**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**28

# Search results for: Relativistic Degeneracy

##### 28 Propagation of Electron-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Weakly Relativistically Degenerate Fermi Plasma

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Basudev Ghosh,
S. N. Paul

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Relativistic Degeneracy,
Electron-Acoustic Waves,
Quantum Plasma,
KdV Equation.

##### 27 Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves in Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma Half-Space

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Parthasona Maji,
Basudev Ghosh

**Abstract:**

The nonlinear self-interaction of an electrostatic surface wave on a semibounded quantum plasma with relativistic degeneracy is investigated by using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and the Poisson’s equation with appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown that a part of the second harmonic generated through self-interaction does not have a true surface wave character but propagates obliquely away from the plasma-vacuum interface into the bulk of plasma.

**Keywords:**
Harmonic Generation,
Quantum Plasma,
Quantum Hydrodynamic Model,
Relativistic Degeneracy,
Surface waves.

##### 26 Nonplanar Ion-acoustic Waves in a Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Sibarjun Das,
Agniv Chandra,
Basudev Ghosh,
Apratim Jash

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation,
Ion-acoustic
Waves,
Relativistic Degeneracy,
Quantum Plasma,
Quantum
Hydrodynamic Model.

##### 25 Solution of The KdV Equation with Asymptotic Degeneracy

**Authors:**
Tapas Kumar Sinha,
Joseph Mathew

**Abstract:**

Recently T. C. Au-Yeung, C.Au, and P. C. W. Fung [2] have given the solution of the KdV equation [1] to the boundary condition , where b is a constant. We have further extended the method of [2] to find the solution of the KdV equation with asymptotic degeneracy. Via simulations we find both bright and dark Solitons (i.e. Solitons with opposite phases).

**Keywords:**
KdV equation,
Asymptotic Degeneracy,
Solitons,
Inverse Scattering

##### 24 De Broglie Wavelength Defined by the Rest Energy E0 and Its Velocity

**Authors:**
K. Orozović,
B. Balon

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we take a different approach to de Broglie wavelength, as we relate it to relativistic physics. The quantum energy of the photon radiated by a body with de Broglie wavelength, as it moves with velocity v, can be defined within relativistic physics by rest energy E₀. In this way, we can show the connection between the quantum of radiation energy of the body and the rest of energy E₀ and thus combine what has been incompatible so far, namely relativistic and quantum physics. So, here we discuss the unification of relativistic and quantum physics by introducing the factor k that is analog to the Lorentz factor in Einstein's theory of relativity.

**Keywords:**
de Brogli wavelength,
relativistic physics,
rest energy,
quantum physics.

##### 23 Degeneracy of MIS under the Conditions of Instability: A Mathematical Formulation

**Authors:**
Nazar Younis,
Raied Salman

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
MIS,
management theory,
information technology,
information systems,
IS,
organizational environment,
organizations,
degeneracy,
organizational change.

##### 22 Phenomenological and Theoretical Analysis of Relativistic Temperature Transformation and Relativistic Entropy

**Authors:**
Marko Popovic

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
STR,
relativistic temperature transformation,
Boyle'slaw,
equilibrium constant,
Gibbs energy.

##### 21 Multisymplectic Geometry and Noether Symmetries for the Field Theories and the Relativistic Mechanics

**Authors:**
H. Loumi-Fergane,
A. Belaidi

**Abstract:**

The problem of symmetries in field theory has been analyzed using geometric frameworks, such as the multisymplectic models by using in particular the multivector field formalism. In this paper, we expand the vector fields associated to infinitesimal symmetries which give rise to invariant quantities as Noether currents for classical field theories and relativistic mechanic using the multisymplectic geometry where the Poincaré-Cartan form has thus been greatly simplified using the Second Order Partial Differential Equation (SOPDE) for multi-vector fields verifying Euler equations. These symmetries have been classified naturally according to the construction of the fiber bundle used. In this work, unlike other works using the analytical method, our geometric model has allowed us firstly to distinguish the angular moments of the gauge field obtained during different transformations while these moments are gathered in a single expression and are obtained during a rotation in the Minkowsky space. Secondly, no conditions are imposed on the Lagrangian of the mechanics with respect to its dependence in time and in q^{i}, the currents obtained naturally from the transformations are respectively the energy and the momentum of the system.

