Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Pseudomonas aeruginosa

72 Enhancement of Biogas Production from Bakery Waste by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: S. Potivichayanon, T. Sungmon, W. Chaikongmao, S. Kamvanin

Abstract:

Production of biogas from bakery waste was enhanced by additional bacterial cell. This study was divided into 2 steps. First step, grease waste from bakery industry-s grease trap was initially degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The concentration of byproduct, especially glycerol, was determined and found that glycerol concentration increased from 12.83% to 48.10%. Secondary step, 3 biodigesters were set up in 3 different substrates: non-degraded waste as substrate in first biodigester, degraded waste as substrate in secondary biodigester, and degraded waste mixed with swine manure in ratio 1:1 as substrate in third biodigester. The highest concentration of biogas was found in third biodigester that was 44.33% of methane and 63.71% of carbon dioxide. The lower concentration at 24.90% of methane and 18.98% of carbon dioxide was exhibited in secondary biodigester whereas the lowest was found in non-degraded waste biodigester. It was demonstrated that the biogas production was greatly increased with the initial grease waste degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: Biogas production, carbon dioxide, methane, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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71 Assessment of Microbial Pollution of the Dental Chairs Water System (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the City of Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Abdulsalam. I. Rafida, Ehae. Abo-Jnha, Kald. Tainah

Abstract:

This study mainly aims at assessing the level of microbial pollution of the water used in the chair system in dental clinics. For this purpose 36 samples have been randomly collected from a number of dental surgeries in the city of Tripoli in Libya. However, 32 of the samples have tested positive to microbial pollution including 13 of the samples, which have tested positives to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the results of the test a further investigation of the biofilms incorporated within the dental chair system has been conducted. The laboratory tests of biofilms with similar design to those found in dental chairs have proved that bacterial pollution takes place through saliva of the patients who use the chairs, and that this saliva is rich with nutrients which provides a suitable breeding ground for all types of bacteria.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Biofilm.

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70 Mechanisms Involved In Organic Solvent Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria

Authors: M. M. Lâzâroaie

Abstract:

The high world interest given to the researches concerning the study of moderately halophilic solvent-tolerant bacteria isolated from marine polluted environments is due to their high biotechnological potential, and also to the perspective of their application in different remediation technologies. Using enrichment procedures, I isolated two moderately halophilic Gram-negative bacterial strains from seawater sample, which are tolerant to organic solvents. Cell tolerance, adhesion and cells viability of Aeromonas salmonicida IBBCt2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBBCt3 in the presence of organic solvents depends not only on its physicochemical properties and its concentration, but also on the specific response of the cells, and the cellular response is not the same for these bacterial strains. n-hexane, n-heptane, propylbenzene, with log POW between 3.69 and 4.39, were less toxic for Aeromonas salmonicida IBBCt2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBBCt3, compared with toluene, styrene, xylene isomers and ethylbenzene, with log POW between 2.64 and 3.17. The results indicated that Aeromonas salmonicida IBBCt2 is more susceptible to organic solvents than Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBBCt3. The mechanisms underlying solvent tolerance (e.g., the existance of the efflux pumps) in Aeromonas salmonicida IBBCt2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBBCt3 it was also studied.

Keywords: bacteria, mechanisms, organic solvent, resistance.

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69 Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Multi Drug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Authors: Athirah Nur Amirulhusni, Navindra Kumari Palanisamy, Zaini Mohd-Zain, Liew Jian Ping, R.Durairaj

Abstract:

Multidrug resistant organisms have been taunting the medical world for the last few decades. Even with new antibiotics developed, resistant strains have emerged soon after. With the advancement of nanotechnology, we investigated colloidal silver nanoparticles for its antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This organism is a multidrug resistant which contributes to the high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Five multidrug resistant strains were used in this study. The antimicrobial effect was studied using the disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques. An inhibition zone of 11 mm was observed with 10 μg dose of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibited MIC of 50 μg/ml when added at the lag phase and the subinhibitory concentration was measured as 100 μg/ml. The MIC50 value showed to be 15 μg/ml. This study suggests that silver nanoparticles can be further developed as an antimicrobial agent, hence decreasing the burden of the multidrug resistance phenomena.

