Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Z. Zakaria

41 Thermal Diffusivity Measurement of Cadmium Sulphide Nanoparticles Prepared by γ-Radiation Technique

Authors: Azmi Zakaria, Reza Zamiri, Parisa Vaziri, Elias Saion, M. Shahril Husin

Abstract:

In this study we applied thermal lens (TL) technique to study the effect of size on thermal diffusivity of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanofluid prepared by using γ-radiation method containing particles with different sizes. In TL experimental set up a diode laser of wavelength 514 nm and intensity stabilized He-Ne laser were used as the excitation source and the probe beam respectively, respectively. The experimental results showed that the thermal diffusivity value of CdS nanofluid increases when the of particle size increased.

Keywords: Thermal diffusivity, nanofluids, thermal lens

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3161
40 Curing Methods Yield Multiple Refractive Index of Benzocyclobutene Polymer Film

Authors: N.A.M. Yahya, W.H. Lim, S.W. Phang, H. Ahmad, R. Zakaria, F.R. Mahamd Adikan

Abstract:

Refractive index control of benzocyclobutene (BCB 4024-40) is achieved by facilitating different conditions during the thermal curing of BCB film. Refractive index (RI) change of 1.49% is obtained with curing of BCB film using an oven, while the RI change is 0.1% when the BCB is cured using a hotplate. The two different curing methods exhibit a temperature dependent refractive index change of the BCB photosensitive polymer. By carefully controlling the curing conditions, multiple layers of BCB with different RI can be fabricated, which can then be applied in the fabrication of optical waveguides.

Keywords: BCB 4024-40, curing method, multiple refractiveindex, polymers.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2399
39 Clustering Methods Applied to the Tracking of user Traces Interacting with an e-Learning System

Authors: Larbi Omar, Elberrichi Zakaria

Abstract:

Many research works are carried out on the analysis of traces in a digital learning environment. These studies produce large volumes of usage tracks from the various actions performed by a user. However, to exploit these data, compare and improve performance, several issues are raised. To remedy this, several works deal with this problem seen recently. This research studied a series of questions about format and description of the data to be shared. Our goal is to share thoughts on these issues by presenting our experience in the analysis of trace-based log files, comparing several approaches used in automatic classification applied to e-learning platforms. Finally, the obtained results are discussed.

Keywords: Classification, , e-learning platform, log file, Trace.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1267
38 A Study on Neural Network Training Algorithm for Multiface Detection in Static Images

Authors: Zulhadi Zakaria, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Shahrel A. Suandi

Abstract:

This paper reports the study results on neural network training algorithm of numerical optimization techniques multiface detection in static images. The training algorithms involved are scale gradient conjugate backpropagation, conjugate gradient backpropagation with Polak-Riebre updates, conjugate gradient backpropagation with Fletcher-Reeves updates, one secant backpropagation and resilent backpropagation. The final result of each training algorithms for multiface detection application will also be discussed and compared.

Keywords: training algorithm, multiface, static image, neural network

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2312
37 Feature-Based Machining using Macro

Authors: M. Razak, A. Jusoh, A. Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents an on-going research work on the implementation of feature-based machining via macro programming. Repetitive machining features such as holes, slots, pockets etc can readily be encapsulated in macros. Each macro consists of methods on how to machine the shape as defined by the feature. The macro programming technique comprises of a main program and subprograms. The main program allows user to select several subprograms that contain features and define their important parameters. With macros, complex machining routines can be implemented easily and no post processor is required. A case study on machining of a part that comprised of planar face, hole and pocket features using the macro programming technique was carried out. It is envisaged that the macro programming technique can be extended to other feature-based machining fields such as the newly developed STEP-NC domain.

Keywords: Feature-based machining, CNC, Macro, STEP-NC.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2415
36 Stepwise Refinement in Executable-UML for Embedded System Design: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Nurul Azma Zakaria, Masahiro Kimura, Noriko Matsumoto, Norihiko Yoshida

Abstract:

The fast growth in complexity coupled with requests for shorter development periods for embedded systems are bringing demands towards a more effective, i.e. higher-abstract, design process for hardaware/software integrated design. In Software Engineering area, Model Driven Architecture (MDA) and Executable UML (xUML) has been accepted to bring further improvement in software design. This paper constructs MDA and xUML stepwise transformations from an abstract specification model to a more concrete implementation model using the refactoring technique for hardaware/software integrated design. This approach provides clear and structured models which enables quick exploration and synthesis, and early stage verification.

