Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 867

Search results for: metal catalyst

867 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

Authors: N. Hataivichian, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya, P. Praserthdam, S. Phatanasri

Abstract:

The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500°C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, COchemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Keywords: Alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal.

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866 Refining Waste Spent Hydroprocessing Catalyst and Their Metal Recovery

Authors: Meena Marafi, Mohan S. Rana

Abstract:

Catalysts play an important role in producing valuable fuel products in petroleum refining; but, due to feedstock’s impurities catalyst gets deactivated with carbon and metal deposition. The disposal of spent catalyst falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste that requires strict agreement with environmental regulations. The spent hydroprocessing catalyst contains Mo, V and Ni at high concentrations that have been found to be economically significant for recovery. Metal recovery process includes deoiling, decoking, grinding, dissolving and treatment with complexing leaching agent such as ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). The process conditions have been optimized as a function of time, temperature and EDTA concentration in presence of ultrasonic agitation. The results indicated that optimum condition established through this approach could recover 97%, 94% and 95% of the extracted Mo, V and Ni, respectively, while 95% EDTA was recovered after acid treatment.

Keywords: Spent catalyst, deactivation, hydrotreating, spent catalyst.

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865 A Comparative Study of Metal Extraction from Spent Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Sradhanjali Singh, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

The recovery of metal values and safe disposal of spent catalyst is gaining interest due to both its hazardous nature and increased regulation associated with disposal methods. Prior to the recovery of the valuable metals, removal of entrained deposits limit the diffusion of lixiviate resulting in low recovery of metals must be taken into consideration. Therefore, petroleum refinery spent catalyst was subjected to acetone washing and roasting at 500oC. The treated samples were investigated for metals bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in batch reactors and the leaching efficiencies were compared. It was found out that acetone washed spent catalysts results in better metal recovery compare to roasted spent. About 83% Ni, 20% Al, 50% Mo and 73% V were leached using the acetone washed spent catalyst. In both the cases, Ni, V and Mo was high compared to Al.

Keywords: Acetone wash, At. ferrooxidans, Bioleaching, Calcined, Metal recovery.

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864 Microbial Leaching Process to Recover Valuable Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Iron Oxidizing Bacteria

Authors: Debabrata Pradhan, Dong J. Kim, Jong G. Ahn, Seoung W. Lee

Abstract:

Spent petroleum catalyst from Korean petrochemical industry contains trace amount of metals such as Ni, V and Mo. Therefore an attempt was made to recover those trace metal using bioleaching process. Different leaching parameters such as Fe(II) concentration, pulp density, pH, temperature and particle size of spent catalyst particle were studied to evaluate their effects on the leaching efficiency. All the three metal ions like Ni, V and Mo followed dual kinetics, i.e., initial faster followed by slower rate. The percentage of leaching efficiency of Ni and V were higher than Mo. The leaching process followed a diffusion controlled model and the product layer was observed to be impervious due to formation of ammonium jarosite (NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6. In addition, the lower leaching efficiency of Mo was observed due to a hydrophobic coating of elemental sulfur over Mo matrix in the spent catalyst.

Keywords: Bioleaching, diffusion control, shrinking core, spentpetroleum catalyst.

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863 Mathematical Modeling for Continuous Reactive Extrusion of Poly Lactic Acid formation by Ring Opening Polymerization Considering Metal/Organic Catalyst and Alternative Energies

Authors: Satya P. Dubey, Hrushikesh A. Abhyankar, Veronica Marchante, James L. Brighton, Björn Bergmann

Abstract:

PLA emerged as a promising polymer because of its property as a compostable, biodegradable thermoplastic made from renewable sources. PLA can be polymerized from monomers (Lactide or Lactic acid) obtained by fermentation processes from renewable sources such as corn starch or sugarcane. For PLA synthesis, ring opening polymerization (ROP) of Lactide monomer is one of the preferred methods. In the literature, the technique mainly developed for ROP of PLA is based on metal/bimetallic catalyst (Sn, Zn and Al) or other organic catalysts in suitable solvent. However, the PLA synthesized using such catalysts may contain trace elements of the catalyst which may cause toxicity. This work estimated the usefulness and drawbacks of using different catalysts as well as effect of alternative energies and future aspects for PLA production.

