Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 367

Search results for: Circular polarization

367 A Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna with Polyphase Filter for Polarization Diversity and Cross Polarization Filtering Operation

Authors: Lakhdar Zaid, Albane Sangiovanni

Abstract:

A reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna with polyphase filter for polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation is presented in this paper. In our approach, a polyphase filter is used to obtain the four 90° phase shift outputs to feed a square microstrip patch antenna. The antenna can be switched between four states of polarization in transmission as well as in receiving mode. Switches are interconnected with the polyphase filter network to produce left-hand circular polarization, right-hand circular polarization, horizontal linear polarization, and vertical linear polarization. Additional advantage of using polyphase filter is its filtering capability for cross polarization filtering in right-hand circular polarization and left-hand circular polarization operation. The theoretical and simulated results demonstrated that polyphase filter is a good candidate to drive microstrip patch antenna to accomplish polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation.

Keywords: Microstrip patch antenna, polyphase filter, circular polarization, linear polarization, reconfigurable antenna.

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366 Single Feed Circularly Polarized Poly Fractal Antenna for Wireless Applications

Authors: V. V. Reddy, N. V. S. N. Sarma

Abstract:

A circularly polarized fractal boundary microstrip antenna is presented. The sides of a square patch along x- axis, yaxis are replaced with Minkowski and Koch curves correspondingly. By using the fractal curves as edges, asymmetry in the structure is created to excite two orthogonal modes for circular polarization (CP) operation. The indentation factors of the fractal curves are optimized for pure CP. The simulated results of the novel polyfractal antenna are demonstrated.

Keywords: Circular polarization, Fractal, Koch, Minkowski.

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365 Performance Evaluation of a Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antenna Using Circularly Polarized Elements

Authors: Rawad Asfour, Salam Khamas, Edward A. Ball

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the design of an mm-wave phased array. To date, linear polarization is adapted in the reported designs of phased arrays. However, linear polarization faces several well-known challenges. As such, an advanced design for phased array antennas is required that offers circularly polarized (CP) radiation. A feasible solution for achieving CP phased array antennas is proposed using open-circular loop antennas. To this end, a 3-element circular loop phased array antenna is designed to operate at 28 GHz. In addition, the array ability to control the direction of the main lobe is investigated. The results show that the highest achievable field of view (FOV) is 100°, i.e. 50° to the left and 50° to the right-hand side directions. The results are achieved with a CP bandwidth of 15%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a high broadside gain of circa 11 dBi can be achieved for the steered beam. Besides, radiation efficiency of 97% can also be achieved based on the proposed design.

Keywords: loop antenna, phased array, beam steering, wide bandwidth, circular polarization, CST

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364 Simulation and Design of Single Fed Circularly Polarized Triangular Microstrip Antenna with Wide Band Tuning Stub

Authors: R. Irani, A. Ghavidel, F. Hodjat Kashani

Abstract:

Recently, several designs of single fed circularly polarized microstrip antennas have been studied. Relatively, a few designs for achieving circular polarization using triangular microstrip antenna are available. Typically existing design of single fed circularly polarized triangular microstrip antennas include the use of equilateral triangular patch with a slit or a horizontal slot on the patch or addition a narrow band stub on the edge or a vertex of triangular patch. In other word, with using a narrow band tune stub on middle of an edge of triangle causes of facility to compensate the possible fabrication error and substrate materials with easier adjusting the tuner stub length. Even though disadvantages of this method is very long of stub (approximate 1/3 length of triangle edge). In this paper, instead of narrow band stub, a wide band stub has been applied, therefore the length of stub by this method has been decreased around 1/10 edge of triangle in addition changing the aperture angle of stub, provides more facility for designing and producing circular polarization wave.

Keywords: Circular polarization, Microstrip antenna, single feed, wide band stub.

