Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31515
Effects of Allelochemical Gramine on Photosynthetic Pigments of Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

Authors: Y. Hong, H. Y. Hu, A. Sakoda, M. Sagehashi


Toxic and bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was exposed to antialgal allelochemical gramine (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg·L-1), The effects of gramine on photosynthetic pigments (lipid soluble: chlorophyll a and β-carotene; water soluble: phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, phycoerythrin, and total phycobilins) and absorption spectra were studied in order to identify the most sensitive pigment probe implicating the crucial suppression site on photosynthetic apparatus. The results obtained indicated that all pigment parameters were decreased with gramine concentration increasing and exposure time extending. The above serious bleaching of pigments was also reflected on the scanning results of absorption spectra. Phycoerytherin exhibited the highest sensitivity to gramine added, following by the largest relative decrease. It was concluded that gramine seriously influenced algal photosynthetic activity by destroying photosynthetic pigments and phycoerythrin most sensitive to gramine might be contributed to its placing the outside of phycobilins.

Keywords: Absorption spectra, allelochemical, gramine, Microcystis aeruginosa, photosynthetic pigments.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1493


[1] G. Pan, M. M. Zhang, H. Chen, H. Zou, and H. Yan, "Removal of cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu Lake using local soils. I. Equilibrium and kinetic screening on the flocculation of Microcystis aeruginosa using commercially available clays and minerals," Environ. Pollut., vol. 141, pp. 195-200, 2006.
[2] S. Nakai, Y. Inoue, and M. Hosomi, "Growth inhibition of blue-green algae by allelopathic effects of macrophyte," Wat. Sci. Tech., vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 47-53, 1999.
[3] S. Nakai, S. Yamada, and M. Hosomi, "Anti-cyanobacterial fatty acids released from Myriophyllum spicatum," Hydrobiologia, vol. 543, pp. 71-78, 2005.
[4] M. Mjelde, and B. A. Faafeng, "Ceratophyllum demersum hampers phytoplankton development in some small Norwegian lakes over a wide range of phosphorus concentrations and geographical latitude," Freshwat. Biol., vol. 37, pp. 355-365, 1997.
[5] F. M. Li, and H. Y. Hu, "Isolation and characterization of a novel antialgal allelochemical from Phragmites communis," Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 6545-6553, 2005.
[6] Y. Hong, and H. Y. Hu, "Effects of the aquatic extract of Arundo donax L. (giant reed) on the growth of freshwater algae," Allelopathy J., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 315-325, Oct. 2007.
[7] M. D. Greca, P. Monaco, L. Previtera, G. Aliotta, G. Pinto, and A. Pollio, "Allelochemical activity of phenylpropanes from Acorus gramineus," Phytochemistry, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2319-2321, 1989.
[8] Y. Hong, H. Y. Hu, A. Sakoda, and M. Sagehashi, "Isolation and characterization of antialgal allelochemicals from Arundo donax L.," Allelopathy J., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 357-368, Mar. 2010.
[9] Y. Hong, H. Y. Hu, X. Xie, A. Sakoda, M. Sagehashi, and F. M. Li, "Gramine-induced growth inhibition, oxidative damage and antioxidant responses in freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa," Aquat. Toxicol., vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 262-269, Feb. 2009.
[10] Y. J. Men, H. Y. Hu, and F. M. Li, "Effects of an allelopathic fraction from Phragmitis communis Trin on the growth characteristics of Scenedesmus obliquus," Ecol. Environ., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 925-929, 2006. (in Chinese)
[11] E. Leu, A. Krieger-Liszkay, C. Goussias, and E. M. Gