomb Panel and Rod Single-layer Latticed Shell

Authors: Xu Chen, Zhao Caiqi

Abstract:

In addition to the advantages of light weight, resistant corrosion and ease of processing, aluminum is also applied to the long-span spatial structures. However, the elastic modulus of aluminum is lower than that of the steel. This paper combines the high performance aluminum honeycomb panel with the aluminum latticed shell, forming a new panel-and-rod composite shell structure. Through comparative analysis between the static and dynamic performance, the conclusion that the structure of composite shell is noticeably superior to the structure combined before.

Keywords: Combination of aluminum honeycomb panel and rod latticed shell, dynamic performance, response spectrum analysis, seismic properties.

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4601 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity.

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4600 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky

Abstract:

Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: Calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity.

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4599 Characteristics of Aluminum Hybrid Composites

Authors: S. O. Adeosun, L. O. Osoba, O. O. Taiwo

Abstract:

Aluminum hybrid reinforcement technology is a response to the dynamic ever increasing service requirements of such industries as transportation, aerospace, automobile, marine, etc. It is unique in that it offers a platform of almost unending combinations of materials to produce various hybrid composites. This article reviews the studies carried out on various combinations of aluminum hybrid composite and the effects on mechanical, physical and chemical properties. It is observed that the extent of enhancement of these properties of hybrid composites is strongly dependent on the nature of the reinforcement, its hardness, particle size, volume fraction, uniformity of dispersion within the matrix and the method of hybrid production.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, hybrid composites, properties, reinforcements.

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4598 Identifying Unknown Dynamic Forces Applied on Two Dimensional Frames

Authors: H. Katkhuda

Abstract:

A time domain approach is used in this paper to identify unknown dynamic forces applied on two dimensional frames using the measured dynamic structural responses for a sub-structure in the two dimensional frame. In this paper a sub-structure finite element model with short length of measurement from only three or four accelerometers is required, and an iterative least-square algorithm is used to identify the unknown dynamic force applied on the structure. Validity of the method is demonstrated with numerical examples using noise-free and noise-contaminated structural responses. Both harmonic and impulsive forces are studied. The results show that the proposed approach can identify unknown dynamic forces within very limited iterations with high accuracy and shows its robustness even noise- polluted dynamic response measurements are utilized.

Keywords: Dynamic Force Identification, Dynamic Responses, Sub-structure and Time Domain.

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4597 Dissipation of Higher Mode using Numerical Integration Algorithm in Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Jin Sup Kim, Woo Young Jung, Minho Kwon

Abstract:

In general dynamic analyses, lower mode response is of interest, however the higher modes of spatially discretized equations generally do not represent the real behavior and not affects to global response much. Some implicit algorithms, therefore, are introduced to filter out the high-frequency modes using intended numerical error. The objective of this study is to introduce the P-method and PC α-method to compare that with dissipation method and Newmark method through the stability analysis and numerical example. PC α-method gives more accuracy than other methods because it based on the α-method inherits the superior properties of the implicit α-method. In finite element analysis, the PC α-method is more useful than other methods because it is the explicit scheme and it achieves the second order accuracy and numerical damping simultaneously.

Keywords: Dynamic, α-Method, P-Method, PC α-Method, Newmark method.

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4596 Research of Dynamic Location Referencing Method Based On Intersection and Link Partition

Authors: Lv Wei-feng, Dai Xi, Zhu Tong-yu

Abstract:

Dynamic location referencing method is an important technology to shield map differences. These method references objects of the road network by utilizing condensed selection of its real-world geographic properties stored in a digital map database, which overcomes the defections existing in pre-coded location referencing methods. The high attributes completeness requirements and complicated reference point selection algorithm are the main problems of recent researches. Therefore, a dynamic location referencing algorithm combining intersection points selected at the extremities compulsively and road link points selected according to link partition principle was proposed. An experimental system based on this theory was implemented. The tests using Beijing digital map database showed satisfied results and thus verified the feasibility and practicability of this method.

Keywords: Dynamic location referencing, inter-sectionreferencing, road link partition, road link point referencing.

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4595 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh

Abstract:

The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson−Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: Rate dependent material properties, Dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, Strain rate.