Keywords: Antimirobial activity, Multidrug resistance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Silver nanoparticles

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68 A Mathematical Modelling to Predict Rhamnolipid Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under Nitrogen Limiting Fed-Batch Fermentation

Authors: Seyed Ali Jafari, Mohammad Ghomi Avili, Emad Benhelal

Abstract:

In this study, a mathematical model was proposed and the accuracy of this model was assessed to predict the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and rhamnolipid production under nitrogen limiting (sodium nitrate) fed-batch fermentation. All of the parameters used in this model were achieved individually without using any data from the literature. The overall growth kinetic of the strain was evaluated using a dual-parallel substrate Monod equation which was described by several batch experimental data. Fed-batch data under different glycerol (as the sole carbon source, C/N=10) concentrations and feed flow rates were used to describe the proposed fed-batch model and other parameters. In order to verify the accuracy of the proposed model several verification experiments were performed in a vast range of initial glycerol concentrations. While the results showed an acceptable prediction for rhamnolipid production (less than 10% error), in case of biomass prediction the errors were less than 23%. It was also found that the rhamnolipid production by P. aeruginosa was more sensitive at low glycerol concentrations. Based on the findings of this work, it was concluded that the proposed model could effectively be employed for rhamnolipid production by this strain under fed-batch fermentation on up to 80 g l- 1 glycerol.

Keywords: Fed-batch culture, glycerol, kinetic parameters, modelling, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rhamnolipid.

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67 Prevention of Biofilm Formation in Urinary Catheter by Coating Enzymes/ Gentamycin/ EDTA

Authors: Niraj A. Ghanwate, P V Thakare, P R Bhise, Ashish Dhanke, Shubhangi Apotikar

Abstract:

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) account for an estimated 25-40% nosocomial infection, out of which 90% are associated with urinary catheter, called Catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The microbial populations within CAUTI frequently develop as biofilms. In the present study, microbial contamination of indwelling urinary catheters was investigated. Biofilm forming ability of the isolates was determined by tissue culture plate method. Prevention of biofilm formation in the urinary catheter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also determined by coating the catheter with some enzymes, gentamycin and EDTA. It was found that 64% of the urinary catheters get contaminated during the course of catheterization. Of the total 6 isolates, biofilm formation was seen in 100% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli, 90% in Enterococci, 80% in Klebsiella and 66% in S. aureus. It was noted that the biofilm production by Pseudomonas was prolonged by 7 days in amylase, 8 days in protease, 6 days in lysozyme, 7days in gentamycin and 5 days in EDTA treated catheter.

Keywords: CAUTI, biofilm, enzymes, EDTA, Pseudomonas.

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66 An Alternative Antimicrobial Approach to Fight Bacterial Pathogens from Phellinus linteus

Authors: S. Techaoei, K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai

Abstract:

The objective of this research was focused on investigating in vitro antimicrobial activity of Phellinus linteus fruiting body extracts on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phellinus linteus fruiting body was extracted with ethanol and ethyl acetate and was vaporized. The disc diffusion assay was used to assess antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial strains. Primary screening of chemical profile of crude extract was determined by using thin layer chromatography. The positive control and the negative control were used as erythromycin and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively. Initial screening of Phellinus linteus crude extract with the disc diffusion assay demonstrated that only ethanol had greater antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC assay showed that the lower MIC was observed with 0.5 mg/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 0.25 mg/ml. of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. TLC chemical profile of extract was represented at Rf ≈ 0.71-0.76.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Phellinus linteus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial activity, Escherichia coli.

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65 Therapeutic Product Preparation Bioprocess Modeling

Authors: Mihai Caramihai, Irina Severin, Ana Aurelia Chirvase, Adrian Onu, Cristina Tanase, Camelia Ungureanu

Abstract:

An immunomodulator bioproduct is prepared in a batch bioprocess with a modified bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bioprocess is performed in 100 L Bioengineering bioreactor with 42 L cultivation medium made of peptone, meat extract and sodium chloride. The optimal bioprocess parameters were determined: temperature – 37 0C, agitation speed - 300 rpm, aeration rate – 40 L/min, pressure – 0.5 bar, Dow Corning Antifoam M-max. 4 % of the medium volume, duration - 6 hours. This kind of bioprocesses are appreciated as difficult to control because their dynamic behavior is highly nonlinear and time varying. The aim of the paper is to present (by comparison) different models based on experimental data. The analysis criteria were modeling error and convergence rate. The estimated values and the modeling analysis were done by using the Table Curve 2D. The preliminary conclusions indicate Andrews-s model with a maximum specific growth rate of the bacterium in the range of 0.8 h-1.

Keywords: bioprocess modeling, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, kinetic models,

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64 Thresholding Approach for Automatic Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms from Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Images

Authors: Zonglin Yang, Tatsuya Akiyama, Kerry S. Williamson, Michael J. Franklin, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj

Abstract:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that forms surface-associated microbial communities (biofilms) on artificial implant devices and on human tissue. Biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotics, in part, because the bacteria in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous. One measure of biological heterogeneity in a population of cells is to quantify the cellular concentrations of ribosomes, which can be probed with fluorescently labeled nucleic acids. The fluorescent signal intensity following fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis correlates to the cellular level of ribosomes. The goals here are to provide computationally and statistically robust approaches to automatically quantify cellular heterogeneity in biofilms from a large library of epifluorescent microscopy FISH images. In this work, the initial steps were developed toward these goals by developing an automated biofilm detection approach for use with FISH images. The approach allows rapid identification of biofilm regions from FISH images that are counterstained with fluorescent dyes. This methodology provides advances over other computational methods, allowing subtraction of spurious signals and non-biological fluorescent substrata. This method will be a robust and user-friendly approach which will enable users to semi-automatically detect biofilm boundaries and extract intensity values from fluorescent images for quantitative analysis of biofilm heterogeneity.

Keywords: Image informatics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm, FISH, computer vision, data visualization.

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63 Antibacterial Capacity of Plumeria alba Petals

Authors: M. H. Syakira, L. Brenda

Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of Plumeria alba (Frangipani) petals methanolic extracts were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris,Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis and Serratia marcescens by using disk diffusion method. Concentration extracts (80 %) showed the highest inhibition zone towards Escherichia coli (14.3 mm). Frangipani extract also showed high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus vulgaris and Serratia marcescens, but not more than the zones of the positive control used. Comparison between two broad specrum antibiotics to frangipani extracts showed that the 80 % concentration extracts produce the same zone of inhibition as Streptomycin. Frangipani extracts showed no bacterial activity towards Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. There are differences in the sensitivity of different bacteria to frangipani extracts, suggesting that frangipani-s potency varies between these bacteria. The present results indicate that frangipani showed significant antibacterial activity especially to Escherichia coli.

Keywords: Frangipani, Plumeria alba, anti microbial, Escherichia coli

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62 Molecular Identification of ESBL Genesbla GES-1, blaVEB-1, blaCTX-M blaOXA-1, blaOXA-4,blaOXA-10 and blaPER-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burn Patientsby PCR, RFLP and Sequencing Techniques

Authors: Fereshteh Shacheraghi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Hanieh Noveiri

Abstract:

Fourty one strains of ESBL producing P.aeruginosa which were previously isolated from burn patients in Kerman University general hospital, Iran were subjected to PCR, RFLP and sequencing in order to determine the type of extended spectrum β- lactamases (ESBL), the restriction digestion pattern and possibility of mutation among detected genes. DNA extraction was carried out by phenol chloroform method. PCR for detection of bla genes was performed using specific primer for each gene. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) for ESBL genes was carried out using EcoRI, NheI, PVUII, EcoRV, DdeI, and PstI restriction enzymes. The PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing of both the strands for identification of the ESBL genes.The blaCTX-M, blaVEB-1, blaPER-1, blaGES-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-4 and blaOXA-10 genes were detected in the (n=1) 2.43%, (n=41)100%, (n=28) 68.3%, (n=10) 24.4%, (n=29) 70.7%, (n=7)17.1% and (n=38) 92.7% of the ESBL producing isolates respectively. The RFLP analysis showed that each ESBL gene has identical pattern of digestion among the isolated strains. Sequencing of the ESBL genes confirmed the genuinety of PCR products and revealed no mutation in the restriction sites of the above genes. From results of the present investigation it can be concluded that blaVEB-1 and blaCTX-M were the most and the least frequently isolated ESBL genes among the P.aeruginosa strains isolated from burn patients. The RFLP and sequencing analysis revealed that same clone of the bla genes were indeed existed among the antibiotic resistant strains.