Keywords: Hardware/software integrated design, model driven architecture, executable UML, refactoring.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 983
35 Optimized Multiplier Based upon 6-Input Luts and Vedic Mathematics

Authors: Zulhelmi Zakaria, Shuja A. Abbasi

Abstract:

A new approach has been used for optimized design of multipliers based upon the concepts of Vedic mathematics. The design has been targeted to state-of-the art field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The multiplier generates partial products using Vedic mathematics method by employing basic 4x4 multipliers designed by exploiting 6-input LUTs and multiplexers in the same slices resulting in drastic reduction in area. The multiplier is realized on Xilinx FPGAs using devices Virtex-5 and Virtex-6.Carry Chain Adder was employed to obtain final products. The performance of the proposed multiplier was examined and compared to well-known multipliers such as Booth, Carry Save, Carry ripple, and array multipliers. It is demonstrated that the proposed multiplier is superior in terms of speed as well as power consumption.

Keywords: Multiplier, Vedic Mathematics, LUTs, FPGAs.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2688
34 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro

Abstract:

In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: Electrophoretic mobility, essential oil, nanoemulsion, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Tween 80, zeta potential.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1697
33 Experimental Evaluation of Mobility Anchor Point Selection Scheme in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

Authors: Zulkeflee Kusin, Mohamad Shanudin Zakaria

Abstract:

Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) was designed to support IP micro-mobility management in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) framework. The main design behind this protocol is the usage of Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) located at any level router of network to support hierarchical mobility management. However, the distance MAP selection in HMIPv6 causes MAP overloaded and increase frequent binding update as the network grows. Therefore, to address the issue in designing MAP selection scheme, we propose a dynamic load control mechanism integrates with a speed detection mechanism (DMS-DLC). From the experimental results we obtain that the proposed scheme gives better distribution in MAP load and increase handover speed.

Keywords: Dynamic load control, HMIPv6, Mobility AnchorPoint, MAP selection scheme

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1564
32 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z.A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4% of sulfuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28% ammonia solution. The EFB biomass was then subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: Bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3515
31 Identify Features and Parameters to Devise an Accurate Intrusion Detection System Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Saman M. Abdulla, Najla B. Al-Dabagh, Omar Zakaria

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to explain how features of attacks could be extracted from the packets. It also explains how vectors could be built and then applied to the input of any analysis stage. For analyzing, the work deploys the Feedforward-Back propagation neural network to act as misuse intrusion detection system. It uses ten types if attacks as example for training and testing the neural network. It explains how the packets are analyzed to extract features. The work shows how selecting the right features, building correct vectors and how correct identification of the training methods with nodes- number in hidden layer of any neural network affecting the accuracy of system. In addition, the work shows how to get values of optimal weights and use them to initialize the Artificial Neural Network.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Attack Features, MisuseIntrusion Detection System, Training Parameters.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2044
30 Sustainability Assessment of Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Yousra Zakaria Ahmed, Ahmed El Gendy, Salah El Haggar

Abstract:

In this paper, our methodology to assess sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies in Egypt is presented. The preliminary list of factors to be considered, as well as their ranking listed. The factors include, but are not limited to pollutants removal efficiency and energy consumption under the environmental dimension, construction cost, operation and maintenance costs and required land area cost under the economic dimension and public acceptance, noise and generating job opportunities for local residents. This methodology is intended to be a user-friendly screening tool to support the decision making process when investigating different wastewater treatment technologies in Egypt. Based on the research work results presented in this paper, it can be generally concluded that the categorization of some of the social and environmental aspects of sustainability is subjective and highly dependent on the local conditions and researchers’ background.

Keywords: Sustainability, wastewater treatment, sustainability assessment, Egypt.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1113
29 Contextual Factors in the Decision Making of Industrialized Building System Technology

Authors: S. A. S. Zakaria, G. Brewer, T. Gajendran

Abstract:

Currently, the Malaysian construction industry is focusing on transforming construction processes from conventional building methods to the Industrialized Building System (IBS). Still, research on the decision making of IBS technology adoption with the influence of contextual factors is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to explore how contextual factors influence the IBS decision making in building projects which is perceived by those involved in construction industry namely construction stakeholders and IBS supply chain members. Theoretical background, theoretical frameworks and literatures which identify possible contextual factors that influence decision making towards IBS technology adoption are presented. This paper also discusses the importance of contextual factors in IBS decision making, highlighting some possible crossover benefits and making some suggestions as to how these can be utilized. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made with respect to the perception of socio-economic, IBS policy and IBS technology associated with building projects.

