Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: Bolt

81 A Unification and Relativistic Correction for Boltzmann’s Law

Authors: Lloyd G. Allred

Abstract:

The distribution of velocities of particles in plasma is a well understood discipline of plasma physics. Boltzmann’s law and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describe the distribution of velocity of a particle in plasma as a function of mass and temperature. Particles with the same mass tend to have the same velocity. By expressing the same law in terms of energy alone, the author obtains a distribution independent of mass. In summary, for particles in plasma, the energies tend to equalize, independent of the masses of the individual particles. For high-energy plasma, the original law predicts velocities greater than the speed of light. If one uses Einstein’s formula for energy (E=mc2), then a relativistic correction is not required.

Keywords: Plasma Physics, Cosmology, Relativity, EMP, Euclidean

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80 Development of Equivalent Inelastic Springs to Model C-Devices

Authors: Oday Al-Mamoori, J. Enrique Martinez-Rueda

Abstract:

'C' shape yielding devices (C-devices) are effective tools for introducing supplemental sources of energy dissipation by hysteresis. Studies have shown that C-devices made of mild steel can be successfully applied as integral parts of seismic retrofitting schemes. However, explicit modelling of these devices can become cumbersome, expensive and time consuming. The device under study in this article has been previously used in non-invasive dissipative bracing for seismic retrofitting. The device is cut from a mild steel plate and has an overall shape that resembles that of a rectangular portal frame with circular interior corner transitions to avoid stress concentration and to control the extension of the dissipative region of the device. A number of inelastic finite element (FE) analyses using either inelastic 2D plane stress elements or inelastic fibre frame elements are reported and used to calibrate a 1D equivalent inelastic spring model that effectively reproduces the cyclic response of the device. The more elaborate FE model accounts for the frictional forces developed between the steel plate and the bolts used to connect the C-device to structural members. FE results also allow the visualization of the inelastic regions of the device where energy dissipation is expected to occur. FE analysis results are in a good agreement with experimental observations.

Keywords: C-device, equivalent nonlinear spring, FE analyses, reversed cyclic tests

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79 Compressible Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Jet Flow Simulations

Authors: K. Noah, F.-S. Lien

Abstract:

In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.

Keywords: large eddy simulation, turbulent jet flows, Compressible lattice Boltzmann metho-

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78 Numerical Investigation for External Strengthening of Dapped-End Beams

Authors: A. Abdel-Moniem, H. Madkour, K. Farah, A. Abdullah

Abstract:

The reduction in dapped end beams depth nearby the supports tends to produce stress concentration and hence results in shear cracks, if it does not have an adequate reinforcement detailing. This study investigates numerically the efficiency of applying different external strengthening techniques to the dapped end of such beams. A two-dimensional finite element model was built to predict the structural behavior of dapped ends strengthened with different techniques. The techniques included external bonding of the steel angle at the re-entrant corner, un-bounded bolt anchoring, external steel plate jacketing, exterior carbon fiber wrapping and/or stripping and external inclined steel plates. The FE analysis results are then presented in terms of the ultimate load capacities, load-deflection and crack pattern at failure. The results showed that the FE model, at various stages, was found to be comparable to the available test data. Moreover, it enabled the capture of the failure progress, with acceptable accuracy, which is very difficult in a laboratory test.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Strengthening Techniques, finite element, shear failure, numerical investigation, dapped-end beams

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77 Study on the Effect of Bolt Locking Method on the Deformation of Bipolar Plate in PEMFC

Authors: Tao Chen, ShiHua Liu, JiWei Zhang

Abstract:

Assembly of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has a very important influence on its performance and efficiency. The various components of PEMFC stack are usually locked and fixed by bolts. Locking bolt will cause the deformation of the bipolar plate and the other components, which will affect directly the deformation degree of the integral parts of the PEMFC as well as the performance of PEMFC. This paper focuses on the object of three-cell stack of PEMFC. Finite element simulation is used to investigate the deformation of bipolar plate caused by quantity and layout of bolts, bolt locking pressure, and bolt locking sequence, etc. Finally, we made a conclusion that the optimal combination packaging scheme was adopted to assemble the fuel cell stack. The scheme was in use of 3.8 MPa locking pressure imposed on the fuel cell stack, type Ⅱ of four locking bolts and longitudinal locking method. The scheme was obtained by comparatively analyzing the overall displacement contour of PEMFC stack, absolute displacement curve of bipolar plate along the given three paths in the Z direction and the polarization curve of fuel cell. The research results are helpful for the fuel cell stack assembly.

