Search results for: Gas release
251 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose
Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani
Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.
Keywords: Hypromellose, gliclazide, drug release, modified-release tablet, mathematical model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1551
250 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Levetiracetam for Better Epileptic Treatment
Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani
The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release oral matrix tablets of anti epileptic drug levetiracetam. The sustained release matrix tablets of levetiracetam were prepared using hydrophilic matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release retarding polymer by wet granulation method. Prior to compression, FTIR studies were performed to understand the compatibility between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used in the study. The tablets were characterized by physical and chemical parameters and results were found in acceptable limits. In vitro release study was carried out for the tablets using 0.1 N HCl for 2 hours and in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for remaining time up to 12 hours. The effect of polymer concentration was studied. Different dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to evaluate release mechanisms and kinetics. The drug release data fit well to zero order kinetics. Drug release mechanism was found as a complex mixture of diffusion, swelling and erosion.
Keywords: Levetiracetam, sustained-release, hydrophilic matrix tablet, HPMC grade K 100 MCR, wet granulation, zero order release kinetics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1197
249 Release Behavior of Biodegradable and Nonbiodegradable Polymeric Microparticles Loaded with Nimesulide
Authors: Shujaat A. Khan, Ghulam Murtaza
Abstract:This presentation narrates the comparative analysis of the dissolution data nimesulide microparticles prepared with ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as polymers. The analysis of release profiles showed that the variations noted in the release behavior of nimesulide from various microparticulate formulations are due to the nature of used polymer. In addition, maximum retardation in the nimesulide release was observed with HPMC (floating particles). Thus HPMC miacroparticles may be preferably employed for sustained release dosage form development.
Keywords: Nimesulide, microparticles, ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Poly(D, L-lactide-coglycolide).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1602
248 Pharmaceutical Microencapsulation Technology for Development of Controlled Release Drug Delivery systems
Authors: Mahmood Ahmad, Asadullah Madni, Muhammad Usman, Abubakar Munir, Naveed Akhtar, Haji M. Shoaib Khan
Abstract:This article demonstrated development of controlled release system of an NSAID drug, Diclofenac sodium employing different ratios of Ethyl cellulose. Diclofenac sodium and ethyl cellulose in different proportions were processed by microencapsulation based on phase separation technique to formulate microcapsules. The prepared microcapsules were then compressed into tablets to obtain controlled release oral formulations. In-vitro evaluation was performed by dissolution test of each preparation was conducted in 900 ml of phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.2 maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C and stirred at 50 rpm. At predetermined time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hrs). The drug concentration in the collected samples was determined by UV spectrophotometer at 276 nm. The physical characteristics of diclofenac sodium microcapsules were according to accepted range. These were off-white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The release profile of diclofenac sodium from microcapsules was found to be directly proportional to the proportion of ethylcellulose and coat thickness. The in-vitro release pattern showed that with ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 (drug: polymer), the percentage release of drug at first hour was 16.91 and 11.52 %, respectively as compared to 1:3 which is only 6.87 % with in this time. The release mechanism followed higuchi model for its release pattern. Tablet Formulation (F2) of present study was found comparable in release profile the marketed brand Phlogin-SR, microcapsules showed an extended release beyond 24 h. Further, a good correlation was found between drug release and proportion of ethylcellulose in the microcapsules. Microencapsulation based on coacervation found as good technique to control release of diclofenac sodium for making the controlled release formulations.
Keywords: Diclofenac sodium, Microencapsulationtechnology, Ethylcellulose, In-Vitro Release ProfileProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3045
247 Performance Evaluation of Extruded-Type Heat Sinks Used in Inverter for Solar Power Generation
Authors: Jeong Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee
In this study, heat release performances of the three extruded-type heat sinks can be used in inverter for solar power generation were evaluated. Numbers of fins in the heat sinks (namely E-38, E-47 and E-76) were 38, 47 and 76, respectively. Heat transfer areas of them were 1.8, 1.9 and 2.8m2. The heat release performances of E-38, E-47 and E-76 heat sinks were measured as 79.6, 81.6 and 83.2%, respectively. The results of heat release performance show that the larger amount of heat transfer area the higher heat release rate. While on the other, in this experiment, variations of mass flow rates caused by different cross sectional areas of the three heat sinks may not be the major parameter of the heat release. Despite the 47.4% increment of heat transfer area of E-76 heat sink than that of E-47 one, its heat release rate was higher by only 2.0%; this suggests that its heat transfer area need to be optimized.