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363 Dual-Polarized Multi-Antenna System for Massive MIMO Cellular Communications

Authors: Naser Ojaroudi Parchin, Haleh Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Raed A. Abd-Alhameed, Peter S. Excell

Abstract:

In this paper, a multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) antenna design with polarization and radiation pattern diversity is presented for future smartphones. The configuration of the design consists of four double-fed circular-ring antenna elements located at different edges of the printed circuit board (PCB) with an FR-4 substrate and overall dimension of 75×150 mm2. The antenna elements are fed by 50-Ohm microstrip-lines and provide polarization and radiation pattern diversity function due to the orthogonal placement of their feed lines. A good impedance bandwidth (S11 ≤ -10 dB) of 3.4-3.8 GHz has been obtained for the smartphone antenna array. However, for S11 ≤ -6 dB, this value is 3.25-3.95 GHz. More than 3 dB realized gain and 80% total efficiency are achieved for the single-element radiator. The presented design not only provides the required radiation coverage but also generates the polarization diversity characteristic.

Keywords: Cellular communications, MIMO systems, mobile-phone antenna, polarization diversity.

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362 Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Compact Short Backfire Antenna

Authors: M. Javid Asad, M. Zafrullah, Mian Shahzad Iqbal

Abstract:

In this research paper, a slotted coaxial line fed cross dipole excitation structure for short backfire antenna is proposed and developed to achieve reconfigurable circular polarization. The cross dipole, which is fed by the slotted coaxial line, consists of two orthogonal dipoles. The dipoles are mounted on the outer conductor of the coaxial line. A unique technique is developed to generate reconfigurable circular polarization using cross dipole configuration. The sub-reflector is supported by the feed line, thus requiring no extra support. The antenna is developed on elliptical ground plane with dielectric rim making antenna compact. It is demonstrated that cross dipole excited short backfire antenna can achieve voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) bandwidth of 14.28% for 2:1 VSWR, axial ratio of 0.2 dB with axial ratio (≤ 3dB) bandwidth of 2.14% and a gain of more than 12 dBi. The experimental results for the designed antenna structure are in close agreement with computer simulations.

Keywords: Circularly polarized, compact, short backfireantenna.

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361 Internal Surface Measurement of Nanoparticle with Polarization-interferometric Nonlinear Confocal Microscope

Authors: Chikara Egami, Kazuhiro Kuwahara

Abstract:

Polarization-interferometric nonlinear confocal microscopy is proposed for measuring a nano-sized particle with optical anisotropy. The anisotropy in the particle was spectroscopically imaged through a three-dimensional distribution of third-order nonlinear dielectric polarization photoinduced.

Keywords: nanoparticle, optical storage, microscope

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360 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring.

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359 Teaching Light Polarization by Putting Art and Physics Together

Authors: Fabrizio Logiurato

Abstract:

Light Polarization has many technological applications, and its discovery was crucial to reveal the transverse nature of the electromagnetic waves. However, despite its fundamental and practical importance, in high school, this property of light is often neglected. This is a pity not only for its conceptual relevance, but also because polarization gives the possibility to perform many brilliant experiments with low cost materials. Moreover, the treatment of this matter lends very well to an interdisciplinary approach between art, biology and technology, which usually makes things more interesting to students. For these reasons, we have developed, and in this work, we introduce a laboratory on light polarization for high school and undergraduate students. They can see beautiful pictures when birefringent materials are set between two crossed polarizing filters. Pupils are very fascinated and drawn into by what they observe. The colourful images remind them of those ones of abstract painting or alien landscapes. With this multidisciplinary teaching method, students are more engaged and participative, and also, the learning process of the respective physics concepts is more effective.

Keywords: Light polarization, optical activity, multidisciplinary education, science and art.

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358 Limitation Imposed by Polarization-Dependent Loss on a Fiber Optic Communication System

Authors: Farhan Hussain, M.S.Islam

Abstract:

Analytically the effect of polarization dependent loss on a high speed fiber optic communication link has been investigated. PDL and the signal's incoming state of polarization (SOP) have a significant co-relation between them and their various combinations produces different effects on the system behavior which has been inspected. Pauli's spin operator and PDL parameters are combined together to observe the attenuation effect induced by PDL in a link containing multiple PDL elements. It is found that in the presence of PDL the Q-factor and BER at the receiver undergoes fluctuation causing the system to be unstable and results show that it is mainly due to optical-signal-to-parallel-noise ratio (OSNItpar) that these parameters fluctuate. Generally the Q-factor, BER deteriorates as the value of average PDL in the link increases except for depolarized light for which the system parameters improves when PDL increases.