Keywords: deformation, Fuel Cell, finite element simulation, bipolar plate, locking bolt

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76 A Method of Drilling a Ground Using a Robotic Arm

Authors: Lotfi Beji, Laredj Benchikh

Abstract:

Underground tunnel face bolting and pipe umbrella reinforcement are one of the most challenging tasks in construction whether industrial or not, and infrastructures such as roads or pipelines. It is one of the first sectors of economic activity in the world. Through a variety of soil and rock, a cyclic Conventional Tunneling Method (CTM) remains the best one for projects with highly variable ground conditions or shapes. CTM is the only alternative for the renovation of existing tunnels and creating emergency exit. During the drilling process, a wide variety of non-desired vibrations may arise, and a method using a robot arm is proposed. The main kinds of drilling through vibration here is the bit-bouncing phenomenon (resonant axial vibration). Hence, assisting the task by a robot arm may play an important role on drilling performances and security. We propose to control the axial-vibration phenomenon along the drillstring at a practical resonant frequency, and embed a Resonant Sonic Drilling Head (RSDH) as a robot end effector for drilling. Many questionable industry drilling criteria and stability are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Drilling, robotic arm, resonant vibration, PDE control

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75 Investigating the Effects of Thermal and Surface Energy on the Two-Dimensional Flow Characteristics of Oil in Water Mixture between Two Parallel Plates: A Lattice Boltzmann Method Study

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat

Abstract:

A hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model was used to study the combined effects of temperature and contact angle on the movement of slugs and droplets of oil in water (O/W) system flowing between two parallel plates. The model static contact angle due to the deposition of the O/W droplet on a flat surface with simulated hydrophilic characteristic at different fluid temperatures, matched very well the proposed theoretical calculation. Furthermore, the model was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of droplets and slugs deposited on the domain’s upper and lower surfaces, while subjected to parabolic flow conditions. The model accurately simulated the contact angle hysteresis for the dynamic droplets cases. It was also shown that at elevated temperatures the required power to transport the mixture diminished remarkably.

Keywords: Thermal, Contact angle, lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, high viscosity ratio

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74 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari

Abstract:

Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Reliability Analysis, rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic

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73 Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Abir Yahya, Hacen Dhahri, Khalifa Slimi

Abstract:

The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.

Keywords: temperature, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, lattice Boltzmann method, heat sources

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72 Quasi-Static Analysis of End Plate Beam-to-Column Connections

Authors: A. Al-Rifaie, Z. W. Guan, S. W. Jones

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for modelling and analysing end plate beam-to-column connections to obtain the quasi-static behaviour using non-linear dynamic explicit integration. In addition to its importance to study the static behaviour of a structural member, quasi-static behaviour is largely needed to be compared with the dynamic behaviour of such members in order to investigate the dynamic effect by proposing dynamic increase factors (DIFs). The beam-to-column bolted connections contain various contact surfaces at which the implicit procedure may have difficulties converging, resulting in a large number of iterations. Contrary, explicit procedure could deal effectively with complex contacts without converging problems. Hence, finite element modelling using ABAQUS/explicit is used in this study to address the dynamic effect may be produced using explicit procedure. Also, the effect of loading rate and mass scaling are discussed to investigate their effect on the time of analysis. The results show that the explicit procedure is valuable to model the end plate beam-to-column connections in terms of failure mode, load-displacement relationships. Also, it is concluded that loading rate and mass scaling should be carefully selected to avoid the dynamic effect in the solution.