Keywords: Solar Inverter, Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2468
246 Release Management with Continuous Delivery: A Case Study
Authors: A. Maruf Aytekin
We present our approach on using continuous delivery pattern for release management. One of the key practices of agile and lean teams is the continuous delivery of new features to stakeholders. The main benefits of this approach lie in the ability to release new applications rapidly which has real strategic impact on the competitive advantage of an organization. Organizations that successfully implement Continuous Delivery have the ability to evolve rapidly to support innovation, provide stable and reliable software in more efficient ways, decrease the amount of resources need for maintenance, and lower the software delivery time and costs. One of the objectives of this paper is to elaborate a case study where IT division of Central Securities Depository Institution (MKK) of Turkey apply Continuous Delivery pattern to improve release management process.
Keywords: Automation, continuous delivery, deployment, release management.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5310
245 Controlled Release of Glucosamine from Pluronic-Based Hydrogels for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis
Authors: Papon Thamvasupong, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat
Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.
Keywords: Controlled release, drug delivery system, glucosamine, Pluronic® F-127, thermoreversible hydrogel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
244 Chitosan/Casein Microparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Drug Release Studies
Authors: Selvakumar Dhanasingh, Shunmuga Kumar Nallaperumal
Microparticles carrier systems made from naturally occurring polymers based on chitosan/casein system appears to be a promising carrier for the sustained release of orally and parenteral administered drugs. In the current study we followed a microencapsulation technique based aqueous coacervation method to prepare chitosan/casein microparticles of compositions 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 incorporated with chloramphenicol. Glutaraldehyde was used as a chemical cross-linking agent. The microparticles were prepared by aerosol method and studied by optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, swelling studies and drug release studies at various pH. The percentage swelling of the polymers are found to be in the order pH 4 > pH 10 > pH 7 and the increase in casein composition decrease the swelling percentage. The drug release studies also follow the above order.
Keywords: Chitosan/casein micro particles, chloramphenicol, drug release, microencapsulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3051
243 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug
Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini
Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.
Keywords: Non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1772
242 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-type Heat Sink
Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee
In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5oC by the holes.
Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Flow Holes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1652
241 Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material
Authors: Yong Ren, Yaping Zhang
A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.
Keywords: Phase change material, drug release kinetics, double emulsion, microfluidics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2286
240 Novel Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Oxyresveratrol: Effect of the Formulation Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Release
Authors: Y. Sangsen, K. Likhitwitayawuid, B. Sritularak, K. Wiwattanawongsa, R. Wiwattanapatapee
Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.
Keywords: Solid lipid nanoparticles, Physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release, Oxyresveratrol.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2969
239 Extended Release System of Hypoglycemic Agent Containing Solid Dispersions: Strategies and Mechanisms
Authors: Amit Kumar, Ramendeep Grawal, Peeyush Sharma, Dinesh Puri, Anil Bhandari
The main perspective of the present study aims at overcoming solubility problems by using the technique of solid dispersion. Repaglinide is a BCS Class II drug, having low aqueous solubility and therefore, low bioavailability. Solid dispersions of repaglinide with different carriers Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) and Ethyl Cellulose (EC) in different ratios were prepared by suspending method and Dissolving methods. In vitro release studies revealed that the F7 formulation showed extended drug release. So, the dissolution profile of solid dispersion containing EC and PVP K30 (1: 3) was selected as the best formulation because of its extended drug release among all formulations. In conclusion, solid dispersions of Repaglinide in PVP have shown to be a promising approach to improve the bioavailability of Repaglinide.