Keywords: Bit Error Rate (BER), Optical-signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), Polarization-dependent loss (PDL), State of polarization (SOP).

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357 Circular Patch Microstrip Array Antenna for KU-band

Authors: T.F.Lai, Wan Nor Liza Mahadi, Norhayati Soin

Abstract:

This paper present a circular patch microstrip array antenna operate in KU-band (10.9GHz – 17.25GHz). The proposed circular patch array antenna will be in light weight, flexible, slim and compact unit compare with current antenna used in KU-band. The paper also presents the detail steps of designing the circular patch microstrip array antenna. An Advance Design System (ADS) software is used to compute the gain, power, radiation pattern, and S11 of the antenna. The proposed Circular patch microstrip array antenna basically is a phased array consisting of 'n' elements (circular patch antennas) arranged in a rectangular grid. The size of each element is determined by the operating frequency. The incident wave from satellite arrives at the plane of the antenna with equal phase across the surface of the array. Each 'n' element receives a small amount of power in phase with the others. There are feed network connects each element to the microstrip lines with an equal length, thus the signals reaching the circular patches are all combined in phase and the voltages add up. The significant difference of the circular patch array antenna is not come in the phase across the surface but in the magnitude distribution.

Keywords: Circular patch microstrip array antenna, gain, radiation pattern, S-Parameter.

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356 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, MahaLakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao

Abstract:

A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: Absorber, C-band, meta material, multilayer, X-band.

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355 Polarization Modulation by free-Standing Asymmetric Hole Arrays

Authors: Hong-Wen Hsieh, Shun-Tung Yen

Abstract:

We theoretically demonstrate modulation of light polarization by a crossed rectangular hole array with asymmetric arm lengths. There are two waveguide modes that can modulate the x- and y- polarized incident waves independently. A specific structure is proposed to convert a left-hand incident wave to a right-hand outgoing wave by transmission.

Keywords: Crossed rectangular hole array, extraordinary optical transmission, polarization modulation.

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354 Piezoelectric Polarization Effect on Debye Frequency and Temperature in Nitride Wurtzites

Authors: Bijay Kumar Sahoo, Ashok Kumar Srivastav

Abstract:

We have investigated the effect of piezoelectric (PZ) polarization property in binary as well as in ternary wurtzite nitrides. It is found that with the presence of PZ polarization property, the phonon group velocity is modified. The change in phonon group velocity due to PZ polarization effect directly depends on piezoelectric tensor value. Using different piezoelectric tensor values recommended by different workers in the literature, percent change in group velocities of phonons has been estimated. The Debye temperatures and frequencies of binary nitrides GaN, AlN and InN are also calculated using the modified group velocities. For ternary nitrides AlxGa(1-x)N, InxGa(1-x)N and InxAl(1-x)N, the phonon group velocities have been calculated as a functions of composition. A small positive bowing is observed in phonon group velocities of ternary alloys. Percent variations in phonon group velocities are also calculated for a straightforward comparison among ternary nitrides. The results are expected to show a change in phonon relaxation rates and thermal conductivity of III-nitrides when piezoelectric polarization property is taken into consideration.

Keywords: Wirtzite nitrides, piezoelectric polarization, Phonon group velocity, Debye frequency and Debye temperature.

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353 Out-of-Plane Free Vibrations of Circular Rods

Authors: Faruk Fırat Çalım, Nurullah Karaca, Hakan Tacettin Türker

Abstract:

In this study, out-of-plane free vibrations of a circular rods is investigated theoretically. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods are obtained using Timoshenko beam theory and rewritten for circular rods. Effects of the axial and shear deformations are considered in the formulations. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form are solved analytically by using transfer matrix method. The circular rods of the mass matrix are obtained by using straight rod of consistent mass matrix. Free vibrations frequencies obtained by solving eigenvalue problem. A computer program coded in MATHEMATICA language is prepared. Circular beams are analyzed through various examples for free vibrations analysis. Results are compared with ANSYS results based on finite element method and available in the literature.

