Influence of Tool Geometry on Surface Roughness and Tool Wear When Turning AISI 304L Using Taguchi Optimisation Methodology
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Influence of Tool Geometry on Surface Roughness and Tool Wear When Turning AISI 304L Using Taguchi Optimisation Methodology

Authors: Salah Gariani, Taher Dao, Ahmed Lajili

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental optimisation of surface roughness (Ra) and tool wear in the precision turning of AISI 304L alloy using a wiper and conventional cutting tools under wet cutting conditions. The machining trials were conducted based on Taguchi methodology employing an L9 orthogonal array design with four process parameters: feed rate, spindle speed, depth of cut, and cutting tool type. The experimental results were utilised to characterise the main factors affecting Ra and tool wear using the analyses of means (AOM) and variance (ANOVA). The results show that the wiper tools outperformed conventional tools in terms of surface quality and tool wear at optimal cutting conditions. The ANOVA results indicate that the main factors contributing to lower Ra are cutting tool type and feed rate, with percentage contribution ratios (PCRs) of 58.69% and 25.18% respectively. This confirms that tool type is the most significant factor affecting surface quality when turning AISI 304L. Additionally, a substantial reduction in tool wear was observed when a wiper insert was used, whereas noticeable increases in tool wear occurred when higher cutting speeds were employed for both tool types. These trends confirm the ANOVA outcomes that cutting speed has a significant effect on tool wear, with a PCR value of 39.22%, followed by tool type with a PCR of 27.40%. All machining trials generated similar continuous spiral or curl-shaped chips. A noticeable difference was found in the radius of the produced curl-shaped chips at different cutting speeds when turning AISI 304L under wet cutting conditions.

Keywords: AISI 304L alloy, conventional and wiper carbide tools, wet turning, average surface roughness, tool wear.

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