Keywords: Ethyl Cellulose, Glibenclamide, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Repaglinide, Solid Dispersion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2531
238 Effect of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl Cellulose Concentration on Release Profile and Kinetics of Glibenclamide Extended Release Dosage Form System
Authors: Amit Kumar, Peeyush Sharma, Anil Bhandari
The aim of present work was to optimize the effect of Ethyl Cellulose (EC) and Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) concentration in extended release solid dispersion of Glibenclamide using combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers such as Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl cellulose. The advantage of solid dispersion technique provides a unique approach to particle size reduction and increased rates of dissolution. The compatibility studies of the drug and polymers were studied by TLC and results suggested no interaction between drug and polymers. Solid dispersions of Glibenclamide were prepared by common solvent evaporation method using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl cellulose. The results indicated that homogeneous or heterogeneous conditions during the preparation methods employed governed the internal structures of the polymer matrices while retaining the drug in an amorphous form. F2 formulation prepared by solid dispersion method, displayed extended drug release followed by Higuchi matrix model indicating diffusion release of GLB from polymer matrices.
Keywords: Ethyl Cellulose, Glibenclamide, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Solid Dispersion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2384
237 Novel Process Formulation of Multiple Unit Tablet of Pantoprazole
Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan
The present invention relates to multiple-unit tablet dosage forms, which is composed of several subunits (multiparticulates/pellets). Each small multiparticulate further composed of many layers. Some layer contains drug substance; others are rate controlling polymer. The resulting multiple-unit tablet dosage forms of pantoprazole were satisfactory fabricated. Pelletization technique has some advantages over coated tablet formulation. In coated tablet the coating may be damaged and a pinhole possibly formed that would result in increased release of drug in stomach and may be deactivated in stomach juices. If the coat of some pellets may be damaged that would not affect the release properties of the multiple-unit tablet. Hence they are beneficial in this aspect. The results confirmed the successful preparation of stable and bioequivalent once daily controlled release multiple-unit tablets of pantoprazole.
Keywords: Controlled release, multiple unit tablets, pantoprazole, pelletization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3099
236 Synthesis and Analysis of Swelling and Controlled Release Behaviour of Anionic sIPN Acrylamide based Hydrogels
Authors: Atefeh Hekmat, Abolfazl Barati, Ebrahim Vasheghani Frahani, Ali Afraz
Abstract:In modern agriculture, polymeric hydrogels are known as a component able to hold an amount of water due to their 3-dimensional network structure and their tendency to absorb water in humid environments. In addition, these hydrogels are able to controllably release the fertilisers and pesticides loaded in them. Therefore, they deliver these materials to the plants' roots and help them with growing. These hydrogels also reduce the pollution of underground water sources by preventing the active components from leaching. In this study, sIPN acrylamide based hydrogels are synthesised by using acrylamide free radical, potassium acrylate, and linear polyvinyl alcohol. Ammonium nitrate is loaded in the hydrogel as the fertiliser. The effect of various amounts of monomers and linear polymer, measured in molar ratio, on the swelling rate, equilibrium swelling, and release of ammonium nitrate is studied.
Keywords: Hydrogel, controlled release, ammonium nitrate fertiliser, sIPN.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2017
235 Static Modeling of the Delamination of a Composite Material Laminate in Mode II
Authors: Y. Madani, H. Achache, B. Boutabout
The purpose of this paper is to analyze numerically by the three-dimensional finite element method, using ABAQUS calculation code, the mechanical behavior of a unidirectional and multidirectional delaminated stratified composite under mechanical loading in Mode II. This study consists of the determination of the energy release rate G in mode II as well as the distribution of equivalent von Mises stresses along the damaged zone by varying several parameters such as the applied load and the delamination length. It allowed us to deduce that the high energy release rate favors delamination at the free edges of a stratified plate subjected to bending.