Keywords: Circular rod, Out-of-plane free vibration analysis, Transfer Matrix Method.

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352 Limit Analysis of FGM Circular Plates Subjected to Arbitrary Rotational Symmetric Loads

Authors: Kargarnovin M.H., Faghidian S. A, Arghavani J.

Abstract:

The limit load carrying capacity of functionally graded materials (FGM) circular plates subjected to an arbitrary rotationally symmetric loading has been computed. It is provided that the plate material behaves rigid perfectly plastic and obeys either the Square or the Tresca yield criterion. To this end the upper and lower bound principles of limit analysis are employed to determine the exact value for the limiting load. The correctness of the result are verified and finally limiting loads for two examples namely; through radius and through thickness FGM circular plates with simply supported edges are calculated, respectively and moreover, the values of critical loading factor are determined.

Keywords: Circular plate, FGM circular plate, Limit analysis, Lower and Upper bound theorems.

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351 Statistical Description in the Turbulent Near Wake of a Rotating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Sharul S. Dol, U. Azimov, Robert J. Martinuzzi

Abstract:

Turbulence studies were made in the wake of a rotating circular cylinder in a uniform free stream. The interest was to examine the turbulence properties at the suppression of periodicity in vortex formation process. An experimental study of the turbulent near wake of a rotating circular cylinder was made at a Reynolds number of 9000 for velocity ratios, λ between 0 and 2.7. Hot-wire anemometry and particle image velocimetry results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant changes in the vortical activities. The turbulence quantities are getting smaller as λ increases due to suppression of coherent vortex structures.

Keywords: Rotating circular cylinder, Reynolds stress, vortex.

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350 Territories' Challenges and Opportunities to Promote Circular Economy in the Building Sector

Authors: R. Tirado, G. Habert, A. Mailhac, S. Laurenceau

Abstract:

The rapid development of cities implies significant material inflows and outflows. The construction sector is one of the main consumers of raw materials and producers of waste. The waste from the building sector, for its quantity and potential for recovery, constitutes significant deposits requiring major efforts, by combining different actors, to achieve the circular economy's objectives. It is necessary to understand and know the current construction actors' knowledge of stocks, urban metabolism, deposits, and recovery practices in this context. This article aims to explore the role of local governments in planning strategies by facilitating a circular economy. In particular, the principal opportunities and challenges of communities for applying the principles of the circular economy in the building sector will be identified. The approach used for the study was to conduct semi-structured interviews with those responsible for circular economy projects within local administrations of some communities in France. The results show territories' involvement in the inclusion and application of the principles of the circular economy in the building sector. The main challenges encountered are numerous, hence the importance of having identified and described them so that the different actors can work to meet them.

Keywords: Building stock, circular economy, interview, local authorities.

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349 Mechanism of Dual Ferroic Properties Formation in Substituted M-Type Hexaferrites

Authors: A. V. Trukhanov, S. V. Trukhanov, L. V. Panina, V. G. Kostishin, V. A. Turchenko

Abstract:

It has been shown that BaFe12O19 is a perspective room-temperature multiferroic material. A large spontaneous polarization was observed for the BaFe12O19 ceramics revealing a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The maximum polarization was estimated to be approximately 11.8 μC/cm2. The FeO6 octahedron in its perovskite-like hexagonal unit cell and the shift of Fe3+ off the center of octahedron are suggested to be the origin of the polarization in BaFe12O19. The magnetic field induced electric polarization has been also observed in the doped BaFe12-x-δScxMδO19 (δ=0.05) at 10 K and in the BaScxFe12−xO19 and SrScxFe12−xO19 (x = 1.3–1.7) M-type hexaferrites. The investigated BaFe12-xDxO19 (x=0.1, D-Al3+, In3+) samples have been obtained by two-step “topotactic” reactions. The powder neutron investigations of the samples were performed by neutron time of flight method at High Resolution Fourier Diffractometer.

Keywords: Substituted hexaferrites, ferrimagnetics, ferroelectrics, neutron powder diffraction, crystal and magnetic structures.