Keywords: ESBL genes, PCR, RFLP, Sequencing, P.aeruginosa

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61 Antimicrobial Potentials of Flavonoids Isolated from Tagetes erecta

Authors: N. Behidj-Benyounes, S. Bennaamane, F. Zohra Bissaad, N. Chebouti, H. Mohandkaci, N. Abdalaziz, S. Iddou

Abstract:

In this study, we are interested in a species of the family of Asteraceae (Tagetes erecta). This family is considered as a source of antimicrobial extracts with strong capacity. The extraction of the flavonoids is carried out by the method of liquid/liquid with the use of successive solvents. Afterwards, we evaluated the biological activity of the flavonoids on five pathogenic bacterial stocks such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and two stocks of yeasts to knowing Candida albicans) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by employing the method of the aromatogramme starting from a solid disc. The result of the antimicrobial activity shows an action and a variable degree of sensitivity according to bacterial stocks tested. It will be noted that the flavonoids have an inhibiting effect on E. coli, B. subtilis, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. But a resistance with respect to the extract by P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and S. cerevisiae is to be mentioned.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, flavonoids, microbial strains, Tagetes erecta L.

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60 Effect of Different Salts on Pseudomonas taetrolens’ Ability to Lactobionic Acid Production

Authors: I. Sarenkova, I. Ciprovica, I. Cinkmanis

Abstract:

Lactobionic acid is a disaccharide formed from gluconic acid and galactose, and produced by oxidation of lactose. Productivity of lactobionic acid by microbial synthesis can be affected by various factors, and one of them is a presence of potassium, magnesium and manganese ions. In order to extend lactobionic acid production efficiency, it is necessary to increase the yield of lactobionic acid by optimising the fermentation conditions and available substrates for Pseudomonas taetrolens growth. The object of the research was to determinate the application of K2HPO4, MnSO4, MgSO4 × 7H2O salts in different concentration for effective lactose oxidation to lactobionic acid by Pseudomonas taetrolens. Pseudomonas taetrolens NCIB 9396 (NCTC, England) and Pseudomonas taetrolens DSM 21104 (DSMZ, Germany) were used for the study. The acid whey was used as the study object. The content of lactose in whey samples was determined using MilcoScanTM Mars (Foss, Denmark) and high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC 20 Prominence, Japan). The content of lactobionic acid in whey samples was determined using the high performance liquid chromatography. The impact of studied salts differs, Mn2+ and Mg2+ ions enhanced fermentation instead of K+ ions. Results approved that Mn2+ and Mg2+ ions are necessary for Pseudomonas taetrolens growth. The study results will help to improve the effectiveness of lactobionic acid production with Pseudomonas taetrolens NCIB 9396 and DSM 21104.

Keywords: lactobionic acid, lactose oxidation, Pseudomonas taetrolens, whey.

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59 The Effect of Seed Inoculation (Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus) and Different Levels of Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

Authors: Hamid Abbasdokht , Ahmad Gholami

Abstract:

In order to study of The Effect of seed inoculation with Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, an experiment was carried out as factorial based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in Agricultural Research Station of Shahrood University of Technology. Results showed that inoculation with Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus promoted seed germination. Also, inoculation with Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus significantly affected grain yield, Number of spikes per m2, Number of grain per spike and 1000-seed weight and There was not statistically significant difference between Chamran and Pishtaz cultivars . Finally, the dosages of chemical fertilizers currently applied in commercial wheat field in Iran (Shahrood region) could be reduced through proper combination of Pseudomonas putida+Bacillus lentus inoculation plus fertilization.

Keywords: Seed inoculation, wheat, yield, yield components

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58 Effects of Allelochemical Gramine on Metabolic Activity and Ultrastructure of Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

Authors: Y. Hong, H. Y. Hu, A. Sakoda, M. Sagehashi

Abstract:

In this study, inhibition of Microcystis aeruginosa by antialgal alleochemical gramine, was studied by analyzing algal metabolic activity (represented by esterase and total dehydrogenase activities) and cell ultrastructure (showing morphological and ultrastructure alterations using transmission electron microscopy and DNA ladder analysis). After gramine exposure, esterase and total dehydrogenase activities were increased firstly but decreased later. In contrast with the controls, the cells exposed to gramine showed apparent ultrastructure alterations with thylakoids in breakage, phycobilins in decrease, lipid and cyanophycin granules abundant firstly but dissolved afterwards, DNA in fragementation. The occurrence of increase of metabolic activity and specific granules reflected that the resistance of cellular response to gramine was initiated. DNA fragementation associated with the increase of metabolic activity and specific granules hinted that gramine caused M. aeruginosa cells to initiate some morphotype of programmed cell death.

