Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 140

Search results for: ring bus.

140 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

Authors: A. Chillali, A. Tadmori, M. Ziane

Abstract:

In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Keywords: Elliptic Curves, Finite Ring, Cryptography.

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139 Evaluation on Bearing Capacity of Ring Foundations on two-Layered Soil

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, V. Rashidian, E. Izadi

Abstract:

This paper utilizes a finite element analysis to study the bearing capacity of ring footings on a two-layered soil. The upper layer, that the footing is placed on it, is soft clay and the underneath layer is a cohesionless sand. For modeling soils, Mohr–Coulomb plastic yield criterion is employed. The effects of two factors, the clay layer thickness and the ratio of internal radius of the ring footing to external radius of the ring, have been analyzed. It is found that the bearing capacity decreases as the value of ri / ro increases. Although, as the clay layer thickness increases the bearing capacity was alleviated gradually.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, Ring footing, Two-layered soil

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138 A Ring Segmented Bus Architecture for Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous System

Authors: Masafumi Kondo, Yoichiro Sato, Kazuyuki Tashiro, Tomoyuki Yokogawa, Michiyoshi Hayase

Abstract:

Recently, most digital systems are designed as GALS (Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous) systems. Several architectures have been proposed as bus architectures for a GALS system : shared bus, segmented bus, ring bus, and so on. In this study, we propose a ring segmented bus architecture which is a combination of segmented bus and ring bus architecture with the aim of throughput enhancement. In a segmented bus architecture, segments are connected in series. By connecting the segments at the end of the bus and constructing the ring bus, it becomes possible to allocate a channel of the bus bidirectionally. The bus channel is allocated to the shortest path between segments. We consider a metastable operation caused by asynchronous communication between segments and a burst transfer between segments. According to the result of simulation, it is shown that the GALS system designed by the proposed method has the desired operations.

Keywords: GALS systems bus architecture, segmented bus, ring bus.

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137 Highly Conductive Polycrystalline Metallic Ring in a Magnetic Field

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

Electrical conduction in a quasi-one-dimensional polycrystalline metallic ring with a long electron phase coherence length realized at low temperature is investigated. In this situation, the wave nature of electrons is important in the ring, where the electrical current I can be induced by a vector potential that arises from a static magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the ring’s area. It is shown that if the average grain size of the polycrystalline ring becomes large (or comparable to the Fermi wavelength), the electrical current I increases to ~I0, where I0 is a current in a disorder-free ring. The cause of this increasing effect is examined, and this takes place if the electron localization length in the polycrystalline potential increases with increasing grain size, which gives rise to coherent connection of tails of a localized electron wave function in the ring and thus provides highly coherent electrical conduction.

Keywords: Electrical Conduction, Electron Phase Coherence, Polycrystalline Metal, Magnetic Field.

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136 n− Strongly Gorenstein Projective, Injective and Flat Modules

Authors: Jianmin Xing Wei Shao

Abstract:

Let R be a ring and n a fixed positive integer, we investigate the properties of n-strongly Gorenstein projective, injective and flat modules. Using the homological theory , we prove that the tensor product of an n-strongly Gorenstein projective (flat) right R -module and projective (flat) left R-module is also n-strongly Gorenstein projective (flat). Let R be a coherent ring ,we prove that the character module of an n -strongly Gorenstein flat left R -module is an n-strongly Gorenstein injective right R -module . At last, let R be a commutative ring and S a multiplicatively closed set of R , we establish the relation between n -strongly Gorenstein projective (injective , flat ) R -modules and n-strongly Gorenstein projective (injective , flat ) S−1R-modules. All conclusions in this paper is helpful for the research of Gorenstein dimensions in future.

Keywords: Commutative ring, n-strongly Gorenstein projective, n-Strongly Gorenstein injective, n-strongly Gorenstein flat, S-ring.

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135 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen

Abstract:

We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: Impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode.