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348 Experimental Measurements of Mean and Turbulence Quantities behind the Circular Cylinder by Attaching Different Number of Tripping Wires

Authors: Amir Bak Khoshnevis, Mahdieh Khodadadi, Aghil Lotfi

Abstract:

For a bluff body, roughness elements in simulating a turbulent boundary layer, leading to delayed flow separation, a smaller wake, and lower form drag. In the present work, flow past a circular cylinder with using tripping wires is studied experimentally. The wind tunnel used for modeling free stream is open blow circuit (maximum speed = 30m/s and maximum turbulence of free stream = 0.1%). The selected Reynolds number for all tests was constant (Re = 25000). The circular cylinder selected for this experiment is 20 and 400mm in diameter and length, respectively. The aim of this research is to find the optimal operation mode. In this study installed some tripping wires 1mm in diameter, with a different number of wires on the circular cylinder and the wake characteristics of the circular cylinder is studied. Results showed that by increasing number of tripping wires attached to the circular cylinder (6, 8, and 10, respectively), The optimal angle for the tripping wires with 1mm in diameter to be installed on the cylinder is 60̊ (or 6 wires required at angle difference of 60̊). Strouhal number for the cylinder with tripping wires 1mm in diameter at angular position 60̊ showed the maximum value.

Keywords: Wake of a circular cylinder, trip wire, velocity defect, Strouhal number.

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347 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Authors: Maria Hussin, Malik Zawwar Hussain, Mubashrah Saddiqa

Abstract:

We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques.

Keywords: Control points, rational trigonometric Bézier curves, radius error, shape measure, weight functions.

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346 Effect of Electric Field Amplitude on Electrical Fatigue Behavior of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramic

Authors: S. Kampoosiri, S. Pojprapai, R. Yimnirunand, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

Fatigue behaviors of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics under different amplitude of bipolar electrical loads have been investigated. Fatigue behavior is represented by the change of hysteresis loops and remnant polarization. Three levels of electrical load amplitudes (1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 kV /mm) were applied in this experimental. It was found that the remnant polarization decreased significantly with the number of loading cycles. The degree of fatigue degradation depends on the amplitude of electric field. The higher amplitude exhibits the greater fatigue degradation.

Keywords: Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT), hysteresis loop, Sawyer-Tower circuit, fatigue, polarization.

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345 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma

Abstract:

The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: Automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources.

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344 Electromagnetic Flow Meter Efficiency

Authors: Andrey D. Andreev, Ilona I. Iatcheva, Dimitar N. Karastoyanov, Rumena D. Stancheva

Abstract:

A study of electromagnetic flow meter is presented in the paper. Comparison has been made between the analytical and the numerical results by the use of FEM numerical analysis (Quick Field 5.6) for determining polarization voltage through the circle cross section of the polarization transducer. Exciting and geometrical parameters increasing its effectiveness has been examined. The aim is to obtain maximal output signal. The investigations include different variants of the magnetic flux density distribution around the tube: homogeneous field of magnitude Bm, linear distribution with maximal value Bm and trapezium distribution conserving the same exciting magnetic energy as the homogeneous field.

Keywords: Effectiveness, electromagnetic flow meter, finite element method, polarization voltage.

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343 New Method for Determining the Distribution of Birefringence and Linear Dichroism in Polymer Materials Based On Polarization-Holographic Grating

Authors: Barbara Kilosanidze, George Kakauridze, Levan Nadareishvili, Yuri Mshvenieradze

Abstract:

A new method for determining the distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism in optical polymer materials is presented. The method is based on the use of polarizationholographic diffraction grating that forms an orthogonal circular basis in the process of diffraction of probing laser beam on the grating. The intensities ratio of the orders of diffraction on this grating enables the value of birefringence and linear dichroism in the sample to be determined. The distribution of birefringence in the sample is determined by scanning with a circularly polarized beam with a wavelength far from the absorption band of the material. If the scanning is carried out by probing beam with the wavelength near to a maximum of the absorption band of the chromophore then the distribution of linear dichroism can be determined. An appropriate theoretical model of this method is presented. A laboratory setup was created for the proposed method. An optical scheme of the laboratory setup is presented. The results of measurement in polymer films with two-dimensional gradient distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism are discussed.

