Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study
Authors: E. Keramaris
In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1123669Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1399
 Beavers, G. S., and Joseph, D. D., Boundary Conditions at a Naturally Permeable Wall, J. Fluid Mech., 30(1), pp. 197–207, 1967.
 Mendoza, C., Zhou, D., Effects of Porous Bed on Turbulent Streamflow Above Bed, J. of Hydraulic Engrg., ASCE, 118, pp. 1222–1239, 1992.
 Wilson, C.A.M.E, Stoesser, T., Bates, P.D., Batemann Pinzen, A., Open channel flow through different forms of submerged flexible vegetation, J. of Hydraulic Engineering, 129(11), pp. 847-853, 2003.
 Prinos P., Sofialidis D., Keramaris E., Turbulent flow over and within a porous bed, J Hydraulic Eng., ASCE, 129: 720-733, 2003.
 Keramaris E., Prinos P., Flow characteristics in open channels with a permeable bed, J Porous Media, 12(2): 155-165, 2013.
 Keramaris E., Pechlivanidis G., Pechlivanidis, I., Samaras G., The impact of lateral walls on the velocity profile in an open channel using the PIV method. 13th International Conference on Environmental Sience and Technology (CEST 2013), Athens, Greece, 2013.
 Keramaris E., The different impact of rods bundle on turbulent characteristics in an open channel flow with porous bed, submitted for review, Environmental Earth Science, 2016.
 Wereley S.T., Meinhart, C.D., Recent advantages in micro-particle image velocimetry, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics,42(1), 557-576, 2010.
 Tachie, M., Bergstrom, D. and Balachandar, R., Rough wall turbulent boundary layers in shallow open channel flow, J. Fluids Engineering, 122: pp. 533–541, 2000.
 Bergstrom, D., Tachie, M. and Balachandar, R., Application of power laws to low Reynolds number boundary layers on smooth and rough surfaces. Phys Fluids 13: pp. 3277–3284, 2001.
 Antonia, R. and Krogstad, P., Turbulent structure in boundary layers over different types of surface roughness, Fluid Dyn Res 28: pp. 139–157, 2001.
 Nakagawa., H. and Nezu, I., Prediction of the contributions to the Reynold stress from bursting events in open-channel flows. J. Fluid Mech., vol. 80, pp. 99-128, 1977.
 Keramaris, E. and Prinos, P., Flow characteristics in open channels with a permeable bed, J. of Porous Media, Volume 12 (2), pp. 155-165, 2009.
 Raffel M., Willert C., Wereley S., Kompenhans, J. (2007). Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide, Springer-Verlag, 2007.