Keywords: Alternative energy, bio-degradable, metal catalyst, poly lactic acid (PLA), ring opening polymerization (ROP).

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862 Catalytic Activity of Aluminum Impregnated Catalysts for the Degradation of Waste Polystyrene

Authors: J. Shah, M. Rasul Jan, Adnan

Abstract:

The aluminum impregnated catalysts of Al-alumina (Al-Al2O3), Al-montmorillonite (Al-Mmn) and Al-activated charcoal (Al-AC) of various percent loadings were prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized by SEM, XRD and N2 adsorption/desorption (BET). The catalytic properties were investigated in the degradation of waste polystyrene (WPS). The results of catalytic degradation of Al metal, 20% Al-Al2O3, 5% Al-Mmn and 20% Al-AC were compared with each other for optimum conditions. Among the catalyst used 20% Al-Al2O3 was found the most effective catalyst. The BET surface area of 20% Al-Al2O3 determined was 70.2 m2/g. The SEM data revealed the catalyst with porous structure throughout the frame work with small nanosized crystallites. The yield of liquid products with 20% Al-Al2O3 (91.53 ± 2.27 wt%) was the same as compared to Al metal (91.20 ± 0.35 wt%) but the selectivity of hydrocarbons and yield of styrene monomer (56.32 wt%) was higher with 20% Al-Al2O3 catalyst.

 

Keywords: Impregnation, catalytic degradation, waste polystyrene, styrene.

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861 Comparison of Bioleaching of Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.  

Keywords: Spent catalyst, At. ferrooxidans, Bioleaching, Metal recovery.

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860 NiO-CeO2 Nano-Catalyst for the Removal of Priority Organic Pollutants from Wastewater through Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation at Mild Conditions

Authors: Anushree, Chhaya Sharma, Satish Kumar

Abstract:

Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is normally carried out at elevated temperature and pressure. This work investigates the potential of NiO-CeO2 nano-catalyst in CWAO of paper industry wastewater under milder operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The NiO-CeO2 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after use, in order to study any crystallographic change during experiment. The extent of metal-leaching from the catalyst was determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of nano-catalysts was studied in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) and chlorophenolics (CHPs) removal. Interestingly, mixed oxide catalysts exhibited higher activity than the corresponding single-metal oxides. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved with Ce40Ni60 catalyst. The results indicate that the CWAO process is efficient in removing the priority organic pollutants from wastewater, as it exhibited up to 59% TOC, 55% AOX, and 54 % CHPs removal.

Keywords: Nano-materials, NiO-CeO2, wastewater, wet air oxidation.

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859 Generation of Catalytic Films of Zeolite Y and ZSM-5 on FeCrAlloy Metal

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-Rubaye, Arthur A. Garforth

Abstract:

This work details the generation of thin films of structured zeolite catalysts (ZSM–5 and Y) onto the surface of a metal substrate (FeCrAlloy) using in-situ hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the zeolite Y is post-synthetically modified by acidified ammonium ion exchange to generate US-Y. Finally the catalytic activity of the structured ZSM-5 catalyst films (Si/Al = 11, thickness 146 0m) and structured US–Y catalyst film (Si/Al = 8, thickness 230m) were compared with the pelleted powder form of ZSM–5 and USY catalysts of similar Si/Al ratios. The structured catalyst films have been characterised using a range of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-onalloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550oC). The cracking of n–heptane over the pellets and structured catalysts for both ZSM–5 and Y zeolite showed very similar product selectivities for similar amounts of catalyst with an apparent activation energy of around 60 kJ mol-1. This paper demonstrates that structured catalysts can be manufactured with excellent zeolite adherence and when suitably activated/modified give comparable cracking results to the pelleted powder forms. These structured catalysts will improve temperature distribution in highly exothermic and endothermic catalysed processes.