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4594 Combining Ant Colony Optimization and Dynamic Programming for Solving a Dynamic Facility Layout Problem

Authors: A. Udomsakdigool, S. Bangsaranthip

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm which combining ant colony optimization in the dynamic programming for solving a dynamic facility layout problem. The problem is separated into 2 phases, static and dynamic phase. In static phase, ant colony optimization is used to find the best ranked of layouts for each period. Then the dynamic programming (DP) procedure is performed in the dynamic phase to evaluate the layout set during multi-period planning horizon. The proposed algorithm is tested over many problems with size ranging from 9 to 49 departments, 2 and 4 periods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative way for the plant layout designer to determine the layouts during multi-period planning horizon.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Dynamicprogramming, Dynamic facility layout planning, Metaheuristic

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4593 Morphological and Dynamic Mechanical Analyses of a Local Clay/Plantain Fiber Filled Hybrid Polystyrene Composites

Authors: K. P. Odimayomi, A. G. Adeniyi, S. A. Abdulkareem, F. M. Oladipo Emmanuel, C. A. Adeyanju, M. A Amoloye

Abstract:

The abundant availability of the local clay/plantain fiber coupled with the various renewable and sustainability advantages has led to their choice as co-fillers in the development of a hybrid polystyrene composite. The prime objective of this study is to evaluate the morphological and dynamic mechanical properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The hybrid polystyrene composite development was developed via the hand-lay-up method. All processing including the constituent mixing and curing were achieved at room temperature (25 ± 2 ℃).   The mechanical characteristics of the developed composites via Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) confirm an indirect relationship between time and storage modulus, this pattern becomes more evident at higher frequencies. It is clearly portrayed that the addition of clay and plantain fiber in the polystyrene matrix increases the stiffness of the developed composite.

Keywords: Morphology, DMA, Akerebiata clay, plantain fiber, hybrid polystyrene composites.

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4592 Theoretical Considerations for Software Component Metrics

Authors: V. Lakshmi Narasimhan, Bayu Hendradjaya

Abstract:

We have defined two suites of metrics, which cover static and dynamic aspects of component assembly. The static metrics measure complexity and criticality of component assembly, wherein complexity is measured using Component Packing Density and Component Interaction Density metrics. Further, four criticality conditions namely, Link, Bridge, Inheritance and Size criticalities have been identified and quantified. The complexity and criticality metrics are combined to form a Triangular Metric, which can be used to classify the type and nature of applications. Dynamic metrics are collected during the runtime of a complete application. Dynamic metrics are useful to identify super-component and to evaluate the degree of utilisation of various components. In this paper both static and dynamic metrics are evaluated using Weyuker-s set of properties. The result shows that the metrics provide a valid means to measure issues in component assembly. We relate our metrics suite with McCall-s Quality Model and illustrate their impact on product quality and to the management of component-based product development.

Keywords: Component Assembly, Component Based SoftwareEngineering, CORBA Component Model, Software ComponentMetrics.

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4591 Dynamic Load Modeling for KHUZESTAN Power System Voltage Stability Studies

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

Based on the component approach, three kinds of dynamic load models, including a single –motor model, a two-motor model and composite load model have been developed for the stability studies of Khuzestan power system. The study results are presented in this paper. Voltage instability is a dynamic phenomenon and therefore requires dynamic representation of the power system components. Industrial loads contain a large fraction of induction machines. Several models of different complexity are available for the description investigations. This study evaluates the dynamic performances of several dynamic load models in combination with the dynamics of a load changing transformer. Case study is steel industrial substation in Khuzestan power systems.

Keywords: Dynamic load, modeling, Voltage Stability.

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4590 Comparative Evaluation of Ice Adhesion Behavior

Authors: T. Strobl, D. Raps, M. Hornung

Abstract:

In this study, the adhesion of ice to solid substrates with different surface properties is compared. Clear ice, similar to atmospheric in-flight icing encounters, is accreted on the different substrates under controlled conditions. The ice adhesion behavior is investigated by means of a dynamic vibration testing technique with an electromagnetic shaker initiating ice de-bonding in the interface between the substrate and the ice. The results of the experiments reveal that the affinity for ice accretion is significantly influenced by the water contact angle of the respective sample.

Keywords: Contact angle, dynamic vibration measurement, ice adhesion, interfacial shear stress.

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4589 Influence of Displacement Amplitude and Vertical Load on the Horizontal Dynamic and Static Behavior of Helical Wire Rope Isolators

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Mariacristina Spizzuoco, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

In this paper, the results of experimental tests performed on a Helical Wire Rope Isolator (HWRI) are presented in order to describe the dynamic and static behavior of the selected metal device in three different displacements ranges, namely small, relatively large, and large displacements ranges, without and under the effect of a vertical load. A testing machine, allowing to apply horizontal displacement or load histories to the tested bearing with a constant vertical load, has been adopted to perform the dynamic and static tests. According to the experimental results, the dynamic behavior of the tested device depends on the applied displacement amplitude. Indeed, the HWRI displays a softening and a hardening stiffness at small and relatively large displacements, respectively, and a stronger nonlinear stiffening behavior at large displacements. Furthermore, the experimental tests reveal that the application of a vertical load allows to have a more flexible device with higher damping properties and that the applied vertical load affects much less the dynamic response of the metal device at large displacements. Finally, a decrease in the static to dynamic effective stiffness ratio with increasing displacement amplitude has been observed.

Keywords: Base isolation, earthquake engineering, experimental hysteresis loops, wire rope isolators.

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