Keywords: decision making, technology adoptions, contextualfactors, Industrialized Building Systems

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2199
28 Properties of Bio-Phenol Formaldehyde Composites Filled with Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

Authors: Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Umar Adli Amran, Rasidi Roslan, Chia Chin Hua, Sarani Zakaria

Abstract:

Bio-composites derived from plant fiber and/or bioderived polymer, are likely more ecofriendly and demonstrate competitive performance with petroleum based composites. In this research, the bio phenol-formaldehyde (bio-PF) was used as a matrix and oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) as reinforcement. The matrix was synthesized via liquefaction and condensation to enhance the combination of phenol and formaldehyde, during the process. Then, the bio-PF was mixed with different percentage of EFB (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and molded at 180oC. The samples that viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an excellent wettability and interaction between EFB and matrix. Samples of 10% EFB gave the optimum properties of impact and hardness meanwhile sample 15% of EFB gave the highest reading of flexural modulus (MOE) and flexural strength (MOR). For thermal stability analysis, it was found that the weight loss and the activation energy (Ea) of the bio-composites samples were decreased as the filler content increased.

Keywords: EFB, liquefaction, phenol formaldehyde, lignin.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1819
27 Privacy Issues in Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring System: A Review

Authors: Rusyaizila Ramli, Nasriah Zakaria, Putra Sumari

Abstract:

Privacy issues commonly discussed among researchers, practitioners, and end-users in pervasive healthcare. Pervasive healthcare systems are applications that can support patient-s need anytime and anywhere. However, pervasive healthcare raises privacy concerns since it can lead to situations where patients may not be aware that their private information is being shared and becomes vulnerable to threat. We have systematically analyzed the privacy issues and present a summary in tabular form to show the relationship among the issues. The six issues identified are medical information misuse, prescription leakage, medical information eavesdropping, social implications for the patient, patient difficulties in managing privacy settings, and lack of support in designing privacy-sensitive applications. We narrow down the issues and chose to focus on the issue of 'lack of support in designing privacysensitive applications' by proposing a privacy-sensitive architecture specifically designed for pervasive healthcare monitoring systems.

Keywords: Human Factors, Pervasive Healthcare, PrivacyIssues

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2486
26 The Critical Success Factors for Effective ICT Governance in Malaysian Public Sector: A Delphi Study

Authors: Rosida Ab. Razak, Mohamad Shanudin Zakaria

Abstract:

The fundamental issues in ICT Governance (ICTG) implementation for Malaysian Public Sector (MPS) is how ICT be applied to support improvements in productivity, management effectiveness and the quality of services offered to its citizens. Our main concern is to develop and adopt a common definition and framework to illustrate how ICTG can be used to better align ICT with government’s operations and strategic focus. In particular, we want to identify and categorize factors that drive a successful ICTG process. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study to identify, validate and refine such Critical Success Factors (CSFs) and confirmed seven CSFs and nineteen sub-factors as influential factors that fit MPS after further validated and refined. The Delphi method applied in validation and refining process before being endorsed as appropriate for MPS. The identified CSFs reflect the focus areas that need to be considered strategically to strengthen ICT Governance implementation and ensure business success.

Keywords: IT Governance, Critical Success Factors.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3616
25 Registration Management System for the First Access to a Public Moroccan Institution: Case Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal

Authors: Khalid Ghoulam, Belaid Bouikhalene, Zakaria Harmouch, Hicham Mouncif

Abstract:

One of the essential topics in the information systems is the registration management. The objective of this project is to create a web portal designed to help new students on the first access to the Sultan Moulay Slimane University SMSU (Practical Information, Pre-Registration, Placement Test, Terms of use ... etc.) while creating a secure space protecting both data from the institutions of the University and student information. This portal is accessible from any computer connected to the Internet inside and outside the campus. In this work, we present a platform on the first access to the SMSU which is essential for authentication in the digital work space of the university. This platform allows university to make better decisions for students clustering, to avoid traditional manual method, and to reduce the cost in human and material resources.