Keywords: Allelochemical, gramine, metabolic activity, Microcystis aeruginosa, ultrastructure.

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57 The Co-application of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Inoculation with Rhizobium Bacteria on Grain Yield and Its Components of Mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) in Ilam Province, Iran

Authors: Abdollah Hosseini, Abbas Maleki, Khalil Fasihi, Rahim Naseri

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and rhizobium bacteria on grain yield and some agronomic traits of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.), an experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Malekshahi, Ilam province, Iran during 2012-2013 cropping season. Experimental treatments consisted of control treatment, inoculation with rhizobium bacteria, rhizobium bacteria and Azotobacter, rhizobium bacteria and Azospirillum, rhizobium bacteria and Pseudomonas, rhizobium bacteria, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, rhizobium bacteria, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas, rhizobium bacteria, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas and rhizobium bacteria, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas. The results showed that the effect of PGPR and rhizobium bacteria were significant affect on grain and its components in mungbean plant. Grain yield significantly increased by PGPR and rhizobium bacteria, so that the maximum grain yield was obtained from rhizobium bacteria + Azospirillum + Pseudomonas with the amount of 2287 kg.ha-1 as compared to control treatment. Excessive application of chemical fertilizers causes environmental and economic problems. That is, the overfertilization of P and N leads to pollution due to soil erosion and runoff water, so the use of PGPR and rhizobium bacteria can be justified due to reduce input costs, increase in grain yield and environmental friendly.

Keywords: Azotobacter, Mungbean, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium bacteria.

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56 The Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist on the Lipase Activity

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

Abstract:

Lipases constitute one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to glycerol and fatty acids. Muscarinic antagonist relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract and effect on the cardiovascular system. In this research the effect of a muscarinic antagonist on the lipase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Lineweaver–Burk plot showed that the drug inhibited the enzyme by competitive inhibition. The IC50 value (0.16 mM) and Ki (0.03 mM) of the drug revealed the drug bound to enzyme with high affinity. Determination of enzyme activity in various pH and temperature showed that the maximum activity of lipase was at pH 8 and 60oC both in presence and absence of the drug.

Keywords: Bacteria, inhibition, kinetics, lipase.

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55 Preparation and Antibacterial Properties of Ag+-Exchanged Tobermorite-Chitosan Films

Authors: Andrew P. Hurt, George J. Vine, Samantha E. Booth, Nichola J. Coleman

Abstract:

Silver-exchanged zeolites and clays are used in polymer composites to confer broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties on a range of functional materials. Tobermorite is a layer lattice mineral whose potential as a carrier for Ag+ ions in antibacterial composites has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, in this study, synthetic tobermorite was ion-exchanged with 10 wt% silver ions and the resulting material was incorporated into a composite film with chitosan. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable derivative of chitin, a polysaccharide obtained from the shells of crustaceans. The solvent-cast Ag+-exchanged tobermorite-chitosan films were found to exhibit antimicrobial action against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, chitosan, silver, tobermorite.

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54 Effects of Allelochemical Gramine on Photosynthetic Pigments of Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

Authors: Y. Hong, H. Y. Hu, A. Sakoda, M. Sagehashi

Abstract:

Toxic and bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was exposed to antialgal allelochemical gramine (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg·L-1), The effects of gramine on photosynthetic pigments (lipid soluble: chlorophyll a and β-carotene; water soluble: phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, phycoerythrin, and total phycobilins) and absorption spectra were studied in order to identify the most sensitive pigment probe implicating the crucial suppression site on photosynthetic apparatus. The results obtained indicated that all pigment parameters were decreased with gramine concentration increasing and exposure time extending. The above serious bleaching of pigments was also reflected on the scanning results of absorption spectra. Phycoerytherin exhibited the highest sensitivity to gramine added, following by the largest relative decrease. It was concluded that gramine seriously influenced algal photosynthetic activity by destroying photosynthetic pigments and phycoerythrin most sensitive to gramine might be contributed to its placing the outside of phycobilins.