Keywords: Delamination, energy release rate, finite element method, stratified composite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 587
234 In vitro Studies of Mucoadhesiveness and Release of Nicotinamide Oral Gels Prepared from Bioadhesive Polymers
Authors: Sarunyoo Songkro, Naranut Rajatasereekul, Nipapat Cheewasrirungrueng
Abstract:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mucoadhesion and the release of nicotinamide gel formulations using in vitro methods. An agar plate technique was used to investigate the adhesiveness of the gels whereas a diffusion apparatus was employed to determine the release of nicotinamide from the gels. In this respect, 10% w/w nicotinamide gels containing bioadhesive polymers: Carbopol 934P (0.5-2% w/w), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) (4-10% w/w), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) (4-6% w/w) and methylcellulose 4000 (MC) (3-5% w/w) were prepared. The gel formulations had pH values in the range of 7.14 - 8.17, which were considered appropriate to oral mucosa application. In general, the rank order of pH values appeared to be SCMC > MC4000 > HPMC > Carbopol 934P. Types and concentrations of polymers used somewhat affected the adhesiveness. It was found that anionic polymers (Carbopol 934 and SCMC) adhered more firmly to the agar plate than the neutral polymers (HPMC and MC 4000). The formulation containing 0.5% Carbopol 934P (F1) showed the highest release rate. With the exception of the formulation F1, the neutral polymers tended to give higher relate rates than the anionic polymers. For oral tissue treatment, the optimum has to be balanced between the residence time (adhesiveness) of the formulations and the release rate of the drug. The formulations containing the anionic polymers: Carbopol 934P or SCMC possessed suitable physical properties (appearance, pH and viscosity). In addition, for anionic polymer formulations, justifiable mucoadhesive properties and reasonable release rates of nicotinamide were achieved. Accordingly, these gel formulations may be applied for the treatment of oral mucosal lesions.
Keywords: Nicotinamide, bioadhesive polymer, mucoadhesiveness, release rate, gel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2420
233 Development of a 3D Mathematical Model for a Doxorubicin Controlled Release System using Pluronic Gel for Breast Cancer Treatment
Authors: W. Kaowumpai, D. Koolpiruck, K. Viravaidya
Female breast cancer is the second in frequency after cervical cancer. Surgery is the most common treatment for breast cancer, followed by chemotherapy as a treatment of choice. Although effective, it causes serious side effects. Controlled-release drug delivery is an alternative method to improve the efficacy and safety of the treatment. It can release the dosage of drug between the minimum effect concentration (MEC) and minimum toxic concentration (MTC) within tumor tissue and reduce the damage of normal tissue and the side effect. Because an in vivo experiment of this system can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, a mathematical model is desired to study the effects of important parameters before the experiments are performed. Here, we describe a 3D mathematical model to predict the release of doxorubicin from pluronic gel to treat human breast cancer. This model can, ultimately, be used to effectively design the in vivo experiments.
Keywords: Breast Cancer, Doxorubicin, Controlled ReleaseSystem, Diffusion and Convection Equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1576
232 Delivery of Positively Charged Proteins Using Hyaluronic Acid Microgels
Authors: Elaheh Jooybar, Mohammad J. Abdekhodaie, Marcel Karperien, Pieter J. Dijkstra
In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels were developed for the goal of protein delivery. First, a hyaluronic acid-tyramine conjugate (HA-TA) was synthesized with a degree of substitution of 13 TA moieties per 100 disaccharide units. Then, HA-TA microdroplets were produced using a water in oil emulsion method and crosslinked in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Loading capacity and the release kinetics of lysozyme and BSA, as model proteins, were investigated. It was shown that lysozyme, a cationic protein, can be incorporated efficiently in the HA microgels, while the loading efficiency for BSA, as a negatively charged protein, is low. The release profile of lysozyme showed a sustained release over a period of one month. The results demonstrated that the HA-TA microgels are a good carrier for spatial delivery of cationic proteins for biomedical applications.
Keywords: Microgel, inverse emulsion, protein delivery, hyaluronic acid, crosslinking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 659
231 Numerical Study of Heat Release of the Symmetrically Arranged Extruded-Type Heat Sinks
Authors: Man Young Kim, Gyo Woo Lee
In this numerical study, we want to present the design of highly efficient extruded-type heat sink. The symmetrically arranged extruded-type heat sinks are used instead of a single extruded or swaged-type heat sink. In this parametric study, the maximum temperatures, the base temperatures between heaters, and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources, air flow rates, and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both side of heat sink is to be much better for release the heat than the use of single side. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher heat transfer from the heat sink.
Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Symmetrically Arranged.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1515
230 Formulation and Evaluation of Vaginal Suppositories Containing Lactobacillus
Authors: Sanae Kaewnopparat, Nattha Kaewnopparat
Abstract:The objective of this study was to develop vaginal suppository containing lactobacillus. Four kinds of vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus paracasei HL32 were formulated: 1) a conventional suppository with Witepsol H-15 as a base, 2) a conventional suppository with mixed polyethylene glycols (PEGs) as a base, 3) a hollow-type suppository with Witepsol H-15 as a base and 4) a hollow-type suppository with mixed PEGs as a base. The release studies demonstrated that the hollow-type suppository with mixed PEGs as the base gave the highest release of L. paracasei HL32 and was microbiological stable after storage at 2- 8°C over the period of 3 months.
Keywords: Lactobacillus paracasei HL32, vaginal suppository, release study, hollow-type, viability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3407
229 Resveratrol Incorporated Liposomes Prepared from Pegylated Phospholipids and Cholesterol
Authors: Mont Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Khaled Abdallah
Liposomes and pegylated liposomes were widely used as drug delivery system in pharmaceutical field since a long time. However, in the former time, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was connected into phospholipid after the liposomes were already prepared. In this paper, we intend to study the possibility of applying phospholipids which already connected with PEG and then they were used to prepare liposomes. The model drug resveratrol was used because it can be applied against different diseases. Cholesterol was applied to stabilize the membrane of liposomes. The thin film technique in a laboratory scale was a preparation method. The liposomes were then characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and light microscopic techniques. The stable liposomes can be produced and the particle sizes after filtration were in nanometers. The 2- and 3-chains-PEG-phospholipid (PL) caused in smaller particle size than the 4-chains-PEG-PL. Liposomes from PL 90G and cholesterol were stable during storage at 8 °C of 56 days because the particle sizes measured by PCS were almost not changed. There was almost no leakage of resveratrol from liposomes PL 90G with cholesterol after diffusion test in dialysis tube for 28 days. All liposomes showed the sustained release during measuring time of 270 min. The maximum release amount of 16-20% was detected with liposomes from 2- and 3-chains-PEG-PL. The other liposomes gave max. release amount of resveratrol only of 10%. The release kinetic can be explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.
Keywords: Liposome, NTA, resveratrol, pegylation, cholesterol.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 948
228 Properties of Glass-Ionomer Cements Sealed with Petroleum Jelly or Wax
Authors: Samantha E. Booth, Andrew D. Deacon, Nichola J. Coleman
Abstract:A study has been carried out to determine the effect of coating two commercial glass-ionomer cements in either petroleum jelly or wax. After coating, specimens were stored in water for 24 or 168 hours, then the coating removed and the surface examined. Coating in wax was found to increase the surface hardness significantly compared with the uncoated control, whereas coating the specimens in petroleum jelly led to only a slight increase in surface hardness. Coating in wax led to no detectable ion release after either 24 or 168 hours, though there was some ion release after the coating had been removed and the specimens exposed to water for a further 24 hours. This shows that soluble species remained in these specimens. Overall, this study confirms the idea that immature glass-ionomers should be protected from early exposure to moisture, and that the protection offered by petroleum jelly is only modest.
Keywords: Coating, Glass-Ionomer Cements, Ion Release, Surface Hardness, Wax.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4399
227 Design and Analysis of an Automobile Bumper with the Capacity of Energy Release Using GMT Materials
Authors: A.R. Mortazavi Moghaddam, M. T. Ahmadian
Abstract:Bumpers play an important role in preventing the impact energy from being transferred to the automobile and passengers. Saving the impact energy in the bumper to be released in the environment reduces the damages of the automobile and passengers. The goal of this paper is to design a bumper with minimum weight by employing the Glass Material Thermoplastic (GMT) materials. This bumper either absorbs the impact energy with its deformation or transfers it perpendicular to the impact direction. To reach this aim, a mechanism is designed to convert about 80% of the kinetic impact energy to the spring potential energy and release it to the environment in the low impact velocity according to American standard1. In addition, since the residual kinetic energy will be damped with the infinitesimal elastic deformation of the bumper elements, the passengers will not sense any impact. It should be noted that in this paper, modeling, solving and result-s analysis are done in CATIA, LS-DYNA and ANSYS V8.0 software respectively.