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134 Upsetting of Tri-Metallic St-Cu-Al and St-Cu60Zn-Al Cylindrical Billets

Authors: Isik Cetintav, Cenk Misirli, Yilmaz Can

Abstract:

This work investigates upsetting of the tri-metallic cylindrical billets both experimentally and analytically with a reduction ratio 30%. Steel, brass, and copper are used for the outer and outmost rings and aluminum for the inner core. Two different models have been designed to show material flow and the cavity took place over the two interfaces during forming after this reduction ratio. Each model has an outmost ring material as steel. Model 1 has an outer ring between the outmost ring and the solid core material as copper and Model 2 has a material as brass. Solid core is aluminum for each model. Billets were upset in press machine by using parallel flat dies. Upsetting load was recorded and compared for models and single billets. To extend the tests and compare with experimental procedure to a wider range of inner core and outer ring geometries, finite element model was performed. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. The aim is to show how contact between outmost ring, outer ring and the inner core are carried on throughout the upsetting process. Results have shown that, with changing in height, between outmost ring, outer ring and inner core, the Model 1 and Model 2 had very good interaction, and the contact surfaces of models had various interface behaviour. It is also observed that tri-metallic materials have lower weight but better mechanical properties than single materials. This can give an idea for using and producing these new materials for different purposes.

Keywords: Tri-metallic, upsetting, copper, brass, steel, aluminum.

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133 2D Fracture Analysis of the First Compression Piston Ring

Authors: I. Razmi, N. Choupani

Abstract:

The incidence of mechanical fracture of an automobile piston rings prompted development of fracture analysis method on this case. The three rings (two compression rings and one oil ring) were smashed into several parts during the power-test (after manufacturing the engine) causing piston and liner to be damaged. The radial and oblique cracking happened on the failed piston rings. The aim of the fracture mechanics simulations presented in this paper was the calculation of particular effective fracture mechanics parameters, such as J-integrals and stress intensity factors. Crack propagation angles were calculated as well. Two-dimensional fracture analysis of the first compression ring has been developed in this paper using ABAQUS CAE6.5-1 software. Moreover, SEM fractography was developed on fracture surfaces and is discussed in this paper. Results of numerical calculations constitute the basis for further research on real object.

Keywords: Compression piston ring, Crack, Fracture mechanics, SEM fractography.

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132 Clamped-clamped Boundary Conditions for Analysis Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shell with a Ring based on Third Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: M.Pourmahmoud, M.Salmanzadeh, M.Mehrani, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

In this paper a study on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells with ring supports and made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties vary along the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law. The cylindrical shells have ring supports which are arbitrarily placed along the shell and impose zero lateral deflections. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory (T.S.D.T). The analysis is carried out using Hamilton-s principle. The governing equations of motion of FGM cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of ring support position and the influence of boundary conditions. The present analysis is validated by comparing results with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton'sprinciple, Ring support.

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131 Cryptography Over Elliptic Curve Of The Ring Fq[e], e4 = 0

Authors: Chillali Abdelhakim

Abstract:

Groups where the discrete logarithm problem (DLP) is believed to be intractable have proved to be inestimable building blocks for cryptographic applications. They are at the heart of numerous protocols such as key agreements, public-key cryptosystems, digital signatures, identification schemes, publicly verifiable secret sharings, hash functions and bit commitments. The search for new groups with intractable DLP is therefore of great importance.The goal of this article is to study elliptic curves over the ring Fq[], with Fq a finite field of order q and with the relation n = 0, n ≥ 3. The motivation for this work came from the observation that several practical discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, such as ElGamal, the Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems . In a first time, we describe these curves defined over a ring. Then, we study the algorithmic properties by proposing effective implementations for representing the elements and the group law. In anther article we study their cryptographic properties, an attack of the elliptic discrete logarithm problem, a new cryptosystem over these curves.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Over Ring, Discrete Logarithm Problem.