Keywords: Absorption spectra, allelochemical, gramine, Microcystis aeruginosa, photosynthetic pigments.

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53 Antibacterial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Table Olives against Skin Pathogens

Authors: M. Shafighi, Z. Emami, M. Shahsanaei, E. Khaliliyan

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LAB isolated from Iranian native olives on the opportunistic skin pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactic Acid Bacteria were isolated from the brine of each sample in the prior of time. The samples were spread on MRS agar for isolation of lactobacillus and for lactococcus. 28 strains of labs were isolated. The labs were centrifuged, the supernatant was strewed and pellet was used to inoculation in wells or at blank disks. 20μl of each pellet was inoculated to blank disks and 40μl of each pellet was inoculated to each well. The result of disk and well diffusion agar against these pathogens were confirmed each other. The size of inhibition zone was different according to the type of bacteria, the method and the concentrations of labs.

Keywords: Olive, Probiotic, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), P.aeroginosa and S.aureus

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52 Biodegradation of Malathion by Acinetobacter baumannii Strain AFA Isolated from Domestic Sewage in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed F. Azmy , Amal E. Saafan, Tamer M. Essam, Magdy A. Amin, Shaban H. Ahmed

Abstract:

Bacterial strains capable of degradation of malathion from the domestic sewage were isolated by an enrichment culture technique. Three bacterial strains were screened and identified as Acinetobacter baumannii (AFA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PS1), and Pseudomonas mendocina (PS2) based on morphological, biochemical identification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Acinetobacter baumannii AFA was the most efficient malathion degrading bacterium, so used for further biodegradation study. AFA was able to grow in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with malathion (100 mg/l) as a sole carbon source, and within 14 days, 84% of the initial dose was degraded by the isolate measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Strain AFA could also degrade other organophosphorus compounds including diazinon, chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion. The effect of different culture conditions on the degradation of malathion like inoculum density, other carbon or nitrogen sources, temperature and shaking were examined. Degradation of malathion and bacterial cell growth were accelerated when culture media were supplemented with yeast extract, glucose and citrate. The optimum conditions for malathion degradation by strain AFA were; an inoculum density of 1.5x 10^12CFU/ml at 30°C with shaking. A specific polymerase chain reaction primers were designed manually using multiple sequence alignment of the corresponding carboxylesterase enzymes of Acinetobacter species. Sequencing result of amplified PCR product and phylogenetic analysis showed low degree of homology with the other carboxylesterase enzymes of Acinetobacter strains, so we suggested that this enzyme is a novel esterase enzyme. Isolated bacterial strains may have potential role for use in bioremediation of malathion contaminated.

Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, biodegradation, Malathion, organophosphate pesticides.

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51 Bioremediation of Phenanthrene by Monocultures and Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil

Authors: A. Fazilah, I. Darah, I. Noraznawati

Abstract:

Three different bacteria capable of degrading phenanthrene were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated site. In this study, the phenanthrene-degrading activity by defined monoculture was determined and mixed culture was identified as Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a and Pseudomonas sp. P6. All bacteria were able to grow in a minimal salt medium saturated with phenanthrene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenanthrene degradation efficiencies by different combinations (consortia) of these bacteria were investigated and their phenanthrene degradation was evaluated by gas chromatography. Among the monocultures, Pseudomonas sp. P6 exhibited 58.71% activity compared to Acinetobacter sp. P3d and Bacillus sp. P4a which were 56.97% and 53.05%, respectively after 28 days of cultivation. All consortia showed high phenanthrene elimination which were 95.64, 79.37, 87.19, 79.21% for Consortia A, B, C and D, respectively. The results indicate that all of the bacteria isolated may effectively degrade target chemical and have a promising application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil purposes.

Keywords: Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a, consortia, phenanthrene, Pseudomonas sp. P6.