Keywords: Registration, SMSU, Security, FAUSMS, digital work space, Placement test.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 897
24 Automatic Clustering of Gene Ontology by Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Razib M. Othman, Safaai Deris, Rosli M. Illias, Zalmiyah Zakaria, Saberi M. Mohamad

Abstract:

Nowadays, Gene Ontology has been used widely by many researchers for biological data mining and information retrieval, integration of biological databases, finding genes, and incorporating knowledge in the Gene Ontology for gene clustering. However, the increase in size of the Gene Ontology has caused problems in maintaining and processing them. One way to obtain their accessibility is by clustering them into fragmented groups. Clustering the Gene Ontology is a difficult combinatorial problem and can be modeled as a graph partitioning problem. Additionally, deciding the number k of clusters to use is not easily perceived and is a hard algorithmic problem. Therefore, an approach for solving the automatic clustering of the Gene Ontology is proposed by incorporating cohesion-and-coupling metric into a hybrid algorithm consisting of a genetic algorithm and a split-and-merge algorithm. Experimental results and an example of modularized Gene Ontology in RDF/XML format are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Keywords: Automatic clustering, cohesion-and-coupling metric, gene ontology; genetic algorithm, split-and-merge algorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1738
23 Towards a Web 2.0 Based Practical Works Management System at a Public University: Case of Sultan Moulay Slimane University

Authors: Khalid Ghoulam, Belaid Bouikhalene, Zakaria Harmouch, Hicham Mouncif

Abstract:

The goal of engineering education is to prepare students to cope with problems of real devices and systems. Usually there are not enough devices or time for conducting experiments in a real lab. Other factors that prevent the use of lab devices directly by students are inaccessible or dangerous phenomena, or polluting chemical reactions. The technology brings additional strategies of learning and teaching, there are two types of online labs, virtual and remote labs RL. We present an example of a successful development and deployment of a remote lab in the field of engineering education, integrated in the Moodle platform, using very low-coast, high documented devices and free software. The remote lab is user friendly for both teachers and students. Our web 2.0 based user interface would attract and motivate students, as well as solving the problem of larger classes and expensive lab devices.

Keywords: Remote lab, online learning, Moodle, Arduino, SMSU, lab experimentation, engineering education, online engineering education.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1085
22 ‘The Right to Information’: A Malaysian Political Blog Readers’ Perspective

Authors: Norraihan Zakaria, Abdul Rahman Othman

Abstract:

Political blogs are one of the pivotal alternative communication channels for political news in Malaysia. Many have argued that the mushrooming of political blogs nurtures the effective realization of human rights in the country. The paper studies the ‘Malaysian political blog readers–human rights’ relationship by exploring these questions: Has traditional mainstream media become obsolete with the rise of political blogosphere? Why do blog readers visit political blogs? A survey was conducted and the findings revealed that traditional mainstream media is still a pertinent source for political news in the country. Apart from acquiring the latest political updates quickly and at anytime, blog readers compare the news published in political blogs with the ones reported in traditional mainstream media. This suggests that freedom of information is deemed as one of the prime motives for Malaysian blog readers clinging to political blogosphere.

Keywords: Freedom of information, Human rights, Malaysian political blog readers, Malaysian political blogosphere.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1788
21 Nodal Load Profiles Estimation for Time Series Load Flow Using Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Mashitah Mohd Hussain, Salleh Serwan, Zuhaina Hj Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to estimate load profile in a multiple power flow solutions for every minutes in 24 hours per day. A method to calculate multiple solutions of non linear profile is introduced. The Power System Simulation/Engineering (PSS®E) and python has been used to solve the load power flow. The result of this power flow solutions has been used to estimate the load profiles for each load at buses using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) without any knowledge of parameter and network topology of the systems. The proposed algorithm is tested with IEEE 69 test bus system represents for distribution part and the method of ICA has been programmed in MATLAB R2012b version. Simulation results and errors of estimations are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Electrical Distribution System, Power Flow Solution, Distribution Network, Independent Component Analysis, Newton Raphson, Power System Simulation for Engineering.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2608
20 Physical-Chemical Surface Characterization of Lake Nasser Sediments

Authors: Yousra M. Zakaria Helmy, Edward H. Smith

Abstract:

Lake Nasser is one of the largest reservoirs in the world. Over 120 million metric tons of sediments are deposited in its dead storage zone every year. The main objective of the present work was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Lake Nasser sediments. The sample had a relatively low surface area of 2.9 m2/g which increased more than 3-fold upon chemical activation. The main chemical elements of the raw sediments were C, O and Si with some traces of Al, Fe and Ca. The organic functional groups for the tested sample included O-H, C=C, C-H and C-O, with indications of Si-O and other metal-C and/or metal-O bonds normally associated with clayey materials. Potentiometric titration of the sample in different ionic strength backgrounds revealed an alkaline material with very strong positive surface charge at pH values just a little less than the pH of zero charge which is ~9. Surface interactions of the sediments with the background electrolyte were significant. An advanced surface complexation model was able to capture these effects, employing a single-site approach to represent protolysis reactions in aqueous solution, and to determine the significant surface species in the pH range of environmental interest.

Keywords: Lake Nasser, sediments, surface characterization

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1638
19 Causes of Final Account Closing Delay: A Theoretical Framework

Authors: Zarabizan Zakaria, Syuhaida Ismail, Aminah Md. Yusof

Abstract:

Delay can be defined as time overrun or extension of time to complete the project. There are high possibilities that delay issues in final account closing cannot be avoided especially in construction project in Malaysia which is unique and dynamic in the terms of nature of design and technical skill. Delay in final account closing is a situation when the actual planning (time and budget allocation) of a construction project exceeds the planned schedule or on the other hand, final account closing exceeds the time and other provisions specified in the contract. The causes of delay discussed in this paper are appraised from the literature review. There are two main types of delay: excusable delay and non-excusable delay. The literature reviews on the delay in final account closing which is then translated into a theoretical framework are summarized in the context of construction players and academician perspective. It is anticipated that the finding reported in this paper could assist the planning of future strategies and guidelines of final account closing for the betterment of construction projects in Malaysia.

Keywords: Construction industry, construction contract, final account closing, delay.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4301
18 Enhancement Throughput of Unplanned Wireless Mesh Networks Deployment Using Partitioning Hierarchical Cluster (PHC)

Authors: Ahmed K. Hasan, A. A. Zaidan, Anas Majeed, B. B. Zaidan, Rosli Salleh, Omar Zakaria, Ali Zuheir

Abstract:

Wireless mesh networks based on IEEE 802.11 technology are a scalable and efficient solution for next generation wireless networking to provide wide-area wideband internet access to a significant number of users. The deployment of these wireless mesh networks may be within different authorities and without any planning, they are potentially overlapped partially or completely in the same service area. The aim of the proposed model is design a new model to Enhancement Throughput of Unplanned Wireless Mesh Networks Deployment Using Partitioning Hierarchical Cluster (PHC), the unplanned deployment of WMNs are determinates there performance. We use throughput optimization approach to model the unplanned WMNs deployment problem based on partitioning hierarchical cluster (PHC) based architecture, in this paper the researcher used bridge node by allowing interworking traffic between these WMNs as solution for performance degradation.

Keywords: Wireless Mesh Networks, 802.11s Internetworking, partitioning Hierarchical Cluste.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1296
17 Influence of [Emim][OAc] and Water on Gelatinization Process and Interactions with Starch

Authors: Shajaratuldur Ismail, Nurlidia Mansor, Zakaria Man

Abstract:

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] were obtained through gelatinization process. The gelatinization process occurred in the presence of water and [Emim][OAc] as plasticizer at high temperature (90˚C). The influence of [Emim][OAc] and water on the gelatinization and interactions with starch have been studied over a range of compositions. The homogenous mass was obtained for the samples containing 35, 40 and 43.5 % of water contents which showed that water plays important role in gelatinization process. Detailed IR spectroscopy analysis showed decrease in hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups in the presence of [Emim][OAc]. Starch-[Emim][OAc]-water mixture at 10-3-8.7 presented homogenous mass, less hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups.

