Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Relativistic Degeneracy

26 Propagation of Electron-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Weakly Relativistically Degenerate Fermi Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh, S. N. Paul

Abstract:

Using one dimensional Quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model Korteweg de Vries (KdV) solitary excitations of electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) have been examined in twoelectron- populated relativistically degenerate super dense plasma. It is found that relativistic degeneracy parameter influences the conditions of formation and properties of solitary structures.

Keywords: Relativistic Degeneracy, Electron-Acoustic Waves, Quantum Plasma, KdV Equation.

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25 Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves in Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma Half-Space

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Parthasona Maji, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

The nonlinear self-interaction of an electrostatic surface wave on a semibounded quantum plasma with relativistic degeneracy is investigated by using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and the Poisson’s equation with appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown that a part of the second harmonic generated through self-interaction does not have a true surface wave character but propagates obliquely away from the plasma-vacuum interface into the bulk of plasma.

Keywords: Harmonic Generation, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model, Relativistic Degeneracy, Surface waves.

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24 Nonplanar Ion-acoustic Waves in a Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Sibarjun Das, Agniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh, Apratim Jash

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model the nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in are lativistically degenerate quantum plasma is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (SKP) equation using the standard reductive perturbation method equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, Ion-acoustic Waves, Relativistic Degeneracy, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model.

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23 Solution of The KdV Equation with Asymptotic Degeneracy

Authors: Tapas Kumar Sinha, Joseph Mathew

Abstract:

Recently T. C. Au-Yeung, C.Au, and P. C. W. Fung [2] have given the solution of the KdV equation [1] to the boundary condition , where b is a constant. We have further extended the method of [2] to find the solution of the KdV equation with asymptotic degeneracy. Via simulations we find both bright and dark Solitons (i.e. Solitons with opposite phases).

Keywords: KdV equation, Asymptotic Degeneracy, Solitons, Inverse Scattering

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22 Degeneracy of MIS under the Conditions of Instability: A Mathematical Formulation

Authors: Nazar Younis, Raied Salman

Abstract:

It has been always observed that the effectiveness of MIS as a support tool for management decisions degenerate after time of implementation, despite the substantial investments being made. This is true for organizations at the initial stages of MIS implementations, manual or computerized. A survey of a sample of middle to top managers in business and government institutions was made. A large ratio indicates that the MIS has lost its impact on the day-to-day operations, and even the response lag time expands sometimes indefinitely. The data indicates an infant mortality phenomenon of the bathtub model. Reasons may be monotonous nature of MIS delivery, irrelevance, irreverence, timeliness, and lack of adequate detail. All those reasons collaborate to create a degree of degeneracy. We investigate and model as a bathtub model the phenomenon of MIS degeneracy that inflicts the MIS systems and renders it ineffective. A degeneracy index is developed to identify the status of the MIS system and possible remedies to prevent the onset of total collapse of the system to the point of being useless.

Keywords: MIS, management theory, information technology, information systems, IS, organizational environment, organizations, degeneracy, organizational change.

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21 De Broglie Wavelength Defined by the Rest Energy E0 and Its Velocity

Authors: K. Orozović, B. Balon

Abstract:

In this paper, we take a different approach to de Broglie wavelength, as we relate it to relativistic physics. The quantum energy of the photon radiated by a body with de Broglie wavelength, as it moves with velocity v, can be defined within relativistic physics by rest energy E₀. In this way, we can show the connection between the quantum of radiation energy of the body and the rest of energy E₀ and thus combine what has been incompatible so far, namely relativistic and quantum physics. So, here we discuss the unification of relativistic and quantum physics by introducing the factor k that is analog to the Lorentz factor in Einstein's theory of relativity.

Keywords: de Brogli wavelength, relativistic physics, rest energy, quantum physics.

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20 Phenomenological and Theoretical Analysis of Relativistic Temperature Transformation and Relativistic Entropy

Authors: Marko Popovic

Abstract:

There are three possible effects of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) on a thermodynamic system. Planck and Einstein looked upon this process as isobaric; on the other hand Ott saw it as an adiabatic process. However plenty of logical reasons show that the process is isotherm. Our phenomenological consideration demonstrates that the temperature is invariant with Lorenz transformation. In that case process is isotherm, so volume and pressure are Lorentz covariant. If the process is isotherm the Boyles law is Lorentz invariant. Also equilibrium constant and Gibbs energy, activation energy, enthalpy entropy and extent of the reaction became Lorentz invariant.