Keywords: Connections, finite element, quasi-static, end plate

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71 Hybrid Quasi-Steady Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Studying the Behavior of Oil in Water Emulsions Used in Machining Tool Cooling and Lubrication

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat, A. Alhilo, L. Tamimi

Abstract:

Oil in water (O/W) emulsions are utilized extensively for cooling and lubricating cutting tools during parts machining. A robust Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) thermal-surfactants model, which provides a useful platform for exploring complex emulsions’ characteristics under variety of flow conditions, is used here for the study of the fluid behavior during conventional tools cooling. The transient thermal capabilities of the model are employed for simulating the effects of the flow conditions of O/W emulsions on the cooling of cutting tools. The model results show that the temperature outcome is slightly affected by reversing the direction of upper plate (workpiece). On the other hand, an important increase in effective viscosity is seen which supports better lubrication during the work.

Keywords: Thermal, hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, surfactant-covered droplet, Marangoni stress

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70 Development of a Cost Effective Two Wheel Tractor Mounted Mobile Maize Sheller for Small Farmers in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Israil Hossain, T. P. Tiwari, Ashrafuzzaman Gulandaz, Nusrat Jahan

Abstract:

Two-wheel tractor (power tiller) is a common tillage tool in Bangladesh agriculture for easy access in fragmented land with affordable price of small farmers. Traditional maize sheller needs to be carried from place to place by hooking with two-wheel tractor (2WT) and set up again for shelling operation which takes longer time for preparation of maize shelling. The mobile maize sheller eliminates the transportation problem and can start shelling operation instantly any place as it is attached together with 2WT. It is counterclockwise rotating cylinder, axial flow type sheller, and grain separated with a frictional force between spike tooth and concave. The maize sheller is attached with nuts and bolts in front of the engine base of 2WT. The operating power of the sheller comes from the fly wheel of the engine of the tractor through ‘V” belt pulley arrangement. The average shelling capacity of the mobile sheller is 2.0 t/hr, broken kernel 2.2%, and shelling efficiency 97%. The average maize shelling cost is Tk. 0.22/kg and traditional custom hire rate is Tk.1.0/kg, respectively (1 US$=Tk.78.0). The service provider of the 2WT can transport the mobile maize sheller long distance in operator’s seating position. The manufacturers started the fabrication of mobile maize sheller. This mobile maize sheller is also compatible for the other countries where 2WT is available for farming operation.

Keywords: cost effective, small farmers, mobile maize sheller, maize shelling capacity, two-wheel tractor

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69 Improving Cleanability by Changing Fish Processing Equipment Design

Authors: Lars A. L. Giske, Ola J. Mork, Emil Bjoerlykhaug

Abstract:

The design of fish processing equipment greatly impacts how easy the cleaning process for the equipment is. This is a critical issue in fish processing, as cleaning of fish processing equipment is a task that is both costly and time consuming, in addition to being very important with regards to product quality. Even more, poorly cleaned equipment could in the worst case lead to contaminated product from which consumers could get ill. This paper will elucidate how equipment design changes could improve the work for the cleaners and saving money for the fish processing facilities by looking at a case for product design improvements. The design of fish processing equipment largely determines how easy it is to clean. “Design for cleaning” is the new hype in the industry and equipment where the ease of cleaning is prioritized gets a competitive advantage over equipment in which design for cleaning has not been prioritized. Design for cleaning is an important research area for equipment manufacturers. SeaSide AS is doing continuously improvements in the design of their products in order to gain a competitive advantage. The focus in this paper will be conveyors for internal logistic and a product called the “electro stunner” will be studied with regards to “Design for cleaning”. Often together with SeaSide’s customers, ideas for new products or product improvements are sketched out, 3D-modelled, discussed, revised, built and delivered. Feedback from the customers is taken into consideration, and the product design is revised once again. This loop was repeated multiple times, and led to new product designs. The new designs sometimes also cause the manufacturing processes to change (as in going from bolted to welded connections). Customers report back that the concrete changes applied to products by SeaSide has resulted in overall more easily cleaned equipment. These changes include, but are not limited to; welded connections (opposed to bolted connections), gaps between contact faces, opening up structures to allow cleaning “inside” equipment, and generally avoiding areas in which humidity and water may gather and build up. This is important, as there will always be bacteria in the water which will grow if the area never dries up. The work of creating more cleanable design is still ongoing, and will “never” be finished as new designs and new equipment will have their own challenges.