**Keywords:**
Field theories,
relativistic mechanics,
Lagrangian formalism,
multisymplectic geometry,
symmetries,
Noether theorem,
conservation laws.

##### 20 Central Finite Volume Methods Applied in Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics: Applications in Disks and Jets

**Authors:**
Raphael de Oliveira Garcia,
Samuel Rocha de Oliveira

**Abstract:**

We have developed a new computer program in Fortran 90, in order to obtain numerical solutions of a system of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics partial differential equations with predetermined gravitation (GRMHD), capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk of matter up to his ejection. Initially we carried out a study on numerical methods of unidimensional Finite Volume, namely Lax-Friedrichs, Lax-Wendroff, Nessyahu-Tadmor method and Godunov methods dependent on Riemann problems, applied to equations Euler in order to verify their main features and make comparisons among those methods. It was then implemented the method of Finite Volume Centered of Nessyahu-Tadmor, a numerical schemes that has a formulation free and without dimensional separation of Riemann problem solvers, even in two or more spatial dimensions, at this point, already applied in equations GRMHD. Finally, the Nessyahu-Tadmor method was possible to obtain stable numerical solutions - without spurious oscillations or excessive dissipation - from the magnetized accretion disk process in rotation with respect to a central black hole (BH) Schwarzschild and immersed in a magnetosphere, for the ejection of matter in the form of jet over a distance of fourteen times the radius of the BH, a record in terms of astrophysical simulation of this kind. Also in our simulations, we managed to get substructures jets. A great advantage obtained was that, with the our code, we got simulate GRMHD equations in a simple personal computer.

**Keywords:**
Finite Volume Methods,
Central Schemes,
Fortran
90,
Relativistic Astrophysics,
Jet.

##### 19 A Unification and Relativistic Correction for Boltzmann’s Law

**Authors:**
Lloyd G. Allred

**Abstract:**

The distribution of velocities of particles in plasma is a well understood discipline of plasma physics. Boltzmann’s law and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describe the distribution of velocity of a particle in plasma as a function of mass and temperature. Particles with the same mass tend to have the same velocity. By expressing the same law in terms of energy alone, the author obtains a distribution independent of mass. In summary, for particles in plasma, the energies tend to equalize, independent of the masses of the individual particles. For high-energy plasma, the original law predicts velocities greater than the speed of light. If one uses Einstein’s formula for energy (*E=mc ^{2}*), then a relativistic correction is not required.

**Keywords:**
Cosmology,
EMP,
Euclidean,
plasma physics,
relativity.

##### 18 Shell Closures in Exotic Nuclei

**Authors:**
G. Saxena,
D. Singh,
M. Kaushik,

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Relativistic Mean Field theory,
Magic Nucleus,
Si
isotopes,
Shell Closure.

##### 17 The Self-Energy of an Ellectron Bound in a Coulomb Field

**Authors:**
J. Zamastil,
V. Patkos

**Abstract:**

Recent progress in calculation of the one-loop selfenergy of the electron bound in the Coulomb field is summarized. The relativistic multipole expansion is introduced. This expansion is based on a single assumption: except for the part of the time component of the electron four-momentum corresponding to the electron rest mass, the exchange of four-momentum between the virtual electron and photon can be treated perturbatively. For non Sstates and normalized difference n3En −E1 of the S-states this itself yields very accurate results after taking the method to the third order. For the ground state the perturbation treatment of the electron virtual states with very high three-momentum is to be avoided. For these states one can always rearrange the pertinent expression in such a way that free-particle approximation is allowed. Combination of the relativistic multipole expansion and free-particle approximation yields very accurate result after taking the method to the ninth order. These results are in very good agreement with the previous results obtained by the partial wave expansion and definitely exclude the possibility that the uncertainity in determination of the proton radius comes from the uncertainity in the calculation of the one-loop selfenergy.