Keywords: Birefringence, graded oriented polymers, linear dichroism, optical polymers, optical anisotropy, polarization-holographic grating,

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342 Development of Low-Profile Antenna for Mini UAV with Reconnaissance Mission

Authors: Chien-Chun Hung, Yao-Jen Teng, Yung-Sheng Tien, Yu-Tsung Tsai

Abstract:

Microstrip antennas are conformable to planar and nonplanar surfaces, simple and inexpensive to fabricate using modern printed-circuit technology. Circular polarization of low-profile microstrip patch with high bandwidth is achieved in this research through the use of a three-cross-arms branch-line coupler with sequential rotated arrays, another low-profile antenna of hollow cylinder is also proposed and the function of reconnaissance with microstrip antenna on Mini UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are evaluated in practical flight test.

Keywords: low-profile antenna, Mini UAV, reconnaissance

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341 Comparative Study of Dynamic Effect on Analysis Approaches for Circular Tanks Using Codal Provisions

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Aishwarya Alok, P. R. Maiti

Abstract:

Liquid storage tanks have become widespread during the recent decades due to their extensive usage. Analysis of liquid containing tanks is known to be complex due to hydrodynamic force exerted on tank which makes the analysis a complex one. The objective of this research is to carry out analysis of liquid domain along with structural interaction for various geometries of circular tanks considering seismic effects. An attempt has been made to determine hydrodynamic pressure distribution on the tank wall considering impulsive and convective components of liquid mass. To get a better picture, a comparative study of Draft IS 1893 Part 2, ACI 350.3 and Eurocode 8 for Circular Shaped Tank has been performed. Further, the differences in the magnitude of shear and moment at base as obtained from static (IS 3370 IV) and dynamic (Draft IS 1892 Part 2) analysis of ground supported circular tank highlight the need for us to mature from the old code to a newer code, which is more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: Liquid filled containers, Circular Tanks, IS 1893 (Part 2), Seismic analysis, Sloshing.

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340 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

Authors: Gopi Ram, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

Abstract:

A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords: Circular arrays, First null beam width, Side lobe level, FFA.

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339 Analyzing the Potential of Job Creation by Taking the First Step Towards Circular Economy: Case Study of Brazil

Authors: R. Conde

Abstract:

The Brazilian economic projections and social indicators show a future of crisis for the country. Solutions to avoid this crisis scenario are necessary. Several developed countries implement initiatives linked to sustainability, mainly related to the circular economy, to solve their crises quickly - green recovery. This article aims to assess social gains if Brazil followed the same recovery strategy. Furthermore, with the use of data presented and recognized in the international academic society, the number of jobs that can be created, if Brazil took the first steps towards a more circular economy, was found. Moreover, in addition to the gross value in the number of jobs created, this article also detailed the number of these jobs by type of activity (collection, processing, and manufacturing) and by type of material.

Keywords: Circular economy, green recovery, job creation, social gains.

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338 The Effects of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Corrosion Behavior of Heat Treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy

Authors: A. Hossain, M. A. Gafur, F. Gulshan, A. S. W. Kurny

Abstract:

Al-Si-Mg-Ni(-Cu) alloys are widely used in the automotive industry. They have the advantage of low weight associated with low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent mechanical properties – mainly at high temperatures. The corrosion resistance of these alloys in coastal area, particularly sea water, however is not yet known. In this investigation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization have been used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys in simulated sea water environments. The potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that 2 wt% Cu content alloy (Alloy-2) is more prone to corrosion than the Cu free alloy (Alloy-1). But the EIS test results showed that corrosion resistance or charge transfer resistance (Rct) increases with the addition of Cu. Due to addition of Cu and thermal treatment, the magnitude of open circuit potential (OCP), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and pitting corrosion potential (Epit) of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy in NaCl solution were shifted to the more noble direction.

Keywords: Al-Si alloy, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, SEM.

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