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50 Density of Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Iko River Mangrove Ecosystem, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Samuel I. Eduok, Joseph P. Essien, Basil N. Ita

Abstract:

Sediment and mangrove root samples from Iko River Estuary, Nigeria were analyzed for microbial and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count ranged from 1.1x107 to 5.1 x107 cfu/g, total fungal (TF) count ranged from 1.0x106 to 2.7x106 cfu/g, total coliform (TC) count ranged from 2.0x104 to 8.0x104cfu/g while hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) count ranged from 1.0x 105 to 5.0 x 105cfu/g. There was a range of positive correlation (r = 0.72 to 0.93) between THB count and total HUB count, respectively. The organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Flavobacterium breve, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Erwinia amylovora, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sp, Desulfovibrio sp, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Chromobacterium violaceum, Micrococcus sedentarius, Corynebacterium sp, and Pseudomonas putrefaciens. The PAH were Naphthalene, 2-Methylnaphthalene, Acenapthylene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Benzo(g,h,l)perylene ,Indeno(1,2,3-d)pyrene with individual PAH concentrations that ranged from 0.20mg/kg to 1.02mg/kg, 0.20mg/kg to 1.07mg/kg and 0.2mg/kg to 4.43mg/kg in the benthic sediment, epipellic sediment and mangrove roots, respectively. Total PAH ranged from 6.30 to 9.93mg/kg, 6.30 to 9.13mg/kg and 9.66 to 16.68mg/kg in the benthic sediment, epipellic sediment and mangrove roots, respectively. The high concentrations in the mangrove roots are indicative of bioaccumulation of the pollutant in the plant tissue. The microorganisms are of ecological significance and the detectable quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon could be partitioned and accumulated in tissues of infaunal and epifaunal organisms in the study area.

Keywords: Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, Iko River estuary, Mangrove, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

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49 Regulatory Effects of Carbon Sources on Tabtoxin Production (A β-lactam Phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci)

Authors: N. Messaadia, D. Harzallah

Abstract:

The effects of divers carbon substrates were investigated for the tabtoxin production of an isolated pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, the causal agent of wildfire of tobacco and are discussed in relation to the bacterium growth. The isolated organism was grown in batch culture on Woolley's medium (28°C, 200 rpm, during 5 days). The growth has been measured by the optical density (OD) at 620 nm and the tabtoxin production quantified by Escherichia coli (K-12) bioassay technique. The growth and the tabtoxin production were both influenced by the substrates (sugars, amino acids, organic acids) used, each, as a sole carbon source and as a supplement for the same amino acids. The most significant quantities of tabtoxin were obtained in presence of some amino acids used as sole carbon source and/or as supplement.

Keywords: Amino acid supplement, carbon substrates, batch culture, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci.

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48 A New blaVIM Gene in a Pseudomonas putida Isolated from ENT Units in Sulaimani Hospitals

Authors: Dalanya Asaad Mohammed, Dara Abdul Razaq

Abstract:

A total of twenty tensile biopsies were collected from children undergoing tonsillectomy from teaching hospital ENT department and Kurdistan private hospital in sulaimani city. All biopsies were homogenized and cultured; the obtained bacterial isolates were purified and identified by biochemical tests and VITEK 2 compact system. Among the twenty studied samples, only one Pseudomonas putida with probability of 99% was isolated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was carried out by disk diffusion method, Pseudomonas putida showed resistance to all antibiotics used except vancomycin. The isolate further subjected to PCR and DNA sequence analysis of blaVIM gene using different set of primers for different regions of VIM gene. The results were found to be PCR positive for the blaVIM gene. To determine the sequence of blaVIM gene, DNA sequencing performed. Sequence alignment of blaVIM gene with previously recorded blaVIM gene in NCBI- database showed that P. putida isolate have different blaVIM gene.

Keywords: Clinical isolates, Putida, Sulaimani, Vim gene.

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47 An Open-Label Pilot Study of Efficacy and Safety of 2% Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. Extract Cream in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis

Authors: Kulaya Wimolwat, Panlop Chakravitthamrong, Neti Waranuch

Abstract:

Background: Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic skin condition affecting the face, scalp, chest, and trunk. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is still unknown. Sebum production, lipid composition, hormone levels, and Malassezia species have been suggested as important factors in the development of seborrheic dermatitis. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract-containing cream with anti-inflammatory and anti-androgenic properties may be beneficial for treating mild to moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis. Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of 2% C. aeruginosa Roxb. extract-containing cream in the treatment of mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis. Methods: This was a prospective, open-label, and non-comparative study. Ten adult patients clinically diagnosed with mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled in a four-week study. The 2% C. aeruginosa Roxb. cream was applied twice daily to a lesional area on the face for four weeks. The Scoring Index (SI) ranking system on days 14 and 28 was compared with that at baseline to determine the efficacy of treatment. The adverse events (burning sensation and erythema) were evaluated on days 14 and 28 to determine the safety of the treatment. Results: Significant improvement was observed in the reduction of the mean SI at day 14 (2.9) and 28 (1.4) compared to that at baseline (4.9). An adverse reaction was observed on day 14 (mild erythema 20% and mild burning sensation 10%) and was resolved by the end of the study. Conclusion: This open-label pilot study has shown that there was a significant improvement in the severity in these seborrheic patients and most reported they were satisfied with it. Reported adverse events were all mild.

Keywords: Anti-androgenic, antifungals, anti-inflammatory, Curcuma aeruginosa, seborrheic dermatitis, efficacy, safety.

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46 In vitro Biological Activity of Some Synthesized Monoazo Heterocycles Based On Thiophene and Thiazolyl-Thiophene Analogues

Authors: M. E. Khalifa, A. A. Gobouri

Abstract:

Potential synthesis of a series of 3-amino-4-arylazothiophene derivatives from reaction of 2-cyano-2-phenylthiocarbamoyl acetamide and the appropriate α-halogenated reagents, followed by coupling with different aryl diazonium salts (Japp-Klingemann reaction), and another series of 5-arylazo-thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl-thiophene derivatives from base-catalyzed intramolecular condensation of 5-arylazo-2-(N-chloroacetyl)amino-thiazole with selected b-keto compounds (Thorpe-Ziegler reaction) was performed. The biological activity of the two series was studied in vitro. Their versatility for pharmaceutical purposes was reported, where they displayed remarkable activities against selected pathogenic microorganisms; Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative bacteria), and Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans (fungi) with various degrees related to their chemical structures.

Keywords: 2-Aminothiazole, antimicrobial, monoazo compounds, thiophene, pathogenic microorganisms.

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45 Improvement of Antibacterial Activity for Ceftazidime by Partially Purified Tannase from Penicillium expansum

Authors: Sahira N. Muslim, Alaa N. Mohammed, Saba Saadoon Khazaal, Batool Kadham Salman, Israa M. S. AL-Kadmy, Sraa N. Muslim, Ahmed S. Dwaish, Sawsan Mohammed Kareem, Sarah N. Aziz, Ruaa A. Jasim

Abstract:

Tannase has wide applications in food, beverage, brewing, cosmetics and chemical industries and one of the major applications of tannase is the production of gallic acid. Gallic acid is used for manufacturing of trimethoprim. In the present study, a local fungal strain of Penicillium expansum A4 isolated from spoilt apple samples gave the highest production level of tannase. Tannase was partially purified with a recovery yield of 92.52% and 6.32 fold of purification by precipitation using ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation. Tannase led to increased antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus and had a synergism effect at low concentrations of ceftazidime, and thus, tannase may be a useful adjuvant agent for the treatment of many bacterial infections in combination with ceftazidime.

Keywords: Ceftazidime, Penicillium expansum, tannase, antimicrobial activity.

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44 Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Travis J. Meyer, Jasodra Ramlall, Phyo Thu, Nidhi Gadura

Abstract:

For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing in Escherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference in loss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, copper, gram positive, gram negative.

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43 Antioxydant and Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloids and Terpenes Extracts from Euphorbia granulata

Authors: Bousselessela H., Yahia M., Mahboubi A., Benbia S., Yahia Massinissa

Abstract:

In order to enhance the knowledge of certain phytochemical Algerian plants that are widely used in traditional medicine and to exploit their therapeutic potential in modern medicine, we have done a specific extraction of terpenes and alkaloids from the leaves of Euphorbia granulata to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of this extracts. After the extraction it was found that the terpene extract gave the highest yield 59.72% compared with alkaloids extracts. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923). All extracts have shown inhibition of growth bacteria. The different zones of inhibition have varied from (7 -10 mm) according to the concentrations of extract used. Testing the antiradical activity on DPPH-TLC plates indicated the presence of substances that have potent anti-free radical. As against, the BC-TLC revealed that only terpenes extract which was reacted positively. These results can validate the importance of Euphorbia granulata in traditional medicine.

Keywords: Euphorbia granulata, Euphorbiaceae, alkaloids, terpenoids, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity.

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