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130 Potential of High Performance Ring Spinning Based on Superconducting Magnetic Bearing

Authors: M. Hossain, A. Abdkader, C. Cherif, A. Berger, M. Sparing, R. Hühne, L. Schultz, K. Nielsch

Abstract:

Due to the best quality of yarn and the flexibility of the machine, the ring spinning process is the most widely used spinning method for short staple yarn production. However, the productivity of these machines is still much lower in comparison to other spinning systems such as rotor or air-jet spinning process. The main reason for this limitation lies on the twisting mechanism of the ring spinning process. In the ring/traveler twisting system, each rotation of the traveler along with the ring inserts twist in the yarn. The rotation of the traveler at higher speed includes strong frictional forces, which in turn generates heat. Different ring/traveler systems concerning with its geometries, material combinations and coatings have already been implemented to solve the frictional problem. However, such developments can neither completely solve the frictional problem nor increase the productivity. The friction free superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) system can be a right alternative replacing the existing ring/traveler system. The unique concept of SMB bearings is that they possess a self-stabilizing behavior, i.e. they remain fully passive without any necessity for expensive position sensing and control. Within the framework of a research project funded by German research foundation (DFG), suitable concepts of the SMB-system have been designed, developed, and integrated as a twisting device of ring spinning replacing the existing ring/traveler system. With the help of the developed mathematical model and experimental investigation, the physical limitations of this innovative twisting device in the spinning process have been determined. The interaction among the parameters of the spinning process and the superconducting twisting element has been further evaluated, which derives the concrete information regarding the new spinning process. Moreover, the influence of the implemented SMB twisting system on the yarn quality has been analyzed with respect to different process parameters. The presented work reveals the enormous potential of the innovative twisting mechanism, so that the productivity of the ring spinning process especially in case of thermoplastic materials can be at least doubled for the first time in a hundred years. The SMB ring spinning tester has also been presented in the international fair “International Textile Machinery Association (ITMA) 2015”.

Keywords: Ring spinning, superconducting magnetic bearing, yarn properties, productivity.

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129 Effects Edge end Free-free Boundary Conditions for Analysis Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shell with Ring based on Third Order Shear Deformation Theory using Hamilton's Principle

Authors: M.R.Isvandzibaei, P.J.Awasare

Abstract:

In this paper a study on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells with ring supports and made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties vary along the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law. The cylindrical shells have ring supports which are arbitrarily placed along the shell and impose zero lateral deflections. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory (T.S.D.T). The analysis is carried out using Hamilton-s principle. The governing equations of motion of FGM cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of ring support position and the influence of boundary conditions. The present analysis is validated by comparing results with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton'sprinciple, Ring support.

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128 Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Authors: Jorge Martinez-Garcia, Ingrid Stelzner, Joerg Stelzner, Damian Gwerder, Philipp Schuetz

Abstract:

Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Keywords: Ring recognition, edge detection, X-ray computed tomography, dendrochronology.

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127 Proximity-Inset Fed Triple Band Antenna for Global Position System with High Gain

Authors: The Nan Chang, Ping-Tang Yu, Jyun-Ming Lin

Abstract:

A triple band circularly polarized antenna covering 1.17, 1.22, and 1.57 GHz is presented. To extend to the triple-band operation, we need to add one more ring while maintaining the mechanism to independently control each ring. The inset-part in the feeding scheme is used to excite the band at 1.22 GHz, while the proximate-part of the feeding scheme is used to excite not only the band at 1.57 GHz but also the band at 1.17 GHz. This is achieved by up-vertically coupled with one ring to radiate at 1.57 GHz and down-vertically coupled another ring to radiate at 1.17 GHz. It is also noted that the inset-part in our feeding scheme is by horizontal coupling. Furthermore, to increase the gain at all three bands, three air-layers are added to make the total height of the antenna be 7.8 mm. The total thickness of the three air-layers is 3 mm. The gains of the three bands are all greater than 5 dBiC after adding the air-layers.

Keywords: Circular polarization, global position system, triband antenna, high gain.

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126 Two New Collineations of some Moufang-Klingenberg Planes

Authors: Atilla Akpinar, Basri Çelik

Abstract:

In this paper we are interested in Moufang-Klingenberg planesM(A) defined over a local alternative ring A of dual numbers. We introduce two new collineations of M(A).

Keywords: Moufang-Klingenberg planes, local alternative ring, projective collineation.

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125 Spreading of Swirling Double–Concentric Jets at Low and High Pulsation Intensities

Authors: Shiferaw R. Jufar, Rong F. Huang, Ching M. Hsu

Abstract:

The spreading characteristics of acoustically excited swirling double-concentric jets were studied experimentally. The central jet was acoustically excited at low and high pulsation intensities. A smoke wire flow visualization and a hot-wire anemometer velocity measurement results show that excitation forces a vortex ring to roll-up from the edge of the central tube during each excitation period. At low pulsation intensities, the vortex ring evolves downstream, and eventually breaks up into turbulent eddies. At high pulsation intensities, the primary vortex ring evolves and a series of trailing vortex rings form during the same period of excitation. The trailing vortex rings accelerate while evolving downstream and overtake the primary vortex ring within the same cycle. In the process, the primary vortex ring becomes unstable and breaks up early. The effect of the fast traveling trailing vortex rings combined with the swirl motion of the annular flow improve jet spreading compared with the naturally evolving jets.

Keywords: Acoustic excitation, double–concentric jets, flow control, swirling jet.

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124 A Model for Study of the Defects in Rolling Element Bearings at Higher Speed by Vibration Signature Analysis

Authors: Abhay Utpat, R. B. Ingle, M. R. Nandgaonkar

Abstract:

The vibrations produced by a single point defect on various parts of the bearing under constant radial load are predicted by using a theoretical model. The model includes variation in the response due to the effect of bearing dimensions, rotating frequency distribution of load. The excitation forces are generated when the defects on the races strike to rolling elements. In case of the outer ring defect, the pulses generated are with periodicity of outer ring defect frequency where as for inner ring defect, the pulses are with periodicity of inner ring defect frequency. The effort has been carried out in preparing the physical model of the system. Different defect frequencies are obtained and are used to find out the amplitudes of the vibration due to excitation of the bearing parts. Increase in the radial load or severity of the defect produces a significant change in bearing signature characteristics.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, defect frequency, rolling element, vibration response.

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123 Vibration of FGM Cylindrical Shells under Effect Clamped-simply Support Boundary Conditions using Hamilton's Principle

Authors: M.R.Isvandzibaei, E.Bidokh, M.R.Alinaghizadeh, A.Nasirian, A.Moarrefzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper a study on the vibration of thin cylindrical shells with ring supports and made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties vary along the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law. The cylindrical shells have ring supports which are arbitrarily placed along the shell and impose zero lateral deflections. The study is carried out based on third order shear deformation shell theory (T.S.D.T). The analysis is carried out using Hamilton-s principle. The governing equations of motion of FGM cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of ring support position and the influence of boundary conditions. The present analysis is validated by comparing results with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton'sprinciple, Ring support.

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122 Broadband Annular-Ring Dielectric Resonator Antenna

Authors: Mohammad J. Almalkawi

Abstract:

A broadband wire monopole antenna loaded by inhomogeneous stack of annular dielectric ring resonators (DRRs) is proposed. The proposed antenna exhibits a broad impedance bandwidth from 3 to 30 GHz. This is achieved by adding an external step matching network at the antenna feed point. The matching network is comprised of three annular DRRs possessing different permittivity values and sharing the same axial over a finite ground plane. The antenna performance is characterized using full-wave EM simulation. Compared to previous-reported wire antennas with improved bandwidth achieved by DRRs, the proposed topology provides relatively compact realization and superior broadband performance.

Keywords: Broadband, dielectric ring resonator, wire monopole antenna.

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121 Experimental Study of Strength Recovery from Residual Strength on Kaolin Clay

Authors: Deepak R. Bhat, Netra P. Bhandery, Ryuichi Yatabe

Abstract:

Strength recovery effect from the residual-state of shear is not well address in scientific literature. Torsional ring shear strength recovery tests on kaolin clay using rest periods up to 30 days are performed at the effective normal stress 100kN/m2. Test results shows that recovered strength measured in the laboratory is slightly noticeable after rest period of 3 days, but recovered strength lost after very small shear displacement. This paper mainly focused on the strength recovery phenomenon from the residual strength of kaolin clay based on torsional ring shear test results. Mechanisms of recovered strength are also discussed.