Keywords: FeCrAlloy, Structured catalyst, and Zeolite Y, Zeolite ZSM-5.

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858 Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methanol over Copper-Zinc Oxide-Based Catalyst

Authors: S. F. H. Tasfy, N. A. M. Zabidi, M. S. Shaharun

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is highly thermochemical stable molecules where it is very difficult to activate the molecule and achieve higher catalytic conversion into alcohols or other hydrocarbon compounds. In this paper, series of the bimetallic Cu/ZnO-based catalyst supported by SBA-15 were systematically prepared via impregnation technique with different Cu: Zn ratio for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed desorption, reduction, oxidation and pulse chemisorption (TPDRO), and surface area determination was also performed. All catalysts were tested with respect to the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol in microactivity fixed-bed reactor at 250oC, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3. The results demonstrate that the catalytic structure, activity, and methanol selectivity was strongly affected by the ratio between Cu: Zn, Where higher catalytic activity of 14 % and methanol selectivity of 92 % was obtained over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst with Cu:Zn ratio of 7:3 wt. %. Comparing with the single catalyst, the synergetic between Cu and Zn provides additional active sites to adsorb more H2 and CO2 and accelerate the CO2 conversion, resulting in higher methanol production under mild reaction conditions.

Keywords: Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, methanol synthesis, Cu/ZnO-based catalyst, mesoporous silica (SBA-15), and metal ratio.

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857 Progressive Loading Effect of Co over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant

Abstract:

Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to COx free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, XRD, SEM, TEM and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity at 800oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature were obtained.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Cobalt, Hydrogen Production, Methane decomposition.

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856 Bioleaching of Spent Catalyst using Moderate Thermophiles with Different Pulp Densities and Varying Size Fractions without Fe Supplemented Growth Medium

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Chandra Sekhar Gahan, Dong-Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

Bioleaching of spent catalyst using moderate thermophilic chemolithotrophic acidophiles in growth medium without Fe source was investigated with two different pulp densities and three different size fractions. All the experiments were conducted on shake flasks at a temperature of 65 °C. The leaching yield of Ni and Al was found to be promising with very high leaching yield of 92-96% followed by Al as 41-76%, which means both Ni and Al leaching were favored by the moderate thermophilic bioleaching compared to the mesophilic bioleaching. The acid consumption was comparatively higher for the 10% pulp density experiments. Comparatively minimal difference in the leaching yield with different size fractions and different pulp densities show no requirement of grinding and using low pulp density less than 10%. This process would rather be economical as well as eco-friendly process for future optimization of the recovery of metal values from spent catalyst.

Keywords: Bioleaching, spent catalyst, leaching yield, thermophile.

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855 Phenolic-Based Chemical Production from Catalytic Depolymerization of Alkaline Lignin over Fumed Silica Catalyst

Authors: S. Totong, P. Daorattanachai, N. Laosiripojana

Abstract:

Lignin depolymerization into phenolic-based chemicals is an interesting process for utilizing and upgrading a benefit and value of lignin. In this study, the depolymerization reaction was performed to convert alkaline lignin into smaller molecule compounds. Fumed SiO₂ was used as a catalyst to improve catalytic activity in lignin decomposition. The important parameters in depolymerization process (i.e., reaction temperature, reaction time, etc.) were also investigated. In addition, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame-ironized detector (GC-FID), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze and characterize the lignin products. It was found that fumed SiO₂ catalyst led the good catalytic activity in lignin depolymerization. The main products from catalytic depolymerization were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, and phenols. Additionally, metal supported on fumed SiO₂ such as Cu/SiO₂ and Ni/SiO₂ increased the catalyst activity in terms of phenolic products yield.