**Keywords:**
Hydrogen-like atoms,
self-energy.

##### 16 Appraisal of Relativistic Effects on GNSS Receiver Positioning

**Authors:**
I. Yakubu,
Y. Y. Ziggah,
E. A. Gyamera

**Abstract:**

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) started with the launch of the United State Department of Defense Global Positioning System (GPS). GNSS systems has grown over the years to include: GLONASS (Russia); Galileo (European Union); BeiDou (China). Any GNSS architecture consists of three major segments: Space, Control and User Segments. Errors such as; multipath, ionospheric and tropospheric effects, satellite clocks, receiver noise and orbit errors (relativity effect) have significant effects on GNSS positioning. To obtain centimeter level accuracy, the impacts of the relative motion of the satellites and earth need to be taken into account. This paper discusses the relevance of the theory of relativity as a source of error for GNSS receivers for position fix based on available relevant literature. Review of relevant literature reveals that due to relativity; Time dilation, Gravitational frequency shift and Sagnac effect cause significant influence on the use of GNSS receivers for positioning by an error range of ± 2.5 m based on pseudo-range computation.

**Keywords:**
GNSS,
relativistic effects,
pseudo-range,
accuracy.

##### 15 Nonlinear Solitary Structures of Electron Plasma Waves in a Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Basudev Ghosh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Electron Plasma Waves,
Finite Temperature Model,
Modulational Instability,
Quantum Plasma,
Solitary structure

##### 14 A New Particle Filter Inspired by Biological Evolution: Genetic Filter

**Authors:**
S. Park,
J. Hwang,
K. Rou,
E. Kim

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Particle filter,
genetic algorithm,
evolutionary
algorithm.

##### 13 Modulational Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

**Authors:**
Swarniv Chandra,
Basudev Ghosh

**Abstract:**

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for quantum plasma at finite temperature the modulational instability of electron plasma waves is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma.

**Keywords:**
Amplitude Modulation,
Electron Plasma Waves,
Finite Temperature Model,
Modulational Instability,
Quantum
Plasma.

##### 12 Quantum Ion Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in Dissipative Warm Plasma with Fermi Electron and Positron

**Authors:**
Hamid Reza Pakzad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ion acoustic shock waves; Quantum plasmas

##### 11 An Approximation Method for Three Quark Systems in the Hyper-Spherical Approach

**Authors:**
B. Rezaei,
G. R. Boroun,
M. Abdolmaleki

**Abstract:**

The bound state energy of three quark systems is studied in the framework of a non- relativistic spin independent phenomenological model. The hyper- spherical coordinates are considered for the solution this system. According to Jacobi coordinate, we determined the bound state energy for (uud) and (ddu) quark systems, as quarks are flavorless mass, and it is restrict that choice potential at low and high range in nucleon bag for a bound state.

**Keywords:**
Adiabatic expansion,
grand angular momentum,
binding energy,
perturbation,
baryons.

##### 10 Monte Carlo Simulation of the Transport Phenomena in Degenerate Hg0.8Cd0.2Te

**Authors:**
N. Dahbi,
M. Daoudi,
A.Belghachi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
degeneracy case,
Hg0.8Cd0.2Te semiconductor,
Monte Carlo simulation,
transport parameters.

##### 9 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment

**Authors:**
Sukhveer Singh,
Sandeep Singh

**Abstract:**

A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.

**Keywords:**
Transportation problem,
efficient solution,
ranking function,
fuzzy transportation problem.

##### 8 Calculation of Wave Function at the Origin (WFO) for the Ground State of Doubly Heavy Mesons Based On the Variational Method

**Authors:**
Maryam Momeni Feili,
Mahvash Zandy Navgaran

**Abstract:**

The wave function at the origin is an important quantity in studying many physical problems concerning heavy quarkonia. This is because that it is using for calculating spin state hyperfine splitting and also crucial to evaluating the production and decay amplitude of the heavy quarkonium. In this paper, we present the variational method by using the single-parameter wave function to estimate the WFO for the ground state of heavy mesons.