Keywords: Bumper, Composite material, Energy Release, GMT, ImpactProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6469
226 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation
Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit
Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, Sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing Piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.
Keywords: Piperine, Marichyadi Vati, Gastroretentive drug delivery, Floating tablet.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2500
225 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin
Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee
Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of Tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.
Keywords: Alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4470
224 Effective Scheduling of Semiconductor Manufacturing using Simulation
Authors: Ingy A. El-Khouly, Khaled S. El-Kilany, Aziz E. El-Sayed
Abstract:The process of wafer fabrication is arguably the most technologically complex and capital intensive stage in semiconductor manufacturing. This large-scale discrete-event process is highly reentrant, and involves hundreds of machines, restrictions, and processing steps. Therefore, production control of wafer fabrication facilities (fab), specifically scheduling, is one of the most challenging problems that this industry faces. Dispatching rules have been extensively applied to the scheduling problems in semiconductor manufacturing. Moreover, lot release policies are commonly used in this manufacturing setting to further improve the performance of such systems and reduce its inherent variability. In this work, simulation is used in the scheduling of re-entrant flow shop manufacturing systems with an application in semiconductor wafer fabrication; where, a simulation model has been developed for the Intel Five-Machine Six Step Mini-Fab using the ExtendTM simulation environment. The Mini-Fab has been selected as it captures the challenges involved in scheduling the highly re-entrant semiconductor manufacturing lines. A number of scenarios have been developed and have been used to evaluate the effect of different dispatching rules and lot release policies on the selected performance measures. Results of simulation showed that the performance of the Mini-Fab can be drastically improved using a combination of dispatching rules and lot release policy.
Keywords: Dispatching rules, lot release policy, re-entrant flowshop, semiconductor manufacturing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2387
223 The Effect of Granule Size on the Digestibility of Wheat Starch Using an in vitro Model
Authors: Mee-Lin Lim Chai Teo, Darryl M. Small
Wheat has a bimodal starch granule population and the dependency of the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis on particle size has been investigated. Ungelatinised wheaten starch granules were separated into two populations by sedimentation and decantation. Particle size was analysed by laser diffraction and morphological characteristics were viewed using SEM. The sedimentation technique though lengthy, gave satisfactory separation of the granules. Samples (<10μm, >10μm and original) were digested with a-amylase using a dialysis model. Granules of <10μm showed significantly higher rate of reducing sugar release than those >10μm (p<0.05). In contrast, the rate was not significantly different between the original sample and granules >10μm. Moreover, the digestion rate was dependent on particle size whereby smaller granules produced higher rate of release. The methodology and results reported here can be used as a basis for further evaluations designed to delay the release of glucose during the digestion of native starches.
Keywords: in vitro Digestion, a-amylase, wheat starch, granule size.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2708
222 Packaging the Alkaloids of Cinchona Bark in Combination with Etoposide in Polymeric Micelles Nanoparticles
Authors: Diky Mudhakir, Satrialdi, Sukmadjaja Asyarie, Yeyet C. Sumirtapura
Abstract:Today, cancer remains one of the major diseases that lead to death. The main obstacle in chemotherapy as a main cancer treatment is the toxicity to normal cells due to Multidrug Resistance (MDR) after the use of anticancer drugs. Proposed solution to overcome this problem is the use of MDR efflux inhibitor of cinchona alkaloids which is delivered together with anticancer drugs encapsulated in the form of polymeric nanoparticles. The particles were prepared by the hydration method. The characterization of nanoparticles was particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Combination nanoparticle size ranged 29-45 nm with a neutral surface charge. Entrapment efficiency was above 87% for the use quinine, quinidine or cinchonidine in combination with etoposide. The release test results exhibited that the cinchona alkaloids release released faster than that of etoposide. Collectively, cinchona alkaloids can be packaged along with etoposide in nanomicelles for better cancer therapy.
Keywords: Cinchona alkaloids, etoposide, MDR efflux inhitor, polymeric nanomicelles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2239