Keywords: Innovation, Design, Equipment, Cleaning, Fish processing

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68 Numerical Prediction of Bearing Strength on Composite Bolted Joint Using Three Dimensional Puck Failure Criteria

Authors: M. S. Meon, M. N. Rao, K-U. Schröder

Abstract:

Mechanical fasteners especially bolting is commonly used in joining carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures due to their good joinability and easy for maintenance characteristics. Since this approach involves with notching, a proper progressive damage model (PDM) need to be implemented and verified to capture existence of damages in the structure. A three dimensional (3D) failure criteria of Puck is established to predict the ultimate bearing failure of such joint. The failure criteria incorporated with degradation scheme are coded based on user subroutine executed in Abaqus. Single lap joint (SLJ) of composite bolted joint is used as target configuration. The results revealed that the PDM adopted here could sufficiently predict the behaviour of composite bolted joint up to ultimate bearing failure. In addition, mesh refinement near holes increased the accuracy of predicted strength as well as computational effort.

Keywords: bearing strength, bolted joint, degradation scheme, progressive damage model

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67 The Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides as Materials for Storage Clean Energy: Ab initio Investigations

Authors: S. Meziane, H. I. Faraoun, C. Esling

Abstract:

Transition metal dichalcogenides have potential applications in power generation devices that convert waste heat into electric current by the so-called Seebeck and Hall effects thus providing an alternative energy technology to reduce the dependence on traditional fossil fuels. In this study, the thermoelectric properties of 1T and 2HTaX2 (X= S or Se) dichalcogenide superconductors have been computed using the semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Technologically, the task is to fabricate suitable materials with high efficiency. It is found that 2HTaS2 possesses the largest value of figure of merit ZT= 1.27 at 175 K. From a scientific point of view, we aim to model the underlying materials properties and in particular the transport phenomena as mediated by electrons and lattice vibrations responsible for superconductivity, Charge Density Waves (CDW) and metal/insulator transitions as function of temperature. The goal of the present work is to develop an understanding of the superconductivity of these selected materials using the transport properties at the fundamental level.

Keywords: Ab Initio, high efficiency, Power generation devices, Transition metal dichalcogenides

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66 Effect of Environmental Factors on Photoreactivation of Microorganisms under Indoor Conditions

Authors: Shirin Shafaei, James R. Bolton, Mohamed Gamal El Din

Abstract:

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection causes damage to the DNA or RNA of microorganisms, but many microorganisms can repair this damage after exposure to near-UV or visible wavelengths (310–480 nm) by a mechanism called photoreactivation. Photoreactivation is gaining more attention because it can reduce the efficiency of UV disinfection of wastewater several hours after treatment. The focus of many photoreactivation research activities on the single species has caused a considerable lack in knowledge about complex natural communities of microorganisms and their response to UV treatment. In this research, photoreactivation experiments were carried out on the influent of the UV disinfection unit at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Edmonton, Alberta after exposure to a Medium-Pressure (MP) UV lamp system to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on photoreactivation of microorganisms in the actual municipal wastewater. The effect of reactivation fluence, temperature, and river water on photoreactivation of total coliforms was examined under indoor conditions. The results showed that higher effective reactivation fluence values (up to 20 J/cm2) and higher temperatures (up to 25 °C) increased the photoreactivation of total coliforms. However, increasing the percentage of river in the mixtures of the effluent and river water decreased the photoreactivation of the mixtures. The results of this research can help the municipal wastewater treatment industry to examine the environmental effects of discharging their effluents into receiving waters.