**Keywords:**
Wave function at the origin,
heavy mesons,
bound states,
variational method,
non-relativistic quark model,
potential model,
trial wave function.

##### 7 Einstein’s General Equation of the Gravitational Field

**Authors:**
A. Benzian

**Abstract:**

The generalization of relativistic theory of gravity based essentially on the principle of equivalence stipulates that for all bodies, the grave mass is equal to the inert mass which leads us to believe that gravitation is not a property of the bodies themselves, but of space, and the conclusion that the gravitational field must curved space-time what allows the abandonment of Minkowski space (because Minkowski space-time being nonetheless null curvature) to adopt Riemannian geometry as a mathematical framework in order to determine the curvature. Therefore the work presented in this paper begins with the evolution of the concept of gravity then tensor field which manifests by Riemannian geometry to formulate the general equation of the gravitational field.

**Keywords:**
Inertia,
principle of equivalence,
tensors,
Riemannian geometry.

##### 6 On the Mechanism Broadening of Optical Spectrum of a Solvated Electron in Ammonia

**Authors:**
V.K. Mukhomorov

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Canonical transformations,
solvated electron,
width
of the optical spectrum.

##### 5 Digital Transformation as the Subject of the Knowledge Model of the Discursive Space

**Authors:**
Rafal Maciag

**Abstract:**

Due to the development of the current civilization, one must create suitable models of its pervasive massive phenomena. Such a phenomenon is the digital transformation, which has a substantial number of disciplined, methodical interpretations forming the diversified reflection. This reflection could be understood pragmatically as the current temporal, a local differential state of knowledge. The model of the discursive space is proposed as a model for the analysis and description of this knowledge. Discursive space is understood as an autonomous multidimensional space where separate discourses traverse specific trajectories of what can be presented in multidimensional parallel coordinate system. Discursive space built on the world of facts preserves the complex character of that world. Digital transformation as a discursive space has a relativistic character that means that at the same time, it is created by the dynamic discourses and these discourses are molded by the shape of this space.

**Keywords:**
Knowledge,
digital transformation,
discourse,
discursive space,
complexity.

##### 4 Axiomatic Systems as an Alternative to Teach Physics

**Authors:**
Liliana M. Marinelli,
Cristina T. Varanese

**Abstract:**

In the last few years, students from higher education have difficulties in grasping mathematical concepts which support physical matters, especially those in the first years of this education. Classical Physics teaching turns to be complex when students are not able to make use of mathematical tools which lead to the conceptual structure of Physics. When derivation and integration rules are not used or developed in parallel with other disciplines, the physical meaning that we attempt to convey turns to be complicated. Due to this fact, it could be of great use to see the Classical Mechanics from an axiomatic approach, where the correspondence rules give physical meaning, if we expect students to understand concepts clearly and accurately. Using the Minkowski point of view adapted to a two-dimensional space and time where vectors, matrices, and straight lines (worked from an affine space) give mathematical and physical rigorosity even when it is more abstract. An interesting option would be to develop the disciplinary contents from an axiomatic version which embraces the Classical Mechanics as a particular case of Relativistic Mechanics. The observation about the increase in the difficulties stated by students in the first years of education allows this idea to grow as a possible option to improve performance and understanding of the concepts of this subject.

**Keywords:**
Axiom,
classical physics,
physical concepts,
relativity.

##### 3 Three-Dimensional Simulation of Free Electron Laser with Prebunching and Efficiency Enhancement

**Authors:**
M. Chitsazi,
B. Maraghechi,
M. H. Rouhani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Free electron laser,
Prebunching,
Undulator,
Wiggler.