Keywords: Kaolin clay, Residual strength, Strength recovery, Torsional ring shear test.

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120 Some Collineations Preserving Cross-Ratio in some Moufang-Klingenberg Planes

Authors: Suleyman Ciftci, Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik

Abstract:

In this paper we are interested in Moufang-Klingenberg planesM(A) defined over a local alternative ring A of dual numbers. We show that some collineations of M(A) preserve cross-ratio.

Keywords: Moufang-Klingenberg planes, local alternative ring, projective collineation, cross-ratio.

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119 Design and Analysis of Extra High Voltage Non-Ceramic Insulator by Finite Element Method

Authors: M. Nageswara Rao, V. S. N. K. Chaitanya, P. Pratyusha

Abstract:

High voltage insulator has to withstand sever electrical stresses. Higher electrical stresses lead to erosion of the insulator surface. Degradation of insulating properties leads to flashover and in some extreme cases it may cause to puncture. For analyzing these electrical stresses and implement necessary actions to diminish the electrical stresses, numerical methods are best. By minimizing the electrical stresses, reliability of the power system will improve. In this paper electric field intensity at critical regions of 400 kV silicone composite insulator is analyzed using finite element method. Insulator is designed using FEMM-2D software package. Electric Field Analysis (EFA) results are analyzed for five cases i.e., only insulator, insulator with two sides arcing horn, High Voltage (HV) end grading ring, grading ring-arcing horn arrangement and two sides grading ring. These EFA results recommended that two sides grading ring is better for minimization of electrical stresses and improving life span of insulator.

Keywords: Polymer insulator, electric field analysis, numerical methods, finite element method, FEMM-2D.

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118 Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application

Authors: Hailu Dessalegn, T. Srinivas

Abstract:

We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT) actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a channel spacing of 1.6nm. The filter for each channel is basically structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length is designed with a line width of 0.8974nm with a flat top pass band at 1dB of 0.5205nm and free spectral range of about 14.9nm. In each channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as 45.54pm/

Keywords: Optical MEMS, piezoelectric (PZT) actuation, tunable optical filter, wavelength de-multiplexer.

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117 A Ring-Shaped Tri-Axial Force Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Beibei Han, Yong-Jin Yoon, Muhammad Hamidullah, Angel Tsu-Hui Lin, Woo-Tae Park

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of a ring-shaped tri-axial fore sensor that can be incorporated into the tip of a guidewire for use in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The designed sensor comprises a ring-shaped structure located at the center of four cantilever beams. The ringdesign allows surgical tools to be easily passed through which largely simplified the integration process. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are used aspiezoresistive sensing elementsembeddedon the four cantilevers of the sensor to detect the resistance change caused by the applied load.An integration scheme with new designed guidewire tip structure having two coils at the distal end is presented. Finite element modeling has been employed in the sensor design to find the maximum stress location in order to put the SiNWs at the high stress regions to obtain maximum output. A maximum applicable force of 5 mN is found from modeling. The interaction mechanism between the designed sensor and a steel wire has been modeled by FEM. A linear relationship between the applied load on the steel wire and the induced stress on the SiNWs were observed.

Keywords: Triaxial MEMS force sensor, Ring shape, Silicon Nanowire, Minimally invasive surgery.

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116 4-Transitivity and 6-Figures in Finite Klingenberg Planes of Parameters (p2k−1, p)

Authors: Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik, Suleyman Ciftci

Abstract:

In this paper, we carry over some of the results which are valid on a certain class of Moufang-Klingenberg planes M(A) coordinatized by an local alternative ring A := A(ε) = A+Aε of dual numbers to finite projective Klingenberg plane M(A) obtained by taking local ring Zq (where prime power q = pk) instead of A. So, we show that the collineation group of M(A) acts transitively on 4-gons, and that any 6-figure corresponds to only one inversible m ∈ A.

Keywords: finite Klingenberg plane, projective collineation, 4-transitivity, 6-figures.