Keywords: Starch, ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, plasticizer, gelatinization, IR spectroscopy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 563
16 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang

Abstract:

For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery, CO2 flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 748
15 Creativity in Development of Multimedia Presentation

Authors: Mahathir Sarjan, Ramos Radzly, Noor Baiti Jamaluddin, Mohd Hafiz Zakaria, Hisham Suhadi

Abstract:

Creativity is marked by the ability or power, to produce through imaginative skill and create something anew. The University is one of the great places to improve the talent in imaginative skill. The purpose of this study was to identify a creativity of the student in presentation product development. Two hundred seventeen Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn had chosen as a respondent. This study is to survey the level of creativity which is focused on knowledge, skills, presentation style, and character of creative personnel. The level of creativity was measured based on the scale at low, medium and high followed by mean score level. The data collected by questionnaire, then analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.The result of the study indicated that the students showed a higher of creativity (mean score in Knowledge = 4.12 and Skills= 4.02). In conjunction with the findings, implications and recommendations were suggested forward like to ensconce the research and improve with a more creativity concept in presentation product of development for learning and teaching process.

Keywords: Creativity, technical, vocational education, presentation products and development for learning and teaching process.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1039
14 An Efficient Architecture for Dynamic Customization and Provisioning of Virtual Appliance in Cloud Environment

Authors: Rajendar Kandan, Mohammad Zakaria Alli, Hong Ong

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a business model which provides an easier management of computing resources. Cloud users can request virtual machine and install additional softwares and configure them if needed. However, user can also request virtual appliance which provides a better solution to deploy application in much faster time, as it is ready-built image of operating system with necessary softwares installed and configured. Large numbers of virtual appliances are available in different image format. User can download available appliances from public marketplace and start using it. However, information published about the virtual appliance differs from each providers leading to the difficulty in choosing required virtual appliance as it is composed of specific OS with standard software version. However, even if user choses the appliance from respective providers, user doesn’t have any flexibility to choose their own set of softwares with required OS and application. In this paper, we propose a referenced architecture for dynamically customizing virtual appliance and provision them in an easier manner. We also add our experience in integrating our proposed architecture with public marketplace and Mi-Cloud, a cloud management software.

Keywords: Cloud computing, marketplace, virtualization, virtual appliance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1555
13 An Efficient Energy Adaptive Hybrid Error Correction Technique for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ammar Elyas babiker, M.Nordin B. Zakaria, Hassan Yosif, Samir B. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Variable channel conditions in underwater networks, and variable distances between sensors due to water current, leads to variable bit error rate (BER). This variability in BER has great effects on energy efficiency of error correction techniques used. In this paper an efficient energy adaptive hybrid error correction technique (AHECT) is proposed. AHECT adaptively changes error technique from pure retransmission (ARQ) in a low BER case to a hybrid technique with variable encoding rates (ARQ & FEC) in a high BER cases. An adaptation algorithm depends on a precalculated packet acceptance rate (PAR) look-up table, current BER, packet size and error correction technique used is proposed. Based on this adaptation algorithm a periodically 3-bit feedback is added to the acknowledgment packet to state which error correction technique is suitable for the current channel conditions and distance. Comparative studies were done between this technique and other techniques, and the results show that AHECT is more energy efficient and has high probability of success than all those techniques.

Keywords: Underwater communication, wireless sensornetworks, error correction technique, energy efficiency

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1825
12 The Urban Expansion Characterization of the Bir El Djir Municipality Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Authors: Zakaria Smahi, Khadidja Remaoun, Fatima Achouri

Abstract:

Bir El Djir is an important coastal township in Oran department, located at 450 Km far away from Algiers on northwest of Algeria. In this coastal area, the urban sprawl is one of the main problems that reduce the limited highly fertile land. So, using the remote sensing and GIS technologies have shown their great capabilities to solve many earth resources issues. The aim of this study is to produce land use and cover map for the studied area at varied periods to monitor possible changes that may occurred, particularly in the urban areas and subsequently predict likely changes. For this, two spatial images SPOT and Landsat satellites from 1987 and 2014 respectively were used to assess the changes of urban expansion and encroachment during this period with photo-interpretation and GIS approach. The results revealed that the town of Bir El Djir has shown a highest growth rate in the period 1987-2014 which is 1201.5 hectares in terms of area. These expansions largely concern the new real estate constructions falling within the social and promotional housing programs launched by the government. The most urban expansion is characterized by the new construction in the form of spontaneous or peripheral precarious habitat, but also unstructured slums settled especially in the southeastern part of town.

Keywords: Urban expansion, Remote Sensing, Photointerpretation, Spatial dynamics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1853