Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 623

Search results for: integral bridge

623 Review of Scouring on Integral Bridge and its Possible Protection

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Teuku K. Syamsura, S.M. Shirazi, Moatasem M. Fayyadh, Budhi Primasari

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the following protection of scouring countermeasures by using Bentonite-Enhanced Sand (BES) mixtures. The concept of underground improvement is being used in this study to reduce the void of the sand. The sand bentonite mixture was used to bond the ground soil conditions surrounding the pile of integral bridge. The right composition of sand bentonite mixture was proposed based on previous findings. The swelling effect of bentonite also was investigated to ensure there is no adverse impact to the structure of the integral bridge. ScourScour, another name for severe erosion, occurs when the erosive capacity of water resulting from natural and manmade events exceeds the ability of earth materials to resist its effects. According to AASHTO LRFD Specifications (Section C3.7.5), scour is the most common reason for the collapse of highway bridges in the United States

Keywords: bentonite, integral bridge, possible protection, scouring

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622 Time Development of Local Scour around Semi Integral Bridge Piers and Piles in Malaysia

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Sadia Rahman

Abstract:

Scouring around a bridge pier is a complex phenomenon. More laboratory experiments are required to understand the scour mechanism. This paper focused on time development of local scour around piers and piles in semi integral bridges. Laboratory data collected at Hydraulics Laboratory, University of Malaya was analyzed for this purpose. Tests were performed with two different uniform sediment sizes and five ranges of flow velocities. Fine and coarse sediments were tested in the flume. Results showed that scour depths for both pier and piles increased with time up to certain levels and after that they became almost constant. It had been found that scour depths increased when discharges increased. Coarser sediment also produced lesser scouring at the piers and combined piles.

Keywords: Pier, pile, scour, semi integral bridge, time.

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621 An Experimental Study on Behavior of Transverse Connection Appropriate for Modular Girder Bridge

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Jin-Woong Choi, Hyeong-Yeol Kim, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the behavior of integral and segmental specimens through static and cyclic tests. Integral specimens were made with the same size to be compared with segmental specimens that were made by connected precast members. To evaluate its bending performance and serviceability, 1 integral and 3 segmental specimens were tested under static load. And 1 integral and 2 segmental specimens were tested under cyclic load, respectively. Different load ranges were considered in the cyclic tests to evaluate the safety and serviceability. The test results showed that under static loading, segmental specimens had about 94% of the integral specimen's maximum moment, averagely. Under cyclic loading, the segmental specimens showed that had enough safety in the range of higher than service load and enough serviceability. In conclusion, the maximum crack width (0.16mm) satisfied the allowable crack width (0.30mm) in the range of service load.

Keywords: Modular bridge, Transverse connection, Precast concrete, Static and cyclic test.

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620 An Analytical Study of FRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructures

Authors: Wael I. Alnahhal

Abstract:

It is a major challenge to build a bridge superstructure that has long-term durability and low maintenance requirements. A solution to this challenge may be to use new materials or to implement new structural systems. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites have continued to play an important role in solving some of persistent problems in infrastructure applications because of its high specific strength, light weight, and durability. In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems is applied to a bridge superstructure. The hybrid FRP-concrete bridge superstructure is intended to have durable, structurally sound, and cost effective hybrid system that will take full advantage of the inherent properties of both FRP materials and concrete. In this study, two hybrid FRP-concrete bridge systems were investigated. The first system consists of trapezoidal cell units forming a bridge superstructure. The second one is formed by arch cells. The two systems rely on using cellular components to form the core of the bridge superstructure, and an outer shell to warp around those cells to form the integral unit of the bridge. Both systems were investigated analytically by using finite element (FE) analysis. From the rigorous FE studies, it was concluded that first system is more efficient than the second.

Keywords: Bridge superstructure, hybrid system, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element analysis.