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115 Dextran Modified Silicon Photonic Microring Resonator Sensors

Authors: Jessie Yiying Quah, Vivian Netto, Jack Sheng Kee, Eric Mouchel La Fosse, Mi Kyoung Park

Abstract:

We present a dextran modified silicon microring resonator sensor for high density antibody immobilization. An array of sensors consisting of three sensor rings and a reference ring was fabricated and its surface sensitivity and the limit of detection were obtained using polyelectrolyte multilayers. The mass sensitivity and the limit of detection of the fabricated sensor ring are 0.35 nm/ng mm-2 and 42.8 pg/mm2 in air, respectively. Dextran modified sensor surface was successfully prepared by covalent grafting of oxidized dextran on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified silicon sensor surface. The antibody immobilization on hydrogel dextran matrix improves 40% compared to traditional antibody immobilization method via APTES and glutaraldehyde linkage.

Keywords: Antibody immobilization, Dextran, Immunosensor, Label-free detection, Silicon micro-ring resonator

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114 Performance Evaluation of an Efficient Asynchronous Protocol for WDM Ring MANs

Authors: Peristera A. Baziana

Abstract:

The idea of the asynchronous transmission in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) ring MANs is studied in this paper. Especially, we present an efficient access technique to coordinate the collisions-free transmission of the variable sizes of IP traffic in WDM ring core networks. Each node is equipped with a tunable transmitter and a tunable receiver. In this way, all the wavelengths are exploited for both transmission and reception. In order to evaluate the performance measures of average throughput, queuing delay and packet dropping probability at the buffers, a simulation model that assumes symmetric access rights among the nodes is developed based on Poisson statistics. Extensive numerical results show that the proposed protocol achieves apart from high bandwidth exploitation for a wide range of offered load, fairness of queuing delay and dropping events among the different packets size categories.

Keywords: Asynchronous transmission, collision avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing.

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113 On Cross-Ratio in some Moufang-Klingenberg Planes

Authors: Atilla Akpinar, Basri Celik

Abstract:

In this paper we are interested in Moufang-Klingenberg planesM(A) defined over a local alternative ring A of dual numbers. We show that a collineation of M(A) preserve cross-ratio. Also, we obtain some results about harmonic points.

Keywords: Moufang-Klingenberg planes, local alternative ring, projective collineation, cross-ratio, harmonic points.

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112 Dual Construction of Stern-based Signature Scheme

Authors: Pierre-Louis Cayrel, Sidi Mohamed El Yousfi Alaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a dual version of the first threshold ring signature scheme based on error-correcting code proposed by Aguilar et. al in [1]. Our scheme uses an improvement of Véron zero-knowledge identification scheme, which provide smaller public and private key sizes and better computation complexity than the Stern one. This scheme is secure in the random oracle model.

Keywords: Stern algorithm, Véron algorithm, threshold ring signature, post-quantum cryptography.

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111 Mathematical Modeling for Continuous Reactive Extrusion of Poly Lactic Acid formation by Ring Opening Polymerization Considering Metal/Organic Catalyst and Alternative Energies

Authors: Satya P. Dubey, Hrushikesh A. Abhyankar, Veronica Marchante, James L. Brighton, Björn Bergmann

Abstract:

PLA emerged as a promising polymer because of its property as a compostable, biodegradable thermoplastic made from renewable sources. PLA can be polymerized from monomers (Lactide or Lactic acid) obtained by fermentation processes from renewable sources such as corn starch or sugarcane. For PLA synthesis, ring opening polymerization (ROP) of Lactide monomer is one of the preferred methods. In the literature, the technique mainly developed for ROP of PLA is based on metal/bimetallic catalyst (Sn, Zn and Al) or other organic catalysts in suitable solvent. However, the PLA synthesized using such catalysts may contain trace elements of the catalyst which may cause toxicity. This work estimated the usefulness and drawbacks of using different catalysts as well as effect of alternative energies and future aspects for PLA production.

Keywords: Alternative energy, bio-degradable, metal catalyst, poly lactic acid (PLA), ring opening polymerization (ROP).

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