Keywords: temperature, river water, photoreactivation, reactivation fluence, ultraviolet disinfection, wastewater effluent

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65 Numerical Analysis of End Plate Bolted Connection with Corrugated Beam

Authors: M. A. Sadeghian, J. Yang, Q. F. Liu

Abstract:

Steel extended end plate bolted connections are recommended to be widely utilized in special moment-resisting frame subjected to monotonic loading. Improper design of steel beam to column connection can lead to the collapse and fatality of structures. Therefore comprehensive research studies of beam to column connection design should be carried out. Also the performance and effect of corrugated on the strength of beam column end plate connection up to failure under monotonic loading in horizontal direction is presented in this paper. The non-linear elastic–plastic behavior has been considered through a finite element analysis using the multi-purpose software package LUSAS. The effect of vertically and horizontally types of corrugated web was also investigated.

Keywords: corrugated beam, monotonic loading, end plate connection, Finite element analysis

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64 Effect of Reynolds Number on Flow past a Square Cylinder in Presence of Upstream and Downstream Flat Plate at Small Gap Spacing

Authors: Shams-ul-Islam, Raheela Manzoor, Zhou Chao Ying

Abstract:

A two-dimensional numerical study for flow past a square cylinder in presence of flat plate both at upstream and downstream position is carried out using the single-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for gap spacing 0.5 and 1. We select Reynolds numbers from 80 to 200. The wake structure mechanism within gap spacing and near wake region, vortex structures around and behind the main square cylinder in presence of flat plate are studied and compared with flow pattern around a single square cylinder. The results are obtained in form of vorticity contour, streamlines, power spectra analysis, time trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients. Four different types of flow patterns were observed in both configurations, named as (i) Quasi steady flow (QSF), (ii) steady flow (SF), (iii) shear layer reattachment (SLR), (iv) single bluff body (SBB). It is observed that upstream flat plate plays a vital role in significant drag reduction. On the other hand, rate of suppression of vortex shedding is high for downstream flat plate case at low Reynolds numbers. The reduction in mean drag force and root mean square value of drag force for upstream flat plate case are89.1% and 86.3% at (Re, g) = (80, 0.5d) and (120, 1d) and reduction for downstream flat plate case for mean drag force and root mean square value of drag force are 11.10% and 97.6% obtained at (180, 1d) and (180, 0.5d).

Keywords: square cylinder, Strouhal number, Reynolds numbers, Detached flat plates, drag and lift coefficients

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63 A Study on Manufacturing of Head-Part of Pipes Using a Rotating Manufacturing Process

Authors: J. H. Park, S. K. Lee, Y. W. Kim, D. C. Ko

Abstract:

A large variety of pipe flange is required in marine and construction industry. Pipe flanges are usually welded or screwed to the pipe end and are connected with bolts. This approach is very simple and widely used for a long time; however, it results in high development cost and low productivity, and the productions made by this approach usually have safety problem at the welding area. In this research, a new approach of forming pipe flange based on cold forging and floating die concept is presented. This innovative approach increases the effectiveness of the material usage and save the time cost compared with conventional welding method. To ensure the dimensional accuracy of the final product, the finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to simulate the process of cold forging, and the orthogonal experiment methods were used to investigate the influence of four manufacturing factors (pin die angle, pipe flange angle, rpm, pin die distance from clamp jig) and predicted the best combination of them. The manufacturing factors were obtained by numerical and experimental studies and it shows that the approach is very useful and effective for the forming of pipe flange, and can be widely used later.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, FEA, tubes, cold forging, rotating forming, Forge- 3D

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62 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures for grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increase and decrease with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increase in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increase in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: Nanostructured Materials, temperature, yield stress, grain size variants, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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61 Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer during Natural Convection

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

The present study focused on the investigation of the effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural convection in a rectangular cavity using numerical technique. Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors were studied using computational method based on Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a laminar flow in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106 for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2.0 with a fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness elements caused a minimum to maximum decrease in the heat transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to smooth enclosure. The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms and streamlines.