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619 Experimental Study of Specific Cross Beam Types Appropriate for Modular Bridges

Authors: Seung-Kyung Kye, Young-Hyo Son, Jin-Woong Choi, Dooyong Cho, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently in the field of bridges that are newly built or repaired, fast construction is required more than ever. For these reasons, precast prefabricated bridge that enables rapid construction is actively discussed and studied today. In South Korea, it is called modular bridge. Cross beam is an integral component of modular bridge. It functions for load distribution, reduction of bending moment, resistance of horizontal strength on lateral upper structure. In this study, the structural characteristics of domestic and foreign cross beam types were compared. Based on this, alternative cross beam connection types suitable for modular bridge were selected. And bulb-T girder specimens were fabricated with each type of connection. The behavior of each specimen was analyzed under static loading, and cross beam connection type which is expected to be best suited to modular bridge proposed.

Keywords: Bulb-T girder, Cross beam, Modular bridge.

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618 On Fourier Type Integral Transform for a Class of Generalized Quotients

Authors: A. S. Issa, S. K. Q. AL-Omari

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate certain spaces of generalized functions for the Fourier and Fourier type integral transforms. We discuss convolution theorems and establish certain spaces of distributions for the considered integrals. The new Fourier type integral is well-defined, linear, one-to-one and continuous with respect to certain types of convergences. Many properties and an inverse problem are also discussed in some details.

Keywords: Fourier type integral, Fourier integral, generalized quotient, Boehmian, distribution.

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617 Double Loop Control of H-Bridge DC Chopper Fed Permanent Magnet DC Motor Drives Using Low Cost Hardware

Authors: Zin Maw Tun, Tun Lin Naing

Abstract:

This paper presents the two loop proportional integral (PI) controller for speed control of permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC) motor drive with H-bridge DC chopper. PMDC motors are widely used in many applications because of having a good performance and it is easy to apply the speed control. The speed can be adjusted by using armature voltage control as it had only the armature circuit. H-bridge DC chopper circuit is used to obtain the desired speed in any direction. In this system, the two loop PI controller is designed by using pole-zero cancellation method. The speed and current controller gains are considered depending on the sampling frequency of the microcontroller. An Arduino IO package is used to implement the control algorithm. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to prove the correctness of the mathematical model.

Keywords: Arduino IO package, double loop PI controller, H-bridge DC chopper, low cost hardware, PMDC motor.

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616 On the Approximate Solution of a Nonlinear Singular Integral Equation

Authors: Nizami Mustafa, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this study, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of a nonlinear singular integral equation that is defined on a region in the complex plane is proven and a method is given for finding the solution.

Keywords: Approximate solution, Fixed-point principle, Nonlinear singular integral equations, Vekua integral operator

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615 Modelling of Soil Structure Interaction of Integral Abutment Bridges

Authors: Thevaneyan K. David, John P. Forth

Abstract:

Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are defined as simple or multiple span bridges in which the bridge deck is cast monolithically with the abutment walls. This kind of bridges are becoming very popular due to different aspects such as good response under seismic loading, low initial costs, elimination of bearings, and less maintenance. However the main issue related to the analysis of this type of structures is dealing with soil-structure interaction of the abutment walls and the supporting piles. Various soil constitutive models have been used in studies of soil-structure interaction in this kind of structures by researchers. This paper is an effort to review the implementation of various finite elements model which explicitly incorporates the nonlinear soil and linear structural response considering various soil constitutive models and finite element mesh.

Keywords: Constitutive Models, FEM, Integral AbutmentBridges, Soil-structure Interactions

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614 Seismic Fragility Assessment of Continuous Integral Bridge Frames with Variable Expansion Joint Clearances

Authors: P. Mounnarath, U. Schmitz, Ch. Zhang

Abstract:

Fragility analysis is an effective tool for the seismic vulnerability assessment of civil structures in the last several years. The design of the expansion joints according to various bridge design codes is almost inconsistent, and only a few studies have focused on this problem so far. In this study, the influence of the expansion joint clearances between the girder ends and the abutment backwalls on the seismic fragility assessment of continuous integral bridge frames is investigated. The gaps (ranging from 60 mm, 150 mm, 250 mm and 350 mm) are designed by following two different bridge design code specifications, namely, Caltrans and Eurocode 8-2. Five bridge models are analyzed and compared. The first bridge model serves as a reference. This model uses three-dimensional reinforced concrete fiber beam-column elements with simplified supports at both ends of the girder. The other four models also employ reinforced concrete fiber beam-column elements but include the abutment backfill stiffness and four different gap values. The nonlinear time history analysis is performed. The artificial ground motion sets, which have the peak ground accelerations (PGAs) ranging from 0.1 g to 1.0 g with an increment of 0.05 g, are taken as input. The soil-structure interaction and the P-Δ effects are also included in the analysis. The component fragility curves in terms of the curvature ductility demand to the capacity ratio of the piers and the displacement demand to the capacity ratio of the abutment sliding bearings are established and compared. The system fragility curves are then obtained by combining the component fragility curves. Our results show that in the component fragility analysis, the reference bridge model exhibits a severe vulnerability compared to that of other sophisticated bridge models for all damage states. In the system fragility analysis, the reference curves illustrate a smaller damage probability in the earlier PGA ranges for the first three damage states, they then show a higher fragility compared to other curves in the larger PGA levels. In the fourth damage state, the reference curve has the smallest vulnerability. In both the component and the system fragility analysis, the same trend is found that the bridge models with smaller clearances exhibit a smaller fragility compared to that with larger openings. However, the bridge model with a maximum clearance still induces a minimum pounding force effect.

Keywords: Expansion joint clearance, fiber beam-column element, fragility assessment, time history analysis.

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613 The Importance of Bridge Health Monitoring

Authors: Punya Chupanit, Chayatan Phromsorn

Abstract:

In the past, there were many bridge-s collapses due to lack of bridge structural capacity information. Most of concrete bridge health was relied on information from visual inspection, which sometime was inadequate. This study was conducted in order to investigate relationship between bridge structural condition and bridge visual condition. This study was a part of a big project conducted at Department of Highways of Thailand. In this study, 31 bridges including slab-type bridges, plank-girder bridges, prestressed box-beam bridges, prestressed I-girder bridges and prestressed multibeam bridges were selected for visual inspection and load test. It was found a positive correlation between bridge appearance and bridge-s load carrying capacity. However, statistical characteristic revealed low correlation between them.

Keywords: Bridge, Visual Inspection, Load Test, Condition Rating, Rating Factor

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612 The Approximate Solution of Linear Fuzzy Fredholm Integral Equations of the Second Kind by Using Iterative Interpolation

Authors: N. Parandin, M. A. Fariborzi Araghi

Abstract:

in this paper, we propose a numerical method for the approximate solution of fuzzy Fredholm functional integral equations of the second kind by using an iterative interpolation. For this purpose, we convert the linear fuzzy Fredholm integral equations to a crisp linear system of integral equations. The proposed method is illustrated by some fuzzy integral equations in numerical examples.

Keywords: Fuzzy function integral equations, Iterative method, Linear systems, Parametric form of fuzzy number.

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611 Integral Image-Based Differential Filters

Authors: Kohei Inoue, Kenji Hara, Kiichi Urahama

Abstract:

We describe a relationship between integral images and differential images. First, we derive a simple difference filter from conventional integral image. In the derivation, we show that an integral image and the corresponding differential image are related to each other by simultaneous linear equations, where the numbers of unknowns and equations are the same, and therefore, we can execute the integration and differentiation by solving the simultaneous equations. We applied the relationship to an image fusion problem, and experimentally verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Integral images, differential images, differential filters, image fusion.

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610 Efficient Mean Shift Clustering Using Exponential Integral Kernels

Authors: S. Sutor, R. Röhr, G. Pujolle, R. Reda

Abstract:

This paper presents a highly efficient algorithm for detecting and tracking humans and objects in video surveillance sequences. Mean shift clustering is applied on backgrounddifferenced image sequences. For efficiency, all calculations are performed on integral images. Novel corresponding exponential integral kernels are introduced to allow the application of nonuniform kernels for clustering, which dramatically increases robustness without giving up the efficiency of the integral data structures. Experimental results demonstrating the power of this approach are presented.

