Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 227

Search results for: roughness

107 Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film in Rough Rotating Curved Porous Annular Plates: Deformation Effect

Authors: M. E. Shimpi, G. M. Deheri

Abstract:

This article aims to investigate the performance of a magnetic fluid based squeeze film between rotating transversely rough curved porous annular plates incorporating the effect of elastic deformation. The associated stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution leading to the calculation of the load carrying capacity. The results suggest that the transverse roughness of the bearing surfaces affects the performance adversely although the bearing systems register a relatively improved performance due to the magnetization. The deformation causes reduced the load carrying capacity while the curvature parameters tend to nominally increase the load carrying capacity. Besides, the adverse effect of porosity, deformation and standard deviation can be minimized to some extent by the positive effect of the magnetization and the curvature parameters in the case of negatively skewed roughness by suitably choosing the rotational inertia and the aspect ratio, which becomes significant when negative variance occurs.

Keywords: Annular plates curved rough surface, deformation, load carrying capacity, rotational inertia, magnetic fluid, squeeze film.

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106 Current Density Effect on Nickel Electroplating Using Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Electrolyte

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Van Cuong Nguyen, Hung-Wei Chuang

Abstract:

In this study, a nickel film with nano-crystalline grains, high hardness and smooth surface was electrodeposited using a post supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) mixed Watts electrolyte. Although the hardness was not as high as its Sc-CO2 counterpart, the thin coating contained significantly less number of nano-sized pinholes. By measuring the escape concentration of the dissolved CO2 in post Sc-CO2 mixed electrolyte with the elapsed time, it was believed that the residue of dissolved CO2 bubbles should closely relate to the improvement in hardness and surface roughness over its conventional plating counterpart. Therefore, shortening the duration of electroplating with the raise of current density up to 0.5 A/cm2 could effectively retain more post Sc-CO2 mixing effect. This study not only confirms the roles of dissolved CO2 bubbles in electrolyte but also provides a potential process to overcome most issues associated with the cost in building high-pressure chamber for large size products and continuous plating using supercritical method.

Keywords: Additive-free electrolyte, electroplating, nickel, supercritical CO2.

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105 Determination of Surface Roughness by Ball Burnishing Process Using Factorial Techniques

Authors: P. S. Dabeer, G. K. Purohit

Abstract:

Burnishing is a method of finishing and hardening machined parts by plastic deformation of the surface. Experimental work based on central composite second order rotatable design has been carried out on a lathe machine to establish the effects of ball burnishing parameters on the surface roughness of brass material. Analysis of the results by the analysis of variance technique and the F-test show that the parameters considered, have significant effects on the surface roughness.

Keywords: Ball burnishing, Response surface Methodology.

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104 Advance in Monitoring and Process Control of Surface Roughness

Authors: Somkiat Tangjitsitcharoen, Siripong Damrongthaveesak

Abstract:

This paper presents an advance in monitoring and process control of surface roughness in CNC machine for the turning and milling processes. An integration of the in-process monitoring and process control of the surface roughness is proposed and developed during the machining process by using the cutting force ratio. The previously developed surface roughness models for turning and milling processes of the author are adopted to predict the inprocess surface roughness, which consist of the cutting speed, the feed rate, the tool nose radius, the depth of cut, the rake angle, and the cutting force ratio. The cutting force ratios obtained from the turning and the milling are utilized to estimate the in-process surface roughness. The dynamometers are installed on the tool turret of CNC turning machine and the table of 5-axis machining center to monitor the cutting forces. The in-process control of the surface roughness has been developed and proposed to control the predicted surface roughness. It has been proved by the cutting tests that the proposed integration system of the in-process monitoring and the process control can be used to check the surface roughness during the cutting by utilizing the cutting force ratio.

Keywords: Turning, milling, monitoring, surface roughness, cutting force ratio.

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103 Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Software Vulnerabilities Testing Techniques

Authors: Khalid Alnafjan, Tazar Hussain, Hanif Ullah, Zia ul haq Paracha

Abstract:

Software and applications are subjected to serious and damaging security threats, these threats are increasing as a result of increased number of potential vulnerabilities. Security testing is an indispensable process to validate software security requirements and to identify security related vulnerabilities. In this paper we analyze and compare different available vulnerabilities testing techniques based on a pre defined criteria using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). We have selected five testing techniques which includes Source code analysis, Fault code injection, Robustness, Stress and Penetration testing techniques. These testing techniques have been evaluated against five criteria which include cost, thoroughness, Ease of use, effectiveness and efficiency. The outcome of the study is helpful for researchers, testers and developers to understand effectiveness of each technique in its respective domain. Also the study helps to compare the inner working of testing techniques against a selected criterion to achieve optimum testing results.

Keywords: Software Security, Security Testing, Testing techniques, vulnerability, AHP.

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102 Analysis of Thermal Deformation of a Rough Slider and Its Asperities and Its Impact on Load Generation in Parallel Sliders

Authors: Prawal Sinha, Getachew Adamu

Abstract:

Heating is inevitable in any bearing operation. This leads to not only the thinning of the lubricant but also could lead to a thermal deformation of the bearing. The present work is an attempt to analyze the influence of thermal deformation on the thermohydrodynamic lubrication of infinitely long tilted pad slider rough bearings. As a consequence of heating the slider is deformed and is assumed to take a parabolic shape. Also the asperities expand leading to smaller effective film thickness. Two different types of surface roughness are considered: longitudinal roughness and transverse roughness. Christensen-s stochastic approach is used to derive the Reynolds-type equations. Density and viscosity are considered to be temperature dependent. The modified Reynolds equation, momentum equation, continuity equation and energy equation are decoupled and solved using finite difference method to yield various bearing characteristics. From the numerical simulations it is observed that the performance of the bearing is significantly affected by the thermal distortion of the slider and asperities and even the parallel sliders seem to carry some load.

Keywords: Thermal Deformation, Tilted pad slider bearing, longitudinal roughness, transverse roughness, load capacity

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101 An Exhaustive Review of Die Sinking Electrical Discharge Machining Process and Scope for Future Research

Authors: M. M. Pawade, S. S. Banwait

Abstract:

Electrical Discharge Machine (EDM) is especially used for the manufacturing of 3-D complex geometry and hard material parts that are extremely difficult-to-machine by conventional machining processes. In this paper authors review the research work carried out in the development of die-sinking EDM within the past decades for the improvement of machining characteristics such as Material Removal Rate, Surface Roughness and Tool Wear Ratio. In this review various techniques reported by EDM researchers for improving the machining characteristics have been categorized as process parameters optimization, multi spark technique, powder mixed EDM, servo control system and pulse discriminating. At the end, flexible machine controller is suggested for Die Sinking EDM to enhance the machining characteristics and to achieve high-level automation. Thus, die sinking EDM can be integrated with Computer Integrated Manufacturing environment as a need of agile manufacturing systems.

Keywords: Electrical Discharge Machine, Flexible Machine Controller, Material Removal Rate, Tool Wear Ratio.

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100 Energy Consumption and Surface Finish Analysis of Machining Ti6Al4V

Authors: Salman Pervaiz, Ibrahim Deiab, Amir Rashid, Mihai Nicolescu, Hossam Kishawy

Abstract:

Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions impose major threat to global warming potential (GWP). Unfortunately manufacturing sector is one of the major sources that contribute towards the rapid increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In manufacturing sector electric power consumption is the major driver that influences CO2 emission. Titanium alloys are widely utilized in aerospace, automotive and petrochemical sectors because of their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Titanium alloys are termed as difficult to cut materials because of their poor machinability rating. The present study analyzes energy consumption during cutting with reference to material removal rate (MRR). Surface roughness was also measured in order to optimize energy consumption.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, CO2 Emission, Ti6Al4V.

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99 Parametric Study on Grindability of GFRP Laminates Using Different Abrasives

Authors: P. Chockalingam, C. K. Kok, T. R. Vijayaram

Abstract:

A study on grindability of chopped strand mat glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates (CSM GFRP) have been carried out to evaluate the significant parameters on wheel performance. Performance of Aluminum oxide and c-BN wheels during grinding of CSM GFRP laminate was evaluated in terms of grinding force and surface roughness during grinding. The cubic Boron Nitride wheel experiences higher tangential grinding forces components and lower normal force component than Aluminum oxide grinding wheels. In case of surface finish, Aluminum oxide grinding wheels outdo the cubic Boron Nitride grinding wheels.

Keywords: Grinding, glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates, grinding force, surface finish.

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98 Surface Roughness Prediction Model for Grinding of Composite Laminate Using Factorial Design

Authors: P. Chockalingam, C. K. Kok, T. R. Vijayaram

Abstract:

Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates have been widely used because of their unique mechanical and physical properties such as high specific strength, stiffness and corrosive resistance. Accordingly, the demand for precise grinding of composites has been increasing enormously. Grinding is the one of the obligatory methods for fabricating products with composite materials and it is usually the final operation in the assembly of structural laminates. In this experimental study, an attempt has been made to develop an empirical model to predict the surface roughness of ground GFRP composite laminate with respect to the influencing grinding parameters by factorial design approach of design of experiments (DOE). The significance of grinding parameters and their three factor interaction effects on grinding of GFRP composite have been analyzed in detail. An empirical equation has been developed to attain minimum surface roughness in GFRP laminate grinding.

Keywords: GFRP Laminates, Grinding, Surface Roughness, Factorial Design.

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97 Analytical Subthreshold Drain Current Model Incorporating Inversion Layer Effective Mobility Model for Pocket Implanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Quazi D. M. Khosru

Abstract:

Carrier scatterings in the inversion channel of MOSFET dominates the carrier mobility and hence drain current. This paper presents an analytical model of the subthreshold drain current incorporating the effective electron mobility model of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The model is developed by assuming two linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges at the surface and by using the conventional drift-diffusion equation. Effective electron mobility model includes three scattering mechanisms, such as, Coulomb, phonon and surface roughness scatterings as well as ballistic phenomena in the pocket implanted n-MOSFET. The model is simulated for various pocket profile and device parameters as well as for various bias conditions. Simulation results show that the subthreshold drain current data matches the experimental data already published in the literature.

Keywords: Linear Pocket Profile, Pocket Implanted n-MOSFET, Subthreshold Drain Current and Effective Mobility Model.

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96 Elaboration and Optimization of Pellets Used for Precise Glass Grinding

Authors: N. Belkhir, A. Chorfa, D. Bouzid

Abstract:

In this work, grinding or microcutting tools in the form of pellets were manufactured using a bounded alumina abrasive grains. The bound used is a vitreous material containing quartz feldspars, kaolinite and a quantity of hematite. The pellets were used in glass grinding process to replace the free abrasive grains lapping process. The study of the elaborated pellets were done to define their effectiveness in the grinding process and to optimize the influence of the pellets elaboration parameters. The obtained results show the existence of an optimal combination of the pellets elaboration parameters for each glass grinding phase (coarse to fine grinding). The final roughness (rms) reached by the elaborated pellets on a BK7 glass surface was about 0.392 μm.

Keywords: Abrasive grain, glass, grinding, pellet.

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95 Development of Regression Equation for Surface Finish and Analysis of Surface Integrity in EDM

Authors: Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan, M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a relatively modern machining process having distinct advantages over other machining processes and can machine Ti-alloys effectively. The present study emphasizes the features of the development of regression equation based on response surface methodology (RSM) for correlating the interactive and higher-order influences of machining parameters on surface finish of Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The process parameters selected in this study are discharge current, pulse on time, pulse off time and servo voltage. Machining has been accomplished using negative polarity of Graphite electrode. Analysis of variance is employed to ascertain the adequacy of the developed regression model. Experiments based on central composite of response surface method are carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to investigate the surface topography of the EDMed job. The results evidence that the proposed regression equation can predict the surface roughness effectively. The lower ampere and short pulse on time yield better surface finish.

Keywords: Graphite electrode, regression model, response surface methodology, surface roughness.

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94 The Effect of Multipass Cutting in Grinding Operation

Authors: M. A. Kamely, A. Y. Bani Hashim, S. H. Yahaya, H. Sihombing, H. Hazman

Abstract:

Grinding requires high specific energy and the consequent development of high temperature at tool-workpiece contact zone impairs workpiece quality by inducing thermal damage to the surface. Finishing grinding process requires component to be cut more than one pass. This paper deals with an investigation on the effect of multipass cutting on grinding performance in term of surface roughness and surface defect. An experimental set-up has been developed for this and a detailed comparison has been done with a single pass and various numbers of cutting pass. Results showed that surface roughness increase with the increase in a number of cutting pass. Good surface finish of 0.26μm was obtained for single pass cutting and 0.73μm for twenty pass cutting. It was also observed that the thickness of the white layer increased with the increased in a number of cutting pass.

Keywords: Cylindrical grinding, Multipass cutting, Surface roughness, Surface defect.

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93 Finite Element Modeling to Predict the Effect of Nose Radius on the Equivalent Strain (PEEQ) for Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

Authors: Moaz H. Ali, M. N. M. Ansari, Pang Jing Shen

Abstract:

In present work, prediction the effect of nose radius, rz (mm) on the equivalent strain (PEEQ) and surface finish during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) through orthogonal cutting process. The results were performed at several of the nose radiuses, rz (mm) while the cutting speed, vc (m/min), feed rate, f (mm/tooth) and depth of cut, d (mm) were remained constant. The equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) and applied through ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software. The simulation results led to conclude that the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was increased and surface roughness (Ra) decreased when increasing nose radius, rz (mm) during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) in dry cutting conditions.

Keywords: Finite element modeling (FEM), nose radius, plastic strain (PEEQ), titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V).

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92 Surface Roughness of Flange Contact to the 25A-size Metal Gasket by using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama , Didik Nurhadiyanto, Moch Agus Choiron, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

The previous study of new metal gasket that contact width and contact stress an important design parameter for optimizing metal gasket performance. The optimum design based on an elastic and plastic contact stress was founded. However, the influence of flange surface roughness had not been investigated thoroughly. The flange has many kinds of surface roughness. In this study, we conducted a gasket model include a flange surface roughness effect. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. A uniform quadratic mesh used for meshing the gasket material and a gradually quadrilateral mesh used for meshing the flange. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which is forming and tightening simulation. A simulation result shows that a smoother of surface roughness has higher slope for force per unit length. This mean a squeezed against between flange and gasket will be strong. The slope of force per unit length for gasket 400-MPa mode was higher than the gasket 0-MPa mode.

Keywords: Surface roughness, flange, metal gasket, leakage, simulation.

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91 Influence of Composition and Austempering Temperature on Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron

Authors: Jagmohan Datt, Uma Batra

Abstract:

Present investigations involve a systematic study on the machinability of austempered ductile irons (ADI) developed from four commercially viable ductile irons alloyed with different contents of 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 wt.% of Ni. The influence of Ni content, amount of retained austenite and hardness of ADI on machining behavior has been conducted systematically. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 120 minutes at four temperatures- 270oC, 320oC, 370oC or 420oC, after austenitization at 900oC for 120 min. Milling tests were performed and machinability index, cutting forces and surface roughness measurements were used to evaluate the machinability. Higher cutting forces, lower machinability index and the poorer surface roughness of the samples austempered at lower temperatures indicated that austempering at higher temperatures resulted in better machinability. The machinability of samples austempered at 420oC, which contained higher fractions of retained austenite, was superior to that of samples austempered at lower temperatures, indicating that hardness is an important factor in assessing machinability in addition to high carbon austenite content. The ADI with 0.6% Ni, austempered at 420°C for 120 minutes, demonstrated best machinability.

Keywords: Austempering, machinability, machining index, cutting force, surface finish.

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90 Terrain Evaluation Method for Hexapod Robot

Authors: Tomas Luneckas, Dainius Udris

Abstract:

In this paper a simple terrain evaluation method for hexapod robot is introduced. This method is based on feet coordinate evaluation when all are on the ground. Depending on the feet coordinate differences the local terrain evaluation is possible. Terrain evaluation is necessary for right gait selection and/or body position correction. For terrain roughness evaluation three planes are plotted: two of them as definition points use opposite feet coordinates, third coincides with the robot body plane. The leaning angle of body plane is evaluated measuring gravity force using three-axis accelerometer. Terrain roughness evaluation method is based on angle estimation between normal vectors of these planes. Aim of this work is to present a simple method for embedded robot controller, allowing to find the best further movement settings.

Keywords: Hexapod robot, pose estimation, terrain evaluation, terrain roughness.

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89 Morphology of Machined Surfaces from Electro Discharge Sawing and Sinking Electro Discharge Machining

Authors: N. Nagabhushana Ramesh, Kalley Harinarayana, T. Raghavender Reddy, B. Balu Naik

Abstract:

Electro Discharge Sawing is a hybrid process combining the features of SEDM and ECM. Its major characteristic is extremely fast erosion rate compare to either of the above processes. This paper brings out its relative feature of SEDM and EDS about their erosion rates, surface roughness, and morphology of machined surfaces.

Keywords: Electro Chemical Machining (ECM), Electro Discharge Sawing (EDS), Sinking Electro Discharge Machining (SEDM).

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88 Preparation of Nanostructure ZnO-SnO2 Thin Films for Optoelectronic Properties and Post Annealing Influence

Authors: Vipin Kumar Jain, Praveen Kumar, Y.K. Vijay

Abstract:

ZnO-SnO2 i.e. Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO2 - 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO film were annealed at 450 0C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing on the structural, electrical, and optical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The apparent growth of surface features revealed the formation of nanostructure ZTO thin films. The small value of surface roughness (root mean square RRMS) ensures the usefulness in optical coatings. The sheet resistance was also found to be decreased for both types of films with increasing concentration of SnO2. The optical transmittance found to be decreased however blue shift has been observed after annealing.

Keywords: ZTO thin film, AFM, SEM, Optical transmittance, Sheet resistance.

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87 Analysis of Chatter in Ball End Milling by Wavelet Transform

Authors: S. Tangjitsitcharoen

Abstract:

The chatter is one of the major limitations of the productivity in the ball end milling process. It affects the surface roughness, the dimensional accuracy and the tool life. The aim of this research is to propose the new system to detect the chatter during the ball end milling process by using the wavelet transform. The proposed method is implemented on the 5-axis CNC machining center and the new three parameters are introduced from three dynamic cutting forces, which are calculated by taking the ratio of the average variances of dynamic cutting forces to the absolute variances of themselves. It had been proved that the chatter can be easier to detect during the in-process cutting by using the new parameters which are proposed in this research. The experimentally obtained results showed that the wavelet transform can provide the reliable results to detect the chatter under various cutting conditions.

Keywords: Ball end milling, wavelet transform, fast fourier transform, chatter.

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86 Surface Roughness Optimization in End Milling Operation with Damper Inserted End Milling Cutters

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao, G. Ravi Kumar, P. Sowmya

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of the Taguchi design application to optimize surface quality in damper inserted end milling operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves additional manufacturing cost or loss of productivity. The Taguchi design is an efficient and effective experimental method in which a response variable can be optimized, given various factors, using fewer resources than a factorial design. This Study included spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as control factors, usage of different tools in the same specification, which introduced tool condition and dimensional variability. An orthogonal array of L9(3^4)was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting surface roughness, and the optimal cutting combination was determined by seeking the best surface roughness (response) and signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the Taguchi design was successful in optimizing milling parameters for surface roughness.

Keywords: ANOVA, Damper, End Milling, Optimization, Surface roughness, Taguchi design.

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85 Application of Nano Cutting Fluid under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Technique to Improve Grinding of Ti – 6Al – 4V Alloy

Authors: Dinesh Setti, Sudarasan Ghosh, P. Venkateswara Rao

Abstract:

Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) technique obtained a significant attention in machining processes to reduce environmental loads caused by usage of conventional cutting fluids. Recently nanofluids are finding an extensive application in the field of mechanical engineering because of their superior lubrication and heat dissipation characteristics. This paper investigates the use of a nanofluid under MQL mode to improve grinding characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Taguchi-s experimental design technique has been used in the present investigation and a second order model has been established to predict grinding forces and surface roughness. Different concentrations of water based Al2O3 nanofluids were applied in the grinding operation through MQL setup developed in house and the results have been compared with those of conventional coolant and pure water. Experimental results showed that grinding forces reduced significantly when nano cutting fluid was used even at low concentration of the nano particles and surface finish has been found to improve with higher concentration of the nano particles.

Keywords: MQL, Nanofluid, Taguchi method, Ti-6Al-4V.

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84 A Fuzzy Logic Based Model to Predict Surface Roughness of A Machined Surface in Glass Milling Operation Using CBN Grinding Tool

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, M. Hamdi

Abstract:

Nowadays, the demand for high product quality focuses extensive attention to the quality of machined surface. The (CNC) milling machine facilities provides a wide variety of parameters set-up, making the machining process on the glass excellent in manufacturing complicated special products compared to other machining processes. However, the application of grinding process on the CNC milling machine could be an ideal solution to improve the product quality, but adopting the right machining parameters is required. In glass milling operation, several machining parameters are considered to be significant in affecting surface roughness. These parameters include the lubrication pressure, spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this research work, a fuzzy logic model is offered to predict the surface roughness of a machined surface in glass milling operation using CBN grinding tool. Four membership functions are allocated to be connected with each input of the model. The predicted results achieved via fuzzy logic model are compared to the experimental result. The result demonstrated settlement between the fuzzy model and experimental results with the 93.103% accuracy.

Keywords: CNC-machine, Glass milling, Grinding, Surface roughness, Cutting force, Fuzzy logic model.

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83 Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section

Authors: F. Rasi Marzabadi

Abstract:

A series of experiments were carried out to study unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements involved surface pressure distribution complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads and boundary layer behavior.

Keywords: Boundary layer transition, plunging, reduced frequency, wind turbine.

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82 Hydrothermal Fabrication of Iodine Doped Titanium Oxide Films on Ti Substrate

Authors: M. P. Neupane, T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan, J. E. Park, Y. K. Kim, I. S. Park, K. Y. Song, T. S. Bae, M. H. Lee

Abstract:

Titanium oxide films with different morphologies have for the first time been fabricated through hydrothermal reactions between a titanium substrate and iodine powder in water or ethanol. SEM revealed that iodine supported titanium (Ti-I2) surface shows different morphologies with variable treatment conditions. The mean surface roughness (Ra) was increased in the different groups. Use of surfactant has a role to increase the roughness of the film. The surface roughness was in the range of 0.15 μm-0.42 μm. Furthermore, the electrochemical examinations showed that the Ti-I2 surface fabricated in alcoholic medium has high corrosion resistance than in aqueous medium.

Keywords: Corrosion, Hydrothermal, Surface roughness, Titanium oxide.