Keywords: natural convection, Rayleigh number, nusselt number, lattice Boltzmann method, Surface Roughness

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60 New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam web and the column flange, are studied to investigate their moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of a single angle connection. The identical geometric and material conditions with Lipson’s test are used for verifying finite element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range of mechanism, simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, moment and rotation, single-web angle connections, hyperbolic function models

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59 Spectroscopic Characterization of Indium-Tin Laser Ablated Plasma

Authors: M. Hanif, M. Salik

Abstract:

In the present research work we present the optical emission studies of the Indium (In) – Tin (Sn) plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) harmonic of an Nd: YAG nanosecond pulsed laser. The experimentally observed line profiles of neutral Indium (In I) and Tin (SnI) are used to extract the electron temperature (Te) using the Boltzmann plot method. Whereas, the electron number density (Ne) has been determined from the Stark broadening line profile method. The Te is calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance. Beside we have studied the variation of Ne as a function of laser irradiance as well as its variation with distance from the target surface.

Keywords: Laser Ablation, electron temperature, Indium – Tin plasma, optical emission spectroscopy, and electron number density

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58 Fatigue Tests of New Assembly Bolt Connections for Perspective Temporary Steel Railway Bridges

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Michal Štrba, Milan Pilgr

Abstract:

The paper deals with the problems of the actual behavior, failure mechanism and load-carrying capacity of the special bolt connection developed and intended for the assembly connections of truss main girders of perspective railway temporary steel bridges. Within the framework of this problem solution, several types of structural details of assembly joints have been considered as the conceptual structural design. Based on the preliminary evaluation of advantages or disadvantages of these ones, in principle two basic structural configurations – so-called “tooth” and “splice-plate” connections have been selected for the subsequent detailed investigation. This investigation is mainly based on the experimental verification of the actual behavior, strain and failure mechanism and corresponding strength of the connection, and on its numerical modeling using FEM. This paper is focused only on the cyclic loading (fatigue) tests results of “splice-plate” connections and their evaluation, which have already been finished. Simultaneously with the fatigue tests, the static loading tests have been realized too, but these ones, as well as FEM numerical modeling, are not the subject of this paper.

Keywords: Steel Structure, Fatigue Strength, cyclic loading, Bolt assembly connection, temporary railway bridge, Failure mechanisms, Structural detail category

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57 Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.

Keywords: roughness, Lattice Boltzmann Method Natural convection, Nusselt Number Rayleigh number

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56 Entropy Generation and Heat Transfer of Cu–Water Nanofluid Mixed Convection in a Cavity

Authors: Mliki Bouchmel, Belgacem Nabil, Abbassi Mohamed Ammar, Geudri Kamel, Omri Ahmed

Abstract:

In this numerical work, mixed convection and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid in a lid-driven square cavity have been investigated numerically using the Lattice Boltzmann Method. Horizontal walls of the cavity are adiabatic and vertical walls have constant temperature but different values. The top wall has been considered as moving from left to right at a constant speed, U0. The effects of different parameters such as nanoparticle volume concentration (0–0.05), Rayleigh number (104–106) and Reynolds numbers (1, 10 and 100) on the entropy generation, flow and temperature fields are studied. The results have shown that addition of nanoparticles to the base fluid affects the entropy generation, flow pattern and thermal behavior especially at higher Rayleigh and low Reynolds numbers. For pure fluid as well as nanofluid, the increase of Reynolds number increases the average Nusselt number and the total entropy generation, linearly. The maximum entropy generation occurs in nanofluid at low Rayleigh number and at high Reynolds number. The minimum entropy generation occurs in pure fluid at low Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Also at higher Reynolds number, the effect of Cu nanoparticles on enhancement of heat transfer was decreased because the effect of lid-driven cavity was increased. The present results are validated by favorable comparisons with previously published results. The results of the problem are presented in graphical and tabular forms and discussed.

Keywords: Nanofluid, entropy generation, mixed convection, lattice Boltzmann method

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55 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5mm to 6.3mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3mm to 8mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, Column faces bending and concrete filled hollow sections

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54 Force Statistics and Wake Structure Mechanism of Flow around a Square Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers

Authors: Shams-Ul-Islam, Waqas Sarwar Abbasi, Hamid Rahman

Abstract:

Numerical investigation of flow around a square cylinder are presented using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann methods at different Reynolds numbers. A detail analysis are given in terms of time-trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients, power spectra analysis of lift coefficient, vorticity contours visualizations, streamlines and phase diagrams. A number of physical quantities mean drag coefficient, drag coefficient, Strouhal number and root-mean-square values of drag and lift coefficients are calculated and compared with the well resolved experimental data and numerical results available in open literature. The Reynolds numbers affected the physical quantities.