Keywords: Clustering, Integral Images, Kernels, Person Detection, Person Tracking, Intelligent Video Surveillance.

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609 Seismic Behavior and Capacity/Demand Analyses of a Simply-Supported Multi-Span Precast Bridge

Authors: Nasim Shatarat, Adel Assaf

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an analytical study on the seismic response of a Multi-Span-Simply-Supported precast bridge in Washington State. The bridge was built in the early 1960's along Interstate 5 and was widened the first time in 1979 and the second time in 2001. The primary objective of this research project is to determine the seismic vulnerability of the bridge in order to develop the required retrofit measure. The seismic vulnerability of the bridge is evaluated using two seismic evaluation methods presented in the FHWA Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Bridges, Method C and Method D2. The results of the seismic analyses demonstrate that Method C and Method D2 vary markedly in terms of the information they provide to the bridge designer regarding the vulnerability of the bridge columns.

Keywords: Bridges, Capacity, Demand, Seismic, Static pushover, Retrofit.

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608 On One Application of Hybrid Methods For Solving Volterra Integral Equations

Authors: G.Mehdiyeva, V.Ibrahimov, M.Imanova

Abstract:

As is known, one of the priority directions of research works of natural sciences is introduction of applied section of contemporary mathematics as approximate and numerical methods to solving integral equation into practice. We fare with the solving of integral equation while studying many phenomena of nature to whose numerically solving by the methods of quadrature are mainly applied. Taking into account some deficiency of methods of quadrature for finding the solution of integral equation some sciences suggested of the multistep methods with constant coefficients. Unlike these papers, here we consider application of hybrid methods to the numerical solution of Volterra integral equation. The efficiency of the suggested method is proved and a concrete method with accuracy order p = 4 is constructed. This method in more precise than the corresponding known methods.

Keywords: Volterra integral equation, hybrid methods, stability and degree, methods of quadrature

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607 The Particle Swarm Optimization Against the Runge’s Phenomenon: Application to the Generalized Integral Quadrature Method

Authors: A. Zerarka, A. Soukeur, N. Khelil

Abstract:

In the present work, we introduce the particle swarm optimization called (PSO in short) to avoid the Runge-s phenomenon occurring in many numerical problems. This new approach is tested with some numerical examples including the generalized integral quadrature method in order to solve the Volterra-s integral equations

Keywords: Integral equation, particle swarm optimization, Runge's phenomenon.

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606 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami, Afshin Jahangirzadeh

Abstract:

Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: Scour, Bridge pier, numerical simulation, SSIIM 2.0.

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605 Defect-Based Urgency Index for Bridge Maintenance Ranking and Prioritization

Authors: Saleh Abu Dabous, Khaled Hamad, Rami Al-Ruzouq

Abstract:

Bridge condition assessment and rating provide essential information needed for bridge management. This paper reviews bridge inspection and condition rating practices and introduces a defect-based urgency index. The index is estimated at the element-level based on the extent and severity of the different defects typical to the bridge element. The urgency index approach has the following advantages: (1) It facilitates judgment submission, i.e. instead of rating the bridge element with a specific linguistic overall expression (which can be subjective and used differently by different people), the approach is based on assessing the defects; (2) It captures multiple defects that can be present within a deteriorated element; and (3) It reflects how critical the element is through quantifying critical defects and their severity. The approach can be further developed and validated. It is expected to be useful for practical purposes as an early-warning system for critical bridge elements.

Keywords: Condition rating, deterioration, inspection, maintenance.