Keywords: Alkaline lignin, catalytic, depolymerization, fumed SiO2, phenolic-based chemicals.

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854 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N. Khairudin, P. Jamal, M. Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

Abstract:

In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: Calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst.

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853 Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil using Heterogeneous Base Catalyst

Authors: Sirichai Chantara-arpornchai, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Samai Jai-In

Abstract:

In this study, the transesterification of palm oil with methanol for biodiesel production was studied by using CaO–ZnO as a heterogeneous base catalyst prepared by incipient-wetness impregnation (IWI) and co-precipitation (CP) methods. The reaction parameters considered were molar ratio of methanol to oil, amount of catalyst, reaction temperature, and reaction time. The optimum conditions–15:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, a catalyst amount of 6 wt%, reaction temperature of 60 °C, and reaction time of 8 h–were observed. The effects of Ca loading, calcination temperature, and catalyst preparation on the catalytic performance were studied. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by several techniques, including XRD, TPR, and XRF.

Keywords: CaO, ZnO, biodiesel, heterogeneous catalyst, trans-esterification.

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852 Investigation of Nickel as a Metal Substitute of Palladium Supported on HBeta Zeolite for Waste Tire Pyrolysis

Authors: Lalita Saeaeh, Sirirat Jitkarnka

Abstract:

Pyrolysis of waste tire is one of alternative technique to produce petrochemicals, such as light olefins, mixed C4, and monoaromatics. Noble metals supported on acid zeolite catalysts were reported as potential catalysts to produce the high valuable products from waste tire pyrolysis. Especially, Pd supported on HBeta gave a high yield of olefins, mixed C4, and mono-aromatics. Due to the high prices of noble metals, the objective of this work was to investigate whether or not a non-noble Ni metal can be used as a substitute of a noble metal, Pd, supported on HBeta as a catalyst for waste tire pyrolysis. Ni metal was selected in this work because Ni has high activity in cracking, isomerization, hydrogenation and the ring opening of hydrocarbons Moreover, Ni is an element in the same group as Pd noble metal, which is VIIIB group, aiming to produce high valuable products similarly obtained from Pd. The amount of Ni was varied as 5, 10, and 20% by weight, for comparison with a fixed 1 wt% Pd, using incipient wetness impregnation. The results showed that as a petrochemical-producing catalyst, 10%Ni/HBeta performed better than 1%Pd/HBeta because it did not only produce the highest yield of olefins and cooking gases, but the yields were also higher than 1%Pd/HBeta. 5%Ni/HBeta can be used as a substitute of 1%Pd/HBeta for similar crude production because its crude contains the similar amounts of naphtha and saturated HCs, although it gave no concentration of light mono-aromatics (C6-C11) in the oil. Additionally, 10%Ni/HBeta that gave high olefins and cooking gases was found to give a fairly high concentration of the light mono-aromatics in the oil.

Keywords: Catalytic pyrolysis; Waste tire; Pd; Ni; HBeta

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851 Influence of Various Factors on Stability of CoSPc in LPG Sweetening Process

Authors: Ali Samadi Afshar, Hamed Harrafi, S.M.Javad Gharib Zahedi

Abstract:

IFP Group Technology “Sulfrex process" was used in Iran-s South Pars Gas Complex Refineries for removing sulfur compounds such as mercaptans, carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen sulfide, which uses sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine dispersed in alkaline solution as catalyst. In this technology, catalyst and alkaline solution were used circularly. However the stability of catalyst due to effect of some parameters would reduce with the running of the unit and therefore sweetening efficiency would be decreased. Hence, the aim of this research is study the factors effecting on the stability of catalyst.

Keywords: sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine, mercaptans, stability, catalyst, sulfur.

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850 Preparation and Characterization of MoO3/Al2O3 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel using H2O2: Effect of Drying Method and Mo Loading

Authors: Azam Akbari, Mohammadreza Omidkhah, Jafar Toufighi Darian

Abstract:

The mesoporous MoO3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method aiming to investigate the effect of drying method and molybdenum content on the catalyst property and performance towards the oxidation of benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyle dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) with H2O2 for deep oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, BET, BJH and SEM method. The catalyst with 10wt.% and 15wt.% Mo content represent same optimum performance for DBT and 4,6-DMDBT removal, but a catalyst with 10wt.% Mo has higher efficiency than 15wt.% Mo for BT conversion. The SEM images show that use of rotary evaporator in drying step reaches a more homogenous impregnation. The oxidation reactivity of different sulfur compounds was studied which followed the order of DBT>4,6-DMDBT>>BT.

Keywords: desulfurization, oxidation, MoO3/Al2O3 catalyst

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849 Modeling of Catalyst Deactivation in Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Phenol in Fixed Bed Three-Phase Reactor

Authors: Akram Golestani, Mohammad Kazemeini, Farhad Khorasheh, Moslem Fattahi

Abstract:

Modeling and simulation of fixed bed three-phase catalytic reactors are considered for wet air catalytic oxidation of phenol to perform a comparative numerical analysis between tricklebed and packed-bubble column reactors. The modeling involves material balances both for the catalyst particle as well as for different fluid phases. Catalyst deactivation is also considered in a transient reactor model to investigate the effects of various parameters including reactor temperature on catalyst deactivation. The simulation results indicated that packed-bubble columns were slightly superior in performance than trickle beds. It was also found that reaction temperature was the most effective parameter in catalyst deactivation.

Keywords: Catalyst deactivation, Catalytic wet air oxidation, Trickle-bed, Wastewater.

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848 Preparation of Size Controlled Silver on Carbon from E-waste by Chemical and Electro-Kinetic Processes

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah

Abstract:

Preparation of size controlled nano-particles of silver catalyst on carbon substrate from e-waste has been investigated. Chemical route was developed by extraction of the metals available in nitric acid followed by treatment with hydrofluoric acid. Silver metal particles deposited with an average size 4-10 nm. A stabilizer concentration of 10- 40 g/l was used. The average size of the prepared silver decreased with increase of the anode current density. Size uniformity of the silver nano-particles was improved distinctly at higher current density no more than 20mA... Grain size increased with EK time whereby aggregation of particles was observed after 6 h of reaction.. The chemical method involves adsorption of silver nitrate on the carbon substrate. Adsorbed silver ions were directly reduced to metal particles using hydrazine hydrate. Another alternative method is by treatment with ammonia followed by heating the carbon loaded-silver hydroxide at 980°C. The product was characterized with the help of XRD, XRF, ICP, SEM and TEM techniques.

Keywords: e-waste, silver catalyst, metals recovery, electrokinetic process.

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847 Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in a Monolithic Reactor

Authors: S. Chauhan, T.P.K. Grewal, S.K. Aggarwal, V.K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Solution for the complete removal of carbon monoxide from the exhaust gases still poses a challenge to the researchers and this problem is still under development. Modeling for reduction of carbon monoxide is carried out using heterogeneous reaction using low cost non-noble metal based catalysts for the purpose of controlling emissions released to the atmosphere. A simple one-dimensional model was developed for the monolith using hopcalite catalyst. The converter is assumed to be an adiabatic monolith operating under warm-up conditions. The effect of inlet gas temperatures and catalyst loading on carbon monoxide reduction during cold start period in the converter is analysed.

Keywords: carbon monoxide, catalytic, modeling, monolith

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846 Used Frying Oil for Biodiesel Production Over Kaolinite as Catalyst

Authors: Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz, Jorge Medina-Valtierra, Merced Martínez Rosales

Abstract:

Biodiesel production with used frying by transesterification reaction with methanol, using a commercial kaolinite thermally-activated solid acid catalyst was investigated. The surface area, the average pore diameter and pore volume of the kaolinite catalyst were 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm and 30 mm3/g, respectively. The optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were determined to be oil/methanol, in a molar ratio 1:31, temperature 160 ºC and catalyst concentration of 3% (w/w). The yield of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) was 92.4% after 2 h of reaction. This method of preparation of biodiesel can be a positive alternative for utilizing used frying corn oil for feedstock of biodiesel combined with the inexpensive catalyst.