##### 2 Study of Proton-9,11Li Elastic Scattering at 60~75 MeV/Nucleon

**Authors:**
Arafa A. Alholaisi,
Jamal H. Madani,
M. A. Alvi

**Abstract:**

The radial form of nuclear matter distribution, charge and the shape of nuclei are essential properties of nuclei, and hence, are of great attention for several areas of research in nuclear physics. More than last three decades have witnessed a range of experimental means employing leptonic probes (such as muons, electrons etc.) for exploring nuclear charge distributions, whereas the hadronic probes (for example alpha particles, protons, etc.) have been used to investigate the nuclear matter distributions. In this paper, p-^{9,11}Li elastic scattering differential cross sections in the energy range to MeV have been studied by means of Coulomb modified Glauber scattering formalism. By applying the semi-phenomenological Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil [BGP] nuclear density for loosely bound neutron rich ^{11}Li nucleus, the estimated matter radius is found to be 3.446 *fm* which is quite large as compared to so known experimental value 3.12 *fm*. The results of microscopic optical model based calculation by applying Bethe-Brueckner–Hartree–Fock formalism (BHF) have also been compared. It should be noted that in most of phenomenological density model used to reproduce the p-^{11}Li differential elastic scattering cross sections data, the calculated matter radius lies between 2.964 and 3.55 *fm*. The calculated results with phenomenological BGP model density and with nucleon density calculated in the relativistic mean-field (RMF) reproduces p-^{9}Li and p-^{11}Li experimental data quite nicely as compared to Gaussian- Gaussian or Gaussian-Oscillator densities at all energies under consideration. In the approach described here, no free/adjustable parameter has been employed to reproduce the elastic scattering data as against the well-known optical model based studies that involve at least four to six adjustable parameters to match the experimental data. Calculated reaction cross sections σ_{R} for p-^{11}Li at these energies are quite large as compared to estimated values reported by earlier works though so far no experimental studies have been performed to measure it.

**Keywords:**
Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil density,
coulomb modified Glauber model,
halo nucleus,
optical limit approximation.

##### 1 Engineering Topology of Photonic Systems for Sustainable Molecular Structure: Autopoiesis Systems

**Authors:**
Moustafa Osman Mohammed

**Abstract:**

This paper introduces topological order in descried social systems starting with the original concept of autopoiesis by biologists and scientists, including the modification of general systems based on socialized medicine. Topological order is important in describing the physical systems for exploiting optical systems and improving photonic devices. The stats of topologically order have some interesting properties of topological degeneracy and fractional statistics that reveal the entanglement origin of topological order, etc. Topological ideas in photonics form exciting developments in solid-state materials, that being; insulating in the bulk, conducting electricity on their surface without dissipation or back-scattering, even in the presence of large impurities. A specific type of autopoiesis system is interrelated to the main categories amongst existing groups of the ecological phenomena interaction social and medical sciences. The hypothesis, nevertheless, has a nonlinear interaction with its natural environment ‘interactional cycle’ for exchange photon energy with molecules without changes in topology (i.e., chemical transformation into products do not propagate any changes or variation in the network topology of physical configuration). The engineering topology of a biosensor is based on the excitation boundary of surface electromagnetic waves in photonic band gap multilayer films. The device operation is similar to surface Plasmonic biosensors in which a photonic band gap film replaces metal film as the medium when surface electromagnetic waves are excited. The use of photonic band gap film offers sharper surface wave resonance leading to the potential of greatly enhanced sensitivity. So, the properties of the photonic band gap material are engineered to operate a sensor at any wavelength and conduct a surface wave resonance that ranges up to 470 nm. The wavelength is not generally accessible with surface Plasmon sensing. Lastly, the photonic band gap films have robust mechanical functions that offer new substrates for surface chemistry to understand the molecular design structure, and create sensing chips surface with different concentrations of DNA sequences in the solution to observe and track the surface mode resonance under the influences of processes that take place in the spectroscopic environment. These processes led to the development of several advanced analytical technologies, which are automated, real-time, reliable, reproducible and cost-effective. This results in faster and more accurate monitoring and detection of biomolecules on refractive index sensing, antibody–antigen reactions with a DNA or protein binding. Ultimately, the controversial aspect of molecular frictional properties is adjusted to each other in order to form unique spatial structure and dynamics of biological molecules for providing the environment mutual contribution in investigation of changes due the pathogenic archival architecture of cell clusters.

**Keywords:**
autopoiesis,
engineering topology,
photonic system molecular structure,
biosensor