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604 Algebras over an Integral Domain and Immediate Neighbors

Authors: Shai Sarussi

Abstract:

Let S be an integral domain with field of fractions F and let A be an F-algebra. An S-subalgebra R of A is called S-nice if R∩F = S and the localization of R with respect to S \{0} is A. Denoting by W the set of all S-nice subalgebras of A, and defining a notion of open sets on W, one can view W as a T0-Alexandroff space. A characterization of the property of immediate neighbors in an Alexandroff topological space is given, in terms of closed and open subsets of appropriate subspaces. Moreover, two special subspaces of W are introduced, and a way in which their closed and open subsets induce W is presented.

Keywords: Algebras over integral domains, Alexandroff topology, immediate neighbors, integral domains.

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603 Numerical Solution of Hammerstein Integral Equations by Using Quasi-Interpolation

Authors: M. Zarebnia, S. Khani

Abstract:

In this paper first, a numerical method based on quasiinterpolation for solving nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the Hammerstein-type is presented. Then, we approximate the solution of Hammerstein integral equations by Nystrom’s method. Also, we compare the methods with some numerical examples.

Keywords: Hammerstein integral equations, quasi-interpolation, Nystrom’s method.

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602 Univalence of an Integral Operator Defined by Generalized Operators

Authors: Salma Faraj Ramadan, Maslina Darus

Abstract:

In this paper we define generalized differential operators from some well-known operators on the class A of analytic functions in the unit disk U = {z ∈ C : |z| < 1}. New classes containing these operators are investigated. Also univalence of integral operator is considered.

Keywords: Univalent functions, integral operators, differential operators.

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601 An Asymptotic Solution for the Free Boundary Parabolic Equations

Authors: Hsuan-Ku Liu, Ming Long Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the solution of a two dimensional parabolic free boundary problem. The free boundary of this problem is modelled as a nonlinear integral equation (IE). For this integral equation, we propose an asymptotic solution as time is near to maturity and develop an integral iterative method. The computational results reveal that our asymptotic solution is very close to the numerical solution as time is near to maturity.

Keywords: Integral equation, asymptotic solution, free boundary problem, American exchange option.

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600 Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations of the First Kind via Converting to Optimization Problems

Authors: Akbar H. Borzabadi, Omid S. Fard

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce an approach via optimization methods to find approximate solutions for nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the first kind. To this purpose, we consider two stages of approximation. First we convert the integral equation to a moment problem and then we modify the new problem to two classes of optimization problems, non-constraint optimization problems and optimal control problems. Finally numerical examples is proposed.

Keywords: Fredholm integral equation, Optimization method, Optimal control, Nonlinear and linear programming

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599 Advanced Gronwall-Bellman-Type Integral Inequalities and Their Applications

Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

In this paper, some new nonlinear generalized Gronwall-Bellman-Type integral inequalities with mixed time delays are established. These inequalities can be used as handy tools to research stability problems of delayed differential and integral dynamic systems. As applications, based on these new established inequalities, some p-stable results of a integro-differential equation are also given. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.

Keywords: Gronwall-Bellman-Type integral inequalities, integrodifferential equation, p-exponentially stable, mixed delays.

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598 High Accuracy Eigensolutions in Elasticity for Boundary Integral Equations by Nyström Method

Authors: Pan Cheng, Jin Huang, Guang Zeng

Abstract:

Elastic boundary eigensolution problems are converted into boundary integral equations by potential theory. The kernels of the boundary integral equations have both the logarithmic and Hilbert singularity simultaneously. We present the mechanical quadrature methods for solving eigensolutions of the boundary integral equations by dealing with two kinds of singularities at the same time. The methods possess high accuracy O(h3) and low computing complexity. The convergence and stability are proved based on Anselone-s collective compact theory. Bases on the asymptotic error expansion with odd powers, we can greatly improve the accuracy of the approximation, and also derive a posteriori error estimate which can be used for constructing self-adaptive algorithms. The efficiency of the algorithms are illustrated by numerical examples.

Keywords: boundary integral equation, extrapolation algorithm, aposteriori error estimate, elasticity.