Keywords: square cylinder, Reynolds numbers, Code validation, Force statistics, Multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method

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53 Numerical Simulation of Flow Past an Infinite Row of Equispaced Square Cylinders Using the Multi- Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: S. Ul. Islam, H. Rahman, W. S. Abbasi, N. Rathore

Abstract:

In this research numerical simulations are performed, using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, in the range 3 ≤ β = w[d] ≤ 30 at Re = 100, 200 and 300, where β the blockage ratio, w is the equispaced distance between centers of cylinders, d is the diameter of the cylinder and Re is the Reynolds number, respectively. Special attention is paid to the effect of the equispaced distance between centers of cylinders. Visualization of the vorticity contour visualization are presented for some simulation showing the flow dynamics and patterns for blockage effect. Results show that the drag and mean drag coefficients, and Strouhal number, in general, decrease with the increase of β for fixed Re. It is found that the decreasing rate of drag and mean drag coefficients and Strouhal number is more distinct in the range 3 ≤ β ≤ 15. We found that when β > 15, the blockage effect almost diminishes. Our results further indicate that the drag and mean drag coefficients, peak value of the lift coefficient, root-mean-square value of the lift and drag coefficients and the ratio between lift and drag coefficients decrease with the increase of Re. The results indicate that symmetry boundary condition have more blockage effect as compared to periodic boundary condition.

Keywords: blockage ratio, square cylinder, vortex formation, Multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method

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52 Structural Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: C. Amer, M. Sahin

Abstract:

The design of an optimised horizontal axis 5-meter-long wind turbine rotor blade in according with IEC 61400-2 standard is a research and development project in order to fulfil the requirements of high efficiency of torque from wind production and to optimise the structural components to the lightest and strongest way possible. For this purpose, a research study is presented here by focusing on the structural characteristics of a composite wind turbine blade via finite element modelling and analysis tools. In this work, first, the required data regarding the general geometrical parts are gathered. Then, the airfoil geometries are created at various sections along the span of the blade by using CATIA software to obtain the two surfaces, namely; the suction and the pressure side of the blade in which there is a hat shaped fibre reinforced plastic spar beam, so-called chassis starting at 0.5m from the root of the blade and extends up to 4 m and filled with a foam core. The root part connecting the blade to the main rotor differential metallic hub having twelve hollow threaded studs is then modelled. The materials are assigned as two different types of glass fabrics, polymeric foam core material and the steel-balsa wood combination for the root connection parts. The glass fabrics are applied using hand wet lay-up lamination with epoxy resin as METYX L600E10C-0, is the unidirectional continuous fibres and METYX XL800E10F having a tri-axial architecture with fibres in the 0,+45,-45 degree orientations in a ratio of 2:1:1. Divinycell H45 is used as the polymeric foam. The finite element modelling of the blade is performed via MSC PATRAN software with various meshes created on each structural part considering shell type for all surface geometries, and lumped mass were added to simulate extra adhesive locations. For the static analysis, the boundary conditions are assigned as fixed at the root through aforementioned bolts, where for dynamic analysis both fixed-free and free-free boundary conditions are made. By also taking the mesh independency into account, MSC NASTRAN is used as a solver for both analyses. The static analysis aims the tip deflection of the blade under its own weight and the dynamic analysis comprises normal mode dynamic analysis performed in order to obtain the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes focusing the first five in and out-of-plane bending and the torsional modes of the blade. The analyses results of this study are then used as a benchmark prior to modal testing, where the experiments over the produced wind turbine rotor blade has approved the analytical calculations.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Fiber Reinforced Composites, horizontal axis wind turbine blade, hand-wet layup, modal testing

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