Keywords: STR, relativistic temperature transformation, Boyle'slaw, equilibrium constant, Gibbs energy.

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19 Multisymplectic Geometry and Noether Symmetries for the Field Theories and the Relativistic Mechanics

Authors: H. Loumi-Fergane, A. Belaidi

Abstract:

The problem of symmetries in field theory has been analyzed using geometric frameworks, such as the multisymplectic models by using in particular the multivector field formalism. In this paper, we expand the vector fields associated to infinitesimal symmetries which give rise to invariant quantities as Noether currents for classical field theories and relativistic mechanic using the multisymplectic geometry where the Poincaré-Cartan form has thus been greatly simplified using the Second Order Partial Differential Equation (SOPDE) for multi-vector fields verifying Euler equations. These symmetries have been classified naturally according to the construction of the fiber bundle used.  In this work, unlike other works using the analytical method, our geometric model has allowed us firstly to distinguish the angular moments of the gauge field obtained during different transformations while these moments are gathered in a single expression and are obtained during a rotation in the Minkowsky space. Secondly, no conditions are imposed on the Lagrangian of the mechanics with respect to its dependence in time and in qi, the currents obtained naturally from the transformations are respectively the energy and the momentum of the system.

Keywords: Field theories, relativistic mechanics, Lagrangian formalism, multisymplectic geometry, symmetries, Noether theorem, conservation laws.

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18 Central Finite Volume Methods Applied in Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics: Applications in Disks and Jets

Authors: Raphael de Oliveira Garcia, Samuel Rocha de Oliveira

Abstract:

We have developed a new computer program in Fortran 90, in order to obtain numerical solutions of a system of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics partial differential equations with predetermined gravitation (GRMHD), capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk of matter up to his ejection. Initially we carried out a study on numerical methods of unidimensional Finite Volume, namely Lax-Friedrichs, Lax-Wendroff, Nessyahu-Tadmor method and Godunov methods dependent on Riemann problems, applied to equations Euler in order to verify their main features and make comparisons among those methods. It was then implemented the method of Finite Volume Centered of Nessyahu-Tadmor, a numerical schemes that has a formulation free and without dimensional separation of Riemann problem solvers, even in two or more spatial dimensions, at this point, already applied in equations GRMHD. Finally, the Nessyahu-Tadmor method was possible to obtain stable numerical solutions - without spurious oscillations or excessive dissipation - from the magnetized accretion disk process in rotation with respect to a central black hole (BH) Schwarzschild and immersed in a magnetosphere, for the ejection of matter in the form of jet over a distance of fourteen times the radius of the BH, a record in terms of astrophysical simulation of this kind. Also in our simulations, we managed to get substructures jets. A great advantage obtained was that, with the our code, we got simulate GRMHD equations in a simple personal computer.

Keywords: Finite Volume Methods, Central Schemes, Fortran 90, Relativistic Astrophysics, Jet.

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17 A Unification and Relativistic Correction for Boltzmann’s Law

Authors: Lloyd G. Allred

Abstract:

The distribution of velocities of particles in plasma is a well understood discipline of plasma physics. Boltzmann’s law and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describe the distribution of velocity of a particle in plasma as a function of mass and temperature. Particles with the same mass tend to have the same velocity. By expressing the same law in terms of energy alone, the author obtains a distribution independent of mass. In summary, for particles in plasma, the energies tend to equalize, independent of the masses of the individual particles. For high-energy plasma, the original law predicts velocities greater than the speed of light. If one uses Einstein’s formula for energy (E=mc2), then a relativistic correction is not required.

Keywords: Cosmology, EMP, Euclidean, plasma physics, relativity.

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16 Shell Closures in Exotic Nuclei

Authors: G. Saxena, D. Singh, M. Kaushik,

Abstract:

Inspired by the recent experiments [1]-[3] indicating unusual doubly magic nucleus 24O which lies just at the neutron drip-line and encouraged by the success of our relativistic mean-field (RMF) plus state dependent BCS approach for the description of the ground state properties of the drip-line nuclei [23]-[27], we have further employed this approach, across the entire periodic table, to explore the unusual shell closures in exotic nuclei. In our RMF+BCS approach the single particle continuum corresponding to the RMF is replaced by a set of discrete positive energy states for the calculations of pairing energy. Detailed analysis of the single particle spectrum, pairing energies and densities of the nuclei predict the unusual proton shell closures at Z = 6, 14, 16, 34, and unusual neutron shell closures at N = 6, 14, 16, 34, 40, 70, 112.

Keywords: Relativistic Mean Field theory, Magic Nucleus, Si isotopes, Shell Closure.

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15 The Self-Energy of an Ellectron Bound in a Coulomb Field

Authors: J. Zamastil, V. Patkos

Abstract:

Recent progress in calculation of the one-loop selfenergy of the electron bound in the Coulomb field is summarized. The relativistic multipole expansion is introduced. This expansion is based on a single assumption: except for the part of the time component of the electron four-momentum corresponding to the electron rest mass, the exchange of four-momentum between the virtual electron and photon can be treated perturbatively. For non Sstates and normalized difference n3En −E1 of the S-states this itself yields very accurate results after taking the method to the third order. For the ground state the perturbation treatment of the electron virtual states with very high three-momentum is to be avoided. For these states one can always rearrange the pertinent expression in such a way that free-particle approximation is allowed. Combination of the relativistic multipole expansion and free-particle approximation yields very accurate result after taking the method to the ninth order. These results are in very good agreement with the previous results obtained by the partial wave expansion and definitely exclude the possibility that the uncertainity in determination of the proton radius comes from the uncertainity in the calculation of the one-loop selfenergy.

Keywords: Hydrogen-like atoms, self-energy.

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14 Nonlinear Solitary Structures of Electron Plasma Waves in a Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

Nonlinear solitary structures of electron plasma waves have been investigated by using nonlinear quantum fluid equations for electrons with an arbitrary temperature. It is shown that the electron degeneracy parameter has significant effects on the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves. Depending on its value both compressive and rarefactive solitons can be excited in the model plasma under consideration.

Keywords: Electron Plasma Waves, Finite Temperature Model, Modulational Instability, Quantum Plasma, Solitary structure

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13 A New Particle Filter Inspired by Biological Evolution: Genetic Filter

Authors: S. Park, J. Hwang, K. Rou, E. Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a new particle filter inspired by biological evolution. In the standard particle filter, a resampling scheme is used to decrease the degeneracy phenomenon and improve estimation performance. Unfortunately, however, it could cause the undesired the particle deprivation problem, as well. In order to overcome this problem of the particle filter, we propose a novel filtering method called the genetic filter. In the proposed filter, we embed the genetic algorithm into the particle filter and overcome the problems of the standard particle filter. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

Keywords: Particle filter, genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm.

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12 Modulational Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for quantum plasma at finite temperature the modulational instability of electron plasma waves is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Amplitude Modulation, Electron Plasma Waves, Finite Temperature Model, Modulational Instability, Quantum Plasma.

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11 Monte Carlo Simulation of the Transport Phenomena in Degenerate Hg0.8Cd0.2Te

Authors: N. Dahbi, M. Daoudi, A.Belghachi

Abstract:

The present work deals with the calculation of transport properties of Hg0.8Cd0.2Te (MCT) semiconductor in degenerate case. Due to their energy-band structure, this material becomes degenerate at moderate doping densities, which are around 1015 cm-3, so that the usual Maxwell-Boltzmann approximation is inaccurate in the determination of transport parameters. This problem is faced by using Fermi-Dirac (F-D) statistics, and the non-parabolic behavior of the bands may be approximated by the Kane model. The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used here to determinate transport parameters: drift velocity, mean energy and drift mobility versus electric field and the doped densities. The obtained results are in good agreement with those extracted from literature.

Keywords: degeneracy case, Hg0.8Cd0.2Te semiconductor, Monte Carlo simulation, transport parameters.

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10 Quantum Ion Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in Dissipative Warm Plasma with Fermi Electron and Positron

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

Ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in dense quantum plasmas whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions are investigated. We assume that ion velocity is weakly relativistic and also the effects of kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents is considered. By using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg–deVries–Burger (KdV-B) equation is derived.

Keywords: Ion acoustic shock waves; Quantum plasmas

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9 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Sukhveer Singh, Sandeep Singh

Abstract:

A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.