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81 A Novel Method for Areal Surface Roughness Measurement

Authors: Romuald Synak, Wlodzimierz Lipinski, Marcin Pawelczak

Abstract:

An area-integrating method that uses the technique of total integrated light scatter for evaluating the root mean square height of the surface Sq has been presented in the paper. It is based on the measurement of the scatter power using a flat photodiode integrator rather than an optical sphere or a hemisphere. By this means, one can obtain much less expensive and smaller instruments than traditional ones. Thanks to this, they could find their application for surface control purposes, particularly in small and medium size enterprises. A description of the functioning of the measuring unit as well as the impact caused by different factors on its properties is presented first. Next, results of measurements of the Sq values performed for optical, silicon and metal samples have been shown. It has been also proven that they are in a good agreement with the results obtained using the Ulbricht sphere instrument.

Keywords: ISO 25178 Standard, scatterometry, surface metrology, surface roughness

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80 Optimum Surface Roughness Prediction in Face Milling of High Silicon Stainless Steel

Authors: M. Farahnakian, M.R. Razfar, S. Elhami-Joosheghan

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for the determination of the optimal cutting parameters (spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and engagement) leading to minimum surface roughness in face milling of high silicon stainless steel by coupling neural network (NN) and Electromagnetism-like Algorithm (EM). In this regard, the advantages of statistical experimental design technique, experimental measurements, artificial neural network, and Electromagnetism-like optimization method are exploited in an integrated manner. To this end, numerous experiments on this stainless steel were conducted to obtain surface roughness values. A predictive model for surface roughness is created by using a back propogation neural network, then the optimization problem was solved by using EM optimization. Additional experiments were performed to validate optimum surface roughness value predicted by EM algorithm. It is clearly seen that a good agreement is observed between the predicted values by EM coupled with feed forward neural network and experimental measurements. The obtained results show that the EM algorithm coupled with back propogation neural network is an efficient and accurate method in approaching the global minimum of surface roughness in face milling.

Keywords: cutting parameters, face milling, surface roughness, artificial neural network, Electromagnetism-like algorithm,

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79 Effect of Coolant on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness in Grinding of CSM GFRP

Authors: P Chockalingam, K Kok, R Vijayaram

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study on dry and wet grinding through experimental investigation in the grinding of CSM glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates using a pink aluminium oxide wheel. Different sets of experiments were performed to study the effects of the independent grinding parameters such as grinding wheel speed, feed and depth of cut on dependent performance criteria such as cutting forces and surface finish. Experimental conditions were laid out using design of experiment central composite design. An effective coolant was sought in this study to minimise cutting forces and surface roughness for GFRP laminates grinding. Test results showed that the use of coolants reduces surface roughness, although not necessarily the cutting forces. These research findings provide useful economic machining solution in terms of optimized grinding conditions for grinding CSM GFRP.

Keywords: Chopped Strand Mat GFRP laminates, Dry and Wet Grinding, Cutting Forces, Surface Finish.

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78 Effect of Ply Orientation on Roughness for the Trimming Process of CFRP Laminates

Authors: Jean François Chatelain, Imed Zaghbani, Joseph Monier

Abstract:

The machining of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics has come to constitute a significant challenge for many fields of industry. The resulting surface finish of machined parts is of primary concern for several reasons, including contact quality and impact on the assembly. Therefore, the characterization and prediction of roughness based on machining parameters are crucial for costeffective operations. In this study, a PCD tool comprised of two straight flutes was used to trim 32-ply carbon fiber laminates in a bid to analyze the effects of the feed rate and the cutting speed on the surface roughness. The results show that while the speed has but a slight impact on the surface finish, the feed rate for its part affects it strongly. A detailed study was also conducted on the effect of fiber orientation on surface roughness, for quasi-isotropic laminates used in aerospace. The resulting roughness profiles for the four-ply orientation lay-up were compared, and it was found that fiber angle is a critical parameter relating to surface roughness. One of the four orientations studied led to very poor surface finishes, and characteristic roughness profiles were identified and found to only relate to the ply orientations of multilayer carbon fiber laminates.

Keywords: Roughness, Detouring, Composites, Aerospace

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