Improving Lubrication Efficiency at High Sliding Speeds by Plasma Surface Texturing
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32870
Improving Lubrication Efficiency at High Sliding Speeds by Plasma Surface Texturing

Authors: Wei Zha, Jingzeng Zhang, Chen Zhao, Ran Cai, Xueyuan Nie


Cathodic plasma electrolysis (CPE) is used to create surface textures on cast iron samples for improving the tribological properties. Micro craters with confined size distribution were successfully formed by CPE process. These craters can generate extra hydrodynamic pressure that separates two sliding surfaces, increase the oil film thickness and accelerate the transition from boundary to mixed lubrication. It was found that the optimal crater size was 1.7 μm, at which the maximum lubrication efficiency was achieved. The Taguchi method was used to optimize the process parameters (voltage and roughness) for CPE surface texturing. The orthogonal array and the signal-to-noise ratio were employed to study the effect of each process parameter on the coefficient of friction. The results showed that with higher voltage and lower roughness, the lower friction coefficient can be obtained, and thus the lubrication can be more efficiently used for friction reduction.

Keywords: Cathodic plasma electrolysis, friction, lubrication, plasma surface texturing.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 651


[1] K. Holmberg, P. Andersson, and A. Erdemir, "Global energy consumption due to friction in passenger cars." Tribology International 47 (2012): 221-234.
[2] M. Dubar, M., A. Dubois, and L. Dubar, "Wear analysis of tools in cold forging: PVD versus CVD TiN coatings." Wear 259.7-12 (2005): 1109-1116.
[3] N. Espallargas, J. Berget, J. M. Guilemany, A.V. Benedetti, and P. H. Suegama, "Cr3C2–NiCr and WC–Ni thermal spray coatings as alternatives to hard chromium for erosion–corrosion resistance." Surface and Coatings Technology 202, no. 8 (2008): 1405-1417.
[4] M. P. Nascimento, R. C. Souza, I. M. Miguel, W. L. Pigatin, and H. Voorwald, "Effects of tungsten carbide thermal spray coating by HP/HVOF and hard chromium electroplating on AISI 4340 high strength steel." Surface and coatings technology 138, no. 2-3 (2001): 113-124.
[5] D. Toma, W. Brandl, and G. Marginean, "Wear and corrosion behaviour of thermally sprayed cermet coatings." Surface and coatings technology 138, no. 2-3 (2001): 149-158.
[6] J. R.Tuck, A. M. Korsunsky, R. I. Davidson, S. Bull, and D. M. Elliott, "Modelling of the hardness of electroplated nickel coatings on copper substrates." Surface and Coatings Technology 127, no. 1 (2000): 1-8.
[7] E. Frutos, J. L. González–Carrasco, C. Capdevila, J. A. Jiménez, and Y. Houbaert, "Development of hard intermetallic coatings on austenitic stainless steel by hot dipping in an Al–Si alloy." Surface and Coatings Technology203, no. 19 (2009): 2916-2920.
[8] V. S. Protsenko, and F. I. Danilov, "Chromium electroplating from trivalent chromium baths as an environmentally friendly alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium baths: comparative study on advantages and disadvantages." Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 16, no. 6 (2014): 1201-1206.
[9] Y. Yan, "Tribology and tribo-corrosion testing and analysis of metallic biomaterials." In Metals for Biomedical Devices, pp. 178-201. Woodhead Publishing, 2010.
[10] S. H. Loring, R. E. Brown, A. Gouldstone, and J. P. Butler, "Lubrication regimes in mesothelial sliding." Journal of Biomechanics 38, no. 12 (2005): 2390-2396.
[11] X.B. Lu, and M. M. Khonsari, "An experimental investigation of dimple effect on the stribeck curve of journal bearings." Tribology letters 27, no. 2 (2007): 169.
[12] L. Galda, P. Pawlus, and J. Sep, "Dimples shape and distribution effect on characteristics of Stribeck curve." Tribology International 42, no. 10 (2009): 1505-1512.
[13] K. L. Johnson, "Regimes of elastohydrodynamic lubrication." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 12, no. 1 (1970): 9-16.
[14] I. Etsion, "State of the art in laser surface texturing." In ASME 7th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, pp. 585-593. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2004.
[15] M. Varenberg, G. Halperin, and I. Etsion, "Different aspects of the role of wear debris in fretting wear." Wear 252, no. 11-12 (2002): 902-910.
[16] M. Fowell, A. V. Olver, A. D. Gosman, H. A. Spikes, and I. Pegg, "Entrainment and inlet suction: two mechanisms of hydrodynamic lubrication in textured bearings." Journal of Tribology 129, no. 2 (2007): 336-347.
[17] M. Scaraggi, "Textured surface hydrodynamic lubrication: Discussion." Tribology Letters 48, no. 3 (2012): 375-391.
[18] D. Braun, C. Greiner, J. Schneider, and P. Gumbsch, "Efficiency of laser surface texturing in the reduction of friction under mixed lubrication." Tribology international 77 (2014): 142-147.