Keywords: Transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function, fuzzy transportation problem.

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8 An Approximation Method for Three Quark Systems in the Hyper-Spherical Approach

Authors: B. Rezaei, G. R. Boroun, M. Abdolmaleki

Abstract:

The bound state energy of three quark systems is studied in the framework of a non- relativistic spin independent phenomenological model. The hyper- spherical coordinates are considered for the solution this system. According to Jacobi coordinate, we determined the bound state energy for (uud) and (ddu) quark systems, as quarks are flavorless mass, and it is restrict that choice potential at low and high range in nucleon bag for a bound state.

Keywords: Adiabatic expansion, grand angular momentum, binding energy, perturbation, baryons.

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7 Calculation of Wave Function at the Origin (WFO) for the Ground State of Doubly Heavy Mesons Based On the Variational Method

Authors: Maryam Momeni Feili, Mahvash Zandy Navgaran

Abstract:

The wave function at the origin is an important quantity in studying many physical problems concerning heavy quarkonia. This is because that it is using for calculating spin state hyperfine splitting and also crucial to evaluating the production and decay amplitude of the heavy quarkonium. In this paper, we present the variational method by using the single-parameter wave function to estimate the WFO for the ground state of heavy mesons.

Keywords: Wave function at the origin, heavy mesons, bound states, variational method, non-relativistic quark model, potential model, trial wave function.

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6 Einstein’s General Equation of the Gravitational Field

Authors: A. Benzian

Abstract:

The generalization of relativistic theory of gravity based essentially on the principle of equivalence stipulates that for all bodies, the grave mass is equal to the inert mass which leads us to believe that gravitation is not a property of the bodies themselves, but of space, and the conclusion that the gravitational field must curved space-time what allows the abandonment of Minkowski space (because Minkowski space-time being nonetheless null curvature) to adopt Riemannian geometry as a mathematical framework in order to determine the curvature. Therefore the work presented in this paper begins with the evolution of the concept of gravity then tensor field which manifests by Riemannian geometry to formulate the general equation of the gravitational field.

Keywords: Inertia, principle of equivalence, tensors, Riemannian geometry.

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5 On the Mechanism Broadening of Optical Spectrum of a Solvated Electron in Ammonia

Authors: V.K. Mukhomorov

Abstract:

The solvated electron is self-trapped (polaron) owing to strong interaction with the quantum polarization field. If the electron and quantum field are strongly coupled then the collective localized state of the field and quasi-particle is formed. In such a formation the electron motion is rather intricate. On the one hand the electron oscillated within a rather deep polarization potential well and undergoes the optical transitions, and on the other, it moves together with the center of inertia of the system and participates in the thermal random walk. The problem is to separate these motions correctly, rigorously taking into account the conservation laws. This can be conveniently done using Bogolyubov-Tyablikov method of canonical transformation to the collective coordinates. This transformation removes the translational degeneracy and allows one to develop the successive approximation algorithm for the energy and wave function while simultaneously fulfilling the law of conservation of total momentum of the system. The resulting equations determine the electron transitions and depend explicitly on the translational velocity of the quasi-particle as whole. The frequency of optical transition is calculated for the solvated electron in ammonia, and an estimate is made for the thermal-induced spectral bandwidth.

Keywords: Canonical transformations, solvated electron, width of the optical spectrum.

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4 Digital Transformation as the Subject of the Knowledge Model of the Discursive Space

Authors: Rafal Maciag

Abstract:

Due to the development of the current civilization, one must create suitable models of its pervasive massive phenomena. Such a phenomenon is the digital transformation, which has a substantial number of disciplined, methodical interpretations forming the diversified reflection. This reflection could be understood pragmatically as the current temporal, a local differential state of knowledge. The model of the discursive space is proposed as a model for the analysis and description of this knowledge. Discursive space is understood as an autonomous multidimensional space where separate discourses traverse specific trajectories of what can be presented in multidimensional parallel coordinate system. Discursive space built on the world of facts preserves the complex character of that world. Digital transformation as a discursive space has a relativistic character that means that at the same time, it is created by the dynamic discourses and these discourses are molded by the shape of this space.

Keywords: Knowledge, digital transformation, discourse, discursive space, complexity.