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597 Thermal Fracture Analysis of Fibrous Composites with Variable Fiber Spacing Using Jk-Integral

Authors: Farid Saeidi, Serkan Dag

Abstract:

In this study, fracture analysis of a fibrous composite laminate with variable fiber spacing is carried out using Jk-integral method. The laminate is assumed to be under thermal loading. Jk-integral is formulated by using the constitutive relations of plane orthotropic thermoelasticity. Developed domain independent form of the Jk-integral is then integrated into the general purpose finite element analysis software ANSYS. Numerical results are generated so as to assess the influence of variable fiber spacing on mode I and II stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and T-stress. For verification, some of the results are compared to those obtained using displacement correlation technique (DCT).

Keywords: Jk-integral, variable fiber spacing, thermoelasticity, t-stress, finite element method, fibrous composite.

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596 3D Numerical Simulation of Scouring around Bridge Piers (Case Study: Bridge 524 Crosses the Tanana River)

Authors: T. Esmaeili, A. A. Dehghani, A. R. Zahiri, K. Suzuki

Abstract:

Due to the three- dimensional flow pattern interacting with bed material, the process of local scour around bridge piers is complex. Modeling 3D flow field and scour hole evolution around a bridge pier is more feasible nowadays because the computational cost and computational time have significantly decreased. In order to evaluate local flow and scouring around a bridge pier, a completely three-dimensional numerical model, SSIIM program, was used. The model solves 3-D Navier-Stokes equations and a bed load conservation equation. The model was applied to simulate local flow and scouring around a bridge pier in a large natural river with four piers. Computation for 1 day of flood condition was carried out to predict the maximum local scour depth. The results show that the SSIIM program can be used efficiently for simulating the scouring in natural rivers. The results also showed that among the various turbulence models, the k-ω model gives more reasonable results.

Keywords: Bridge piers, flood, numerical simulation, SSIIM.

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595 A Parametric Study on the Backwater Level Due to a Bridge Constriction

Authors: S. Atabay, T. A. Ali, Md. M. Mortula

Abstract:

This paper presents the results and findings from a parametric study on the water surface elevation at upstream of bridge constriction for subcritical flow. In this study, the influence of Manning's Roughness Coefficient of main channel (nmc) and floodplain (nfp), and bridge opening (b) flow rate (Q), contraction (kcon) and expansion coefficients (kexp) were investigated on backwater level. The DECK bridge models with different span widths and without any pier were investigated within the two stage channel having various roughness conditions. One of the most commonly used commercial one-dimensional HEC-RAS model was used in this parametric study. This study showed that the effects of main channel roughness (nmc) and flow rate (Q) on the backwater level are much higher than those of the floodplain roughness (nfp). Bridge opening (b) with contraction (kcon) and expansion coefficients (kexp) have very little effect on the backwater level within this range of parameters.

Keywords: Bridge backwater, parametric study and waterways.

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594 State-Of-The Art Practices in Bridge Inspection

Authors: Salam R. Yaghi, Saleh Abu Dabous

Abstract:

Government reports and published research have flagged and brought to public attention the deteriorating condition of a large percentage of bridges in Canada and the United States. With the increasing number of deteriorated bridges in the US, Canada, and around the globe, condition assessment techniques of concrete bridges are evolving. Investigation for bridges’ defects such as cracks, spalls, and delamination and their level of severity are the main objectives of condition assessment. Inspection and rehabilitation programs are being implemented to monitor and maintain deteriorated bridge infrastructure. This paper highlights the state-of-the art of current practices being performed for concrete bridge inspection. The information is gathered from the literature and through a distributed questionnaire. The current practices in concrete bridge inspection rely on the use of hummer sounding and chain dragging tests. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques are not being utilized fully in the process. Nonetheless, they are being partially utilized by the recommendation of the bridge inspector after conducting visual inspection. Lanes are usually closed during the performance of visual inspection and bridge inspection in general.

Keywords: Bridge Inspection, Condition Assessment, questionnaire, Non-Destructive Testing.

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