Keywords: Biodiesel, frying corn oil, kaolinite, transesterification

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845 Palladium-Catalyzed Hydrodechlorination for Water Remediation: Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration

Authors: Dalia Angeles-Wedler, Katrin Mackenzie, Frank-Dieter Kopinke

Abstract:

Palladium-catalyzed hydrodechlorination is a promising alternative for the treatment of environmentally relevant water bodies, such as groundwater, contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds (COCs). In the aqueous phase hydrodechlorination of COCs, Pd-based catalysts were found to have a very high catalytic activity. However, the full utilization of the catalyst-s potential is impeded by the sensitivity of the catalyst to poisoning and deactivation induced by reduced sulfur compounds (e.g. sulfides). Several regenerants have been tested before to recover the performance of sulfide-fouled Pd catalyst. But these only delivered partial success with respect to re-establishment of the catalyst activity. In this study, the deactivation behaviour of Pd/Al2O3 in the presence of sulfide was investigated. Subsequent to total deactivation the catalyst was regenerated in the aqueous phase using potassium permanganate. Under neutral pH condition, oxidative regeneration with permanganate delivered a slow recovery of catalyst activity. However, changing the pH of the bulk solution to acidic resulted in the complete recovery of catalyst activity within a regeneration time of about half an hour. These findings suggest the superiority of permanganate as regenerant in re-activating Pd/Al2O3 by oxidizing Pd-bound sulfide.

Keywords: Deactivation, hydrodechlorination, Pd catalyst, regeneration.

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844 Porous Carbon Nanoparticles Co-Doped with Nitrogen and Iron as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Authors: Bita Bayatsarmadi, Shi-Zhang Qiao

Abstract:

Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) performance of iron and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon nanoparticles (Fe-NPC) with various physical and (electro) chemical properties have been investigated. Fe-NPC nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile soft-templating procedure by using Iron (III) chloride hexa-hydrate as iron precursor and aminophenol-formaldehyde resin as both carbon and nitrogen precursor. Fe-NPC nanoparticles shows high surface area (443.83 m2g-1), high pore volume (0.52 m3g-1), narrow mesopore size distribution (ca. 3.8 nm), high conductivity (IG/ID=1.04), high kinetic limiting current (11.71 mAcm-2) and more positive onset potential (-0.106 V) compared to metal-free NPC nanoparticles (-0.295V) which make it high efficient ORR metal-free catalysts in alkaline solution. This study may pave the way of feasibly designing iron and nitrogen containing carbon materials (Fe-N-C) for highly efficient oxygen reduction electro-catalysis.

Keywords: Electro-catalyst, mesopore structure, oxygen reduction reaction, soft-template.

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843 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts

Authors: T. Maruyama, T. Saida, S. Naritsuka, S. Iijima

Abstract:

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, Pt, Rh, Pd.

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842 Microwave Assisted Solvent-Free Catalytic Transesterification of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate

Authors: Wai Keng Teng, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Rozita Yusoff, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Joe Shen Heng

Abstract:

As a by-product of the biodiesel industries, glycerol has been vastly generated which surpasses the market demand. It is imperative to develop an efficient glycerol valorization processes in minimizing the net energy requirement and intensifying the biodiesel production. In this study, base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate using microwave irradiation as heating method to produce glycerol carbonate was conducted by varying grades of glycerol, i.e. 70%, 86% and 99% purity, that is obtained from biodiesel plant. Metal oxide catalysts were used with varying operating parameters including reaction time, DMC/glycerol molar ratio, catalyst weight %, temperature and stirring speed. From the study on the effect of different operating parameters it was found that the type of catalyst used has the most significant effect on the transesterification reaction. Amidst the metal oxide catalysts examined, CaO gave the best performance. This study indicates the feasibility of producing glycerol carbonate using different grade of glycerol in both conventional thermal activation and microwave irradiation with CaO as catalyst. Microwave assisted transesterification (MAT) of glycerol into glycerol carbonate has demonstrated itself as an energy efficient route by achieving 94.2% yield of GC at 65°C, 5 minutes reaction time, 1 wt% CaO and DMC/glycerol molar ratio of 2. The advantages of MAT transesterification route has made the direct utilization of bioglycerol from biodiesel production without the need of purification. This has marked a more economical and less-energy intensive glycerol carbonate synthesis route.

Keywords: Biodiesel, glycerol, glycerol carbonate, microwave irradiation.

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841 Effect of Catalyst Preparation on the Performance of CaO-ZnO Catalysts for Transesterification

Authors: Pathravut Klinklom, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Samai Jai-In

Abstract:

In this research, CaO-ZnO catalysts (with various Ca:Zn atomic ratios of 1:5, 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1) prepared by incipientwetness impregnation (IWI) and co-precipitation (CP) methods were used as a catalyst in the transesterification of palm oil with methanol for biodiesel production. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques, including BET method, CO2-TPD, and Hemmett Indicator. The effects of precursor concentration, and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were studied under reaction conditions of a 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 6 wt% catalyst, reaction temperature of 60°C, and reaction time of 8 h. At Ca:Zn atomic ratio of 1:3 gave the highest FAME value owing to a basic properties and surface area of the prepared catalyst.

Keywords: CaO, ZnO, Biodiesel, Impregnation, Coprecipitation.

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840 Deactivation of Cu - Cr/γ-alumina Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Dimitar Dimitrov, Boyan Boyanov

Abstract:

The paper relates to a catalyst, comprising copperchromium spinel, coated on carrier γ-Al2O3. The effect of preparation conditions on the active component composition and activity behavior of the catalysts is discussed. It was found that the activity of carbon monoxide, DME, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation reaches a maximum at an active component content of 20 – 30 wt. %. Temperature calcination at 500oC seems to be optimal for the γ– alumina supported CuO-Cr2O3 catalysts for CO, DME, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation. A three months industrial experiment was carried out to elucidate the changes in the catalyst composition during industrial exploitation of the catalyst and the main reasons for catalyst deactivation. It was concluded that the CuO–Cr2O3/γ–alumina supported catalysts have enhanced activity toward CO, DME, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation and that these catalysts are suitable for industrial application. The main reason for catalyst deactivation seems to be the deposition of iron and molybdenum, coming from the main reactor, on the active component surface.

Keywords: catalyst deactivation, CuO-Cr2O3 catalysts, deep oxidation.

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839 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, gadolinium, carbon number distributions.

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838 Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Crude Palm Oil Using Alumina-Doped Sulfated Tin Oxide as a Catalyst

Authors: Worawoot Prasitturattanachai, Kamchai Nuithitikul

Abstract:

The conventional production of biodiesel from crude palm oil which contains large amounts of free fatty acids in the presence of a homogeneous base catalyst confronts the problems of soap formation and very low yield of biodiesel. To overcome these problems, free fatty acids must be esterified to their esters in the presence of an acid catalyst prior to alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. Sulfated metal oxides are a promising group of catalysts due to their very high acidity. In this research, aluminadoped sulfated tin oxide (SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2) catalysts were prepared and used for esterification of free fatty acids in crude palm oil in a batch reactor. The SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts were prepared from different Al precursors. The results showed that different Al precursors gave different activities of the SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts. The esterification of free fatty acids in crude palm oil with methanol in the presence of SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts followed first-order kinetics.

Keywords: Methyl ester, Biodiesel, Esterification, Sulfated tin oxide, Fatty acid.

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