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3 Axiomatic Systems as an Alternative to Teach Physics

Authors: Liliana M. Marinelli, Cristina T. Varanese

Abstract:

In the last few years, students from higher education have difficulties in grasping mathematical concepts which support physical matters, especially those in the first years of this education. Classical Physics teaching turns to be complex when students are not able to make use of mathematical tools which lead to the conceptual structure of Physics. When derivation and integration rules are not used or developed in parallel with other disciplines, the physical meaning that we attempt to convey turns to be complicated. Due to this fact, it could be of great use to see the Classical Mechanics from an axiomatic approach, where the correspondence rules give physical meaning, if we expect students to understand concepts clearly and accurately. Using the Minkowski point of view adapted to a two-dimensional space and time where vectors, matrices, and straight lines (worked from an affine space) give mathematical and physical rigorosity even when it is more abstract. An interesting option would be to develop the disciplinary contents from an axiomatic version which embraces the Classical Mechanics as a particular case of Relativistic Mechanics. The observation about the increase in the difficulties stated by students in the first years of education allows this idea to grow as a possible option to improve performance and understanding of the concepts of this subject.

Keywords: Axiom, classical physics, physical concepts, relativity.

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2 Three-Dimensional Simulation of Free Electron Laser with Prebunching and Efficiency Enhancement

Authors: M. Chitsazi, B. Maraghechi, M. H. Rouhani

Abstract:

Three-dimensional simulation of harmonic up generation in free electron laser amplifier operating simultaneously with a cold and relativistic electron beam is presented in steady-state regime where the slippage of the electromagnetic wave with respect to the electron beam is ignored. By using slowly varying envelope approximation and applying the source-dependent expansion to wave equations, electromagnetic fields are represented in terms of the Hermit Gaussian modes which are well suited for the planar wiggler configuration. The electron dynamics is described by the fully threedimensional Lorentz force equation in presence of the realistic planar magnetostatic wiggler and electromagnetic fields. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations is derived and solved numerically. The fundamental and third harmonic radiation of the beam is considered. In addition to uniform beam, prebunched electron beam has also been studied. For this effect of sinusoidal distribution of entry times for the electron beam on the evolution of radiation is compared with uniform distribution. It is shown that prebunching reduces the saturation length substantially. For efficiency enhancement the wiggler is set to decrease linearly when the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point of tapering and the slope of radiation in the amplitude of wiggler are found by successive run of the code.

Keywords: Free electron laser, Prebunching, Undulator, Wiggler.

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1 Study of Proton-9,11Li Elastic Scattering at 60~75 MeV/Nucleon

Authors: Arafa A. Alholaisi, Jamal H. Madani, M. A. Alvi

Abstract:

The radial form of nuclear matter distribution, charge and the shape of nuclei are essential properties of nuclei, and hence, are of great attention for several areas of research in nuclear physics. More than last three decades have witnessed a range of experimental means employing leptonic probes (such as muons, electrons etc.) for exploring nuclear charge distributions, whereas the hadronic probes (for example alpha particles, protons, etc.) have been used to investigate the nuclear matter distributions. In this paper, p-9,11Li elastic scattering differential cross sections in the energy range  to  MeV have been studied by means of Coulomb modified Glauber scattering formalism. By applying the semi-phenomenological Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil [BGP] nuclear density for loosely bound neutron rich 11Li nucleus, the estimated matter radius is found to be 3.446 fm which is quite large as compared to so known experimental value 3.12 fm. The results of microscopic optical model based calculation by applying Bethe-Brueckner–Hartree–Fock formalism (BHF) have also been compared. It should be noted that in most of phenomenological density model used to reproduce the p-11Li differential elastic scattering cross sections data, the calculated matter radius lies between 2.964 and 3.55 fm. The calculated results with phenomenological BGP model density and with nucleon density calculated in the relativistic mean-field (RMF) reproduces p-9Li and p-11Li experimental data quite nicely as compared to Gaussian- Gaussian or Gaussian-Oscillator densities at all energies under consideration. In the approach described here, no free/adjustable parameter has been employed to reproduce the elastic scattering data as against the well-known optical model based studies that involve at least four to six adjustable parameters to match the experimental data. Calculated reaction cross sections σR for p-11Li at these energies are quite large as compared to estimated values reported by earlier works though so far no experimental studies have been performed to measure it.

Keywords: Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil density, coulomb modified Glauber model, halo nucleus, optical limit approximation.

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