Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 394

Search results for: Quantum plasma

394 Modulational Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for quantum plasma at finite temperature the modulational instability of electron plasma waves is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Amplitude Modulation, Electron Plasma Waves, Finite Temperature Model, Modulational Instability, Quantum Plasma.

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393 Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in an Electron-Hole Bounded Quantum Dusty Plasma

Authors: Basudev Ghosh, Sailendranath Paul, Sreyasi Banerjee

Abstract:

Using quantum hydrodynamical (QHD) model the linear dispersion relation for the electron plasma waves propagating in a cylindrical waveguide filled with a dense plasma containing streaming electron, hole and stationary charged dust particles has been derived. It is shown that the effect of finite boundary and stream velocity of electrons and holes make some of the possible modes of propagation linearly unstable. The growth rate of this instability is shown to depend significantly on different plasma parameters.

Keywords: Electron Plasma wave, Quantum plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamical model.

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392 Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves in Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma Half-Space

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Parthasona Maji, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

The nonlinear self-interaction of an electrostatic surface wave on a semibounded quantum plasma with relativistic degeneracy is investigated by using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and the Poisson’s equation with appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown that a part of the second harmonic generated through self-interaction does not have a true surface wave character but propagates obliquely away from the plasma-vacuum interface into the bulk of plasma.

Keywords: Harmonic Generation, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model, Relativistic Degeneracy, Surface waves.

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391 Nonlinear Solitary Structures of Electron Plasma Waves in a Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

Nonlinear solitary structures of electron plasma waves have been investigated by using nonlinear quantum fluid equations for electrons with an arbitrary temperature. It is shown that the electron degeneracy parameter has significant effects on the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves. Depending on its value both compressive and rarefactive solitons can be excited in the model plasma under consideration.

Keywords: Electron Plasma Waves, Finite Temperature Model, Modulational Instability, Quantum Plasma, Solitary structure

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390 Nonplanar Ion-acoustic Waves in a Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Sibarjun Das, Agniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh, Apratim Jash

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model the nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in are lativistically degenerate quantum plasma is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (SKP) equation using the standard reductive perturbation method equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, Ion-acoustic Waves, Relativistic Degeneracy, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model.

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389 Propagation of Electron-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Weakly Relativistically Degenerate Fermi Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh, S. N. Paul

Abstract:

Using one dimensional Quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model Korteweg de Vries (KdV) solitary excitations of electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) have been examined in twoelectron- populated relativistically degenerate super dense plasma. It is found that relativistic degeneracy parameter influences the conditions of formation and properties of solitary structures.

Keywords: Relativistic Degeneracy, Electron-Acoustic Waves, Quantum Plasma, KdV Equation.

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388 Quantum Ion Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in Dissipative Warm Plasma with Fermi Electron and Positron

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

Ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in dense quantum plasmas whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions are investigated. We assume that ion velocity is weakly relativistic and also the effects of kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents is considered. By using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg–deVries–Burger (KdV-B) equation is derived.

Keywords: Ion acoustic shock waves; Quantum plasmas

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387 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: The linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure.

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386 Water Vapor Plasma Torch: Design, Characteristics and Applications

Authors: A. Tamošiūnas, P. Valatkevičius, V. Grigaitiene, V. Valinčius

Abstract:

The atmospheric pressure plasma torch with a direct current arc discharge stabilized by water vapor vortex was experimentally investigated. Overheated up to 450K water vapor was used as plasma forming gas. Plasma torch design is one of the most important factors leading to a stable operation of the device. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the plasma torch were determined during the experimental investigations. The design and the basic characteristics of the water vapor plasma torch are presented in the paper. Plasma torches with the electric arc stabilized by water vapor vortex provide special performance characteristics in some plasma processing applications such as thermal plasma neutralization and destruction of organic wastes enabling to extract high caloric value synthesis gas as by-product of the process. Syngas could be used as a surrogate fuel partly replacing the dependence on the fossil fuels or used as a feedstock for hydrogen, methanol production.

Keywords: Arc discharge, atmospheric pressure thermal plasma, plasma torch, water vapor.

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385 Atmospheric Plasma Innovative Roll-to-Roll Machine for Continuous Materials

Authors: I. Kulyk, M. Stefan

Abstract:

Atmospheric plasma is emerging as a promising technology for many industrial sectors, because of its ecological and economic advantages respect to the traditional production processes. For textile industry, atmospheric plasma is becoming a valid alternative to the conventional wet processes, but the plasma machines realized so far do not allow the treatment of fibrous mechanically weak material. Novel atmospheric plasma machine for industrial applications, developed by VenetoNanotech SCpA in collaboration with Italian producer of corona equipment ME.RO SpA is presented. The main feature of this pre-industrial scale machine is the possibility of the inline plasma treatment of delicate fibrous substrates such as fibre sleeves, for example wool tops, cotton fibres, polymeric tows, mineral fibers and so on, avoiding burnings and disruption of the faint materials.

Keywords: Atmospheric plasma, industrial machine, fibrous materials.

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384 An Analysis of the Optimization Condition of Plasma Generator for Air Conditioner System

Authors: Arunrungrusmi S, Chaokamnerd W , Tanitteerapan T , Mungkung N., Yuji T.

Abstract:

This research aimed to develop plasma system used in air conditioners. This developed plasma system could be installed in the air conditioners - all split type. The quality of air could be improved to be equal to present plasma system. Development processes were as follows: 1) to study the plasma system used in the air conditioners, 2) to design a plasma generator, 3) to develop the plasma generator, and 4) to test its performance in many types of the air conditioners. This plasma system was developed by AC high voltage – 14 kv with a frequency of 50 kHz. Carbon was a conductor to generate arc in air purifier system. The research was tested by installing the plasma generator in the air conditioners - wall type. Whereas, there were 3 types of installations: air flow out, air flow in, and room center. The result of the plasma generator installed in the air conditioners, split type, revealed that the air flow out installation provided the highest average of o-zone at 223 mg/h. This type of installation provided the highest efficiency of air quality improvement. Moreover, the air flow in installation and the room center installation provided the average of the o-zone at 163 mg/h and 64 mg/h, respectively.

Keywords: Air Conditioner, Plasma generator, High voltage, Optimization, Installation position.

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383 A Unification and Relativistic Correction for Boltzmann’s Law

Authors: Lloyd G. Allred

Abstract:

The distribution of velocities of particles in plasma is a well understood discipline of plasma physics. Boltzmann’s law and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describe the distribution of velocity of a particle in plasma as a function of mass and temperature. Particles with the same mass tend to have the same velocity. By expressing the same law in terms of energy alone, the author obtains a distribution independent of mass. In summary, for particles in plasma, the energies tend to equalize, independent of the masses of the individual particles. For high-energy plasma, the original law predicts velocities greater than the speed of light. If one uses Einstein’s formula for energy (E=mc2), then a relativistic correction is not required.

Keywords: Cosmology, EMP, Euclidean, plasma physics, relativity.

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382 Optical Characterization of a Microwave Plasma Torch for Hydrogen Production

Authors: Babajide O. Ogungbesan, Rajneesh Kumar, Mohamed Sassi

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very toxic gas that is produced in very large quantities in the oil and gas industry. It cannot be flared to the atmosphere and Claus process based gas plants are used to recover the sulfur and convert the hydrogen to water. In this paper, we present optical characterization of an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch for H2S dissociation into hydrogen and sulfur. The torch is operated at 2.45 GHz with power up to 2 kW. Three different gases can simultaneously be injected in the plasma torch. Visual imaging and optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma for varying gas flow rates and microwave power. The plasma length, emission spectra and temperature are presented. The obtained experimental results validate our earlier published simulation results of plasma torch.

Keywords: Atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, gas dissociation, optical emission spectroscopy.

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381 2-D Ablated Plasma Production Process for Pulsed Ion Beam-Solid Target Interaction

Authors: Thanat Rungsirathana, Vorathit Rungsetthaphat, Shogo Azuma, Nobuhiro Harada

Abstract:

This paper presents a 2-D hydrodynamic model of the ablated plasma when irradiating a 50 μm Al solid target with a single pulsed ion beam. The Lagrange method is used to solve the moving fluid for the ablated plasma production and formation mechanism. In the calculations, a 10-ns-single-pulsed of ion beam with a total energy density of 120 J/cm2, is used. The results show that the ablated plasma was formed after 2 ns of ion beam irradiation and it started to expand right after 4-6 ns. In addition, the 2-D model give a better understanding of pulsed ion beam-solid target ablated plasma production and expansion process clearer.

Keywords: Ablated plasma, pulse ion beam, thin foil solid target, two-dimensional model

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380 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated and characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia.

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379 Effect of Pre-Plasma Potential on Laser Ion Acceleration

Authors: Djemai Bara, Mohamed Faouzi Mahboub, Djamila Bennaceur-Doumaz

Abstract:

In this work, the role of the preformed plasma created on the front face of a target, irradiated by a high intensity short pulse laser, in the framework of ion acceleration process, modeled by Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, is studied. This plasma is composed of cold ions governed by fluid equations and non-thermal & trapped with densities represented by a "Cairns-Gurevich" equation. The self-similar solution of the equations shows that electronic trapping and the presence of non-thermal electrons in the pre-plasma are both responsible in ion acceleration as long as the proportion of energetic electrons is not too high. In the case where the majority of electrons are energetic, the electrons are accelerated directly by the ponderomotive force of the laser without the intermediate of an accelerating plasma wave.

Keywords: Cairns-Gurevich Equation, ion acceleration, plasma expansion, pre-plasma.

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378 Plasma Properties Effect on Fluorescent Tube Plasma Antenna Performance

Authors: A. N. Dagang, E. I. Ismail, Z. Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis on the performance of monopole antenna with fluorescent tubes. In this research, the simulation and experimental approach is conducted. The fluorescent tube with different length and size is designed using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and the characteristics of antenna parameter are simulated throughout the software. CST was used to simulate antenna parameters such as return loss, resonant frequency, gain and directivity. Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) was used to measure the return loss of plasma antenna in order to validate the simulation results. In the simulation and experiment, the supply frequency is set starting from 1 GHz to 10 GHz. The results show that the return loss of plasma antenna changes when size of fluorescent tubes is varied, correspond to the different plasma properties. It shows that different values of plasma properties such as plasma frequency and collision frequency gives difference result of return loss, gain and directivity. For the gain, the values range from 2.14 dB to 2.36 dB. The return loss of plasma antenna offers higher value range from -22.187 dB to -32.903 dB. The higher the values of plasma frequency and collision frequency, the higher return loss can be obtained. The values obtained are comparative to the conventional type of metal antenna.

Keywords: Plasma antenna, fluorescent tube, computer simulation technology, plasma parameters.

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377 Plasma Density Distribution in Asymmetric Geometry Capacitive Coupled Plasma Discharge System

Authors: Yinchang Du, Yangfang Li

Abstract:

In this work, we used the single Langmuir probe to measure the plasma density distribution in an geometrically asymmetric capacitive coupled plasma discharge system. Because of the frame structure of powered electrode, the plasma density was not homogeneous in the discharge volume. It was higher under the frame, but lower in the centre. Finite element simulation results showed a good agreement with the experiment results. To increase the electron density in the central volume and improve the homogeneity of the plasma, we added an auxiliary electrode, powered by DC voltage, in the simulation geometry. The simulation results showed that the auxiliary electrode could alter the potential distribution and improve the density homogeneity effectively.

Keywords: Capacitive coupled discharge, asymmetric discharge, homogeneous plasma.

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376 Nonlinear Propagation of Acoustic Soliton Waves in Dense Quantum Electron-Positron Magnetoplasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

Propagation of nonlinear acoustic wave in dense electron-positron (e-p) plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field and stationary ions (to neutralize the plasma background) is studied. By means of the quantum hydrodynamics model and applying the reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the compressive structure of electrostatic solitary wave and periodic travelling waves is found. The numerical results show how the ion density ratio, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the direction cosines of the wave vector affect the nonlinear electrostatic travelling waves. The obtained results may be useful to better understand the obliquely nonlinear electrostatic travelling wave of small amplitude localized structures in dense magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and may be applicable to study the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as the interior of massive white dwarfs etc.

Keywords: Bifurcation theory, magnetized electron-positron plasma, phase portrait, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation.

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375 Effect of Nitrogen Gaseous Plasma on Cotton Fabric Dyed with Reactive Yellow105

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Hamid Akbarpour

Abstract:

In this work, a bleached well cotton sample was dyed with reactive yellow105 dye and subsequently, the dyed sample was exposed to the plasma condition containing Nitrogen gas at 1 and 5 minutes of plasma exposure time, respectively. The effect of plasma on surface morphology fabric was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM). CIELab, K/S, and %R of samples (treated and untreated samples) were measured by a reflective spectrophotometer, and consequently, the experiments show that the sample dyed with Reactive yellow 105 after being washed, with the increase in the operation time of plasma, its dye fastness decreases. In addition, the increase in plasma operation time at constant pressure would increase the destructing effect on the surface morphology of samples dyed with reactive yellow105.

Keywords: Cotton fabric, cold nitrogen plasma, reflective spectrophotometer, electronic scanning microscope (SEM), reactive yellow105 dye.

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374 Design and Performance Analysis of a Supersonic Diffuser for Plasma Wing Tunnel

Authors: R.S Pugazenthi, Andy C. McIntosh

Abstract:

Plasma Wind Tunnels (PWT) are extensively used for screening and qualification of re-entry Thermel Protection System (TPS) materials. Proper design of a supersonic diffuser for plasma wind tunnel is of importance for achieving good pressurerecovery (thereby reducing vacuum pumping requirement & run time costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuations from propagating costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuationnts the details of a rapid design methodology successfully employed for designing supersonic diffuser for high power (several megawatts)plasma wind tunnels and numerical performance analysis of a diffuser configuration designed for one megawatt power rated plasma wind tunnel(enthalpy ~ 30 MJ/kg) using FLUENT 6.3® solver for different diffuser operating sub-atmospheric back-pressures.

Keywords: Compressible flow, plasma wind tunnel, re-entry, supersonic diffuser

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373 Collective Oscillations in a Magnetized Plasma Subjected to a Radiation Field

Authors: Daniel Santos, Bruno Ribeiro, Marco Amato, Antonio Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss the behaviour of the longitudinal modes of a magnetized non collisional plasma subjected to an external electromagnetic field. We apply a semiclassical formalism, with the electrons being studied in a quantum mechanical viewpoint whereas the electromagnetic field in the classical context. We calculate the dielectric function in order to obtains the modes and found that, unlike the Bernstein modes, the presence of radiation induces oscillations around the cyclotron harmonics, which are smoothed as the energy stored in the radiation field becomes small compared to the thermal energy of the electrons. We analyze the influence of the number of photon involved in the electronic transitions between the Landau levels and how the parameters such as the external fields strength, plasma density and temperature affect the dispersion relation

Keywords: Collective oscillations, External fields, Dispersion relation.

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372 A Review of Methanol Production from Methane Oxidation via Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor

Authors: M. Khoshtinat, N. A. S. Amin, I. Noshadi

Abstract:

Direct conversion of methane to methanol by partial oxidation in a thermal reactor has a poor yield of about 2% which is less than the expected economical yield of about 10%. Conventional thermal catalytic reactors have been proposed to be superseded by plasma reactors as a promising approach, due to strength of the electrical energy which can break C-H bonds of methane. Among the plasma techniques, non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma chemical process is one of the most future promising technologies in synthesizing methanol. The purpose of this paper is presenting a brief review of CH4 oxidation with O2 in DBD plasma reactors based on the recent investigations. For this reason, the effect of various parameters of reactor configuration, feed ratio, applied voltage, residence time (gas flow rate), type of applied catalyst, pressure and reactor wall temperature on methane conversion and methanol selectivity are discussed.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge, methane, methanol, partial oxidation, Plasma.

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371 Numerical Simulation of Plasma Actuator Using OpenFOAM

Authors: H. Yazdani, K. Ghorbanian

Abstract:

This paper deals with modeling and simulation of the plasma actuator with OpenFOAM. Plasma actuator is one of the newest devices in flow control techniques which can delay separation by inducing external momentum to the boundary layer of the flow. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier-Stokes computations as a body force vector which is obtained as a product of the net charge density and the electric field. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two equations: One for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The simulation result is compared to the experimental and typical values which confirms the validity of the modeling.

Keywords: Active flow control, flow field, OpenFOAM, plasma actuator.

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370 Study of Current Sheath Velocities in Tridimensional with Sahand Plasma Focus

Authors: M.A. Mohammadi, H.Alinejad, A.Piri

Abstract:

The current sheath dynamics in plasma focus facilities is the most important factors. In this paper the current sheath velocity at three dimensional with Sahand plasma focus facility is investigated. For this purpose the discharge is produced in argon gas with deposited energy lying in the range of 20-37kJ. The current sheath is monitored using two tridimensional magnetic probes. These probes installed near the surface of the interior electrode (anode) at 125mm from the anode axis (pinch place). The effect of gas pressure on the current sheath velocity also is investigated.

Keywords: Plasma focus, Current sheath, magnetic probe

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369 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface.

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368 Microwave Shielding of Magnetized Hydrogen Plasma in Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Afshin Moradi, Mohammad Hosain Teimourpour

Abstract:

We derive simple sets of equations to describe the microwave response of a thin film of magnetized hydrogen plasma in the presence of carbon nanotubes, which were grown by ironcatalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco). By considering the interference effects due to multiple reflections between thin plasma film interfaces, we present the effects of the continuously changing external magnetic field and plasma parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power in the system. The simulation results show that the interference effects play an important role in the reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of microwave radiation at the magnetized plasma slab. As a consequence, the interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the reflected intensity and can greatly reduce the amount of reflection power, but the absorption power increases.

Keywords:

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367 High-Production Laser and Plasma Welding Technologies for High-Speed Vessels Production

Authors: V. M. Levshakov, N. A. Steshenkova, N. A. Nosyrev

Abstract:

Application of hulls processing technologies, based on high-concentrated energy sources (laser and plasma technologies), allow improve shipbuilding production. It is typical for high-speed vessels construction using steel and aluminum alloys with high precision hulls required. Report describes high-performance technologies for plasma welding (using direct current of reversed polarity), laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding of hulls structures developed by JSC “SSTC”

Keywords: Flat sections, hybrid laser-arc welding, plasma welding, plasmatron.

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366 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Degradation by Cold Plasma

Authors: Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Marina de Medeiros Machado, Marília de Medeiros Machado

Abstract:

The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this directon, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.

Keywords: BTEX, Degradation, Cold plasma.

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365 Entanglement-based Quantum Computing by Diagrams of States

Authors: Sara Felloni, Giuliano Strini

Abstract:

We explore entanglement in composite quantum systems and how its peculiar properties are exploited in quantum information and communication protocols by means of Diagrams of States, a novel method to graphically represent and analyze how quantum information is elaborated during computations performed by quantum circuits. We present quantum diagrams of states for Bell states generation, measurements and projections, for dense coding and quantum teleportation, for probabilistic quantum machines designed to perform approximate quantum cloning and universal NOT and, finally, for quantum privacy amplification based on entanglement purification. Diagrams of states prove to be a useful approach to analyze quantum computations, by offering an intuitive graphic representation of the processing of quantum information. They also help in conceiving novel quantum computations, from describing the desired information processing to deriving the final implementation by quantum gate arrays.

Keywords: Diagrams of states, entanglement, quantum circuits, quantum information.

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