[19] N. Kawasegi, H. Sugimori, H. Morimoto, N. Morita, and I. Hori, "Development of cutting tools with microscale and nanoscale textures to improve frictional behavior." Precision Engineering 33, no. 3 (2009): 248-254.
[20] P. Koshy, P., and J. Tovey, "Performance of electrical discharge textured cutting tools." CIRP annals 60, no. 1 (2011): 153-156.
[21] T. Sugihara, and T. Enomoto, "Crater and flank wear resistance of cutting tools having micro textured surfaces." Precision Engineering 37, no. 4 (2013): 888-896.
[22] X. Su, L. Shi, W. Huang, and X. L. Wang, "A multi-phase micro-abrasive jet machining technique for the surface texturing of mechanical seals." The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 86, no. 5-8 (2016): 2047-2054.
[23] D. Gropper, L. Wang, and T. J. Harvey, "Hydrodynamic lubrication of textured surfaces: A review of modeling techniques and key findings." Tribology International94 (2016): 509-529.
[24] M. Adjemout, A. Andrieux, J. Bouyer, N. Brunetière, G. Marcos, and T. Czerwiec, "Influence of the real dimple shape on the performance of a textured mechanical seal." Tribology International 115 (2017): 409-416.
[25] N. Tala-Ighil, and M. Fillon, "A numerical investigation of both thermal and texturing surface effects on the journal bearings static characteristics." Tribology International 90 (2015): 228-239.
[26] T. Ibatan, M. S. Uddin, and M. A. K. Chowdhury, "Recent development on surface texturing in enhancing tribological performance of bearing sliders." Surface and Coatings Technology 272 (2015): 102-120.
[27] Y. Henry, J. Bouyer, and M. Fillon, "An experimental analysis of the hydrodynamic contribution of textured thrust bearings during steady-state operation: a comparison with the untextured parallel surface configuration." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology 229, no. 4 (2015): 362-375.
[28] W. Grabon, P. Pawlus, S. Wos, W. Koszela, and M. Wieczorowski, "Effects of honed cylinder liner surface texture on tribological properties of piston ring-liner assembly in short time tests." Tribology International 113 (2017): 137-148.
[29] X. J. Hua, J. G. Sun, P. Zhang, H. Ge, Y. Fu, J. Ji, and B. Yin, "Research on discriminating partition laser surface micro-texturing technology of engine cylinder." Tribology International 98 (2016): 190-196.
[30] N. Morris, R. Rahmani, H. Rahnejat, P. D. King, and S. Howell-Smith, "A numerical model to study the role of surface textures at top dead center reversal in the piston ring to cylinder liner contact." Journal of Tribology 138, no. 2 (2016): 021703.
[31] A. B. Zavos, and P. G. Nikolakopoulos, "Simulation of piston ring tribology with surface texturing for internal combustion engines." Lubrication Science 27, no. 3 (2015): 151-176.
[32] A. Akbarzadeh, and M. Khonsari, "Effect of untampered plasma coating and surface texturing on friction and running-in behavior of piston rings." Coatings 8, no. 3 (2018): 110.
[33] C. X. Gu, X. Meng, Y. Xie, and Y. Yang, "Effects of surface texturing on ring/liner friction under starved lubrication." Tribology international 94 (2016): 591-605.
[34] D. Q. He, S. Zheng, J. Pu, G. Zhang, and L. Hu, "Improving tribological properties of titanium alloys by combining laser surface texturing and diamond-like carbon film." Tribology international 82 (2015): 20-27.
[35] A. A. Voevodin, and J. S. Zabinski, "Laser surface texturing for adaptive solid lubrication." Wear 261, no. 11-12 (2006): 1285-1292.
[36] P. O. Papet, A. Nichiporuk, Y. R. Kaminski, J. Kraiem, J-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, "Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 90, no. 15 (2006): 2319-2328.
[37] A. L. Yerokhin, X. Nie, A. Leyland, A. Matthews, and S. J. Dowey, "Plasma electrolysis for surface engineering." Surface and coatings technology 122, no. 2-3 (1999): 73-93.
[38] R. O. Hussein, X. Nie, D. O. Northwood, A. Yerokhin, and A. Matthews, "Spectroscopic study of electrolytic plasma and discharging behaviour during the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 43, no. 10 (2010): 105203.
[39] H. Atil, and Y. Unver, "A different approach of experimental design: Taguchi method." Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 3, no. 9 (2000): 1538-1540.
[40] B. J. Hamrock, and D. Dowson, "Isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication of point contacts: part III—fully flooded results." Journal of Lubrication Technology 99, no. 2 (1977): 264-275.
[41] B. J. Hamrock, S. R. Schmid, and B. O. Jacobson, Fundamentals of fluid film lubrication. CRC press, 2004. “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics (Book style with paper title and editor),” in Plastics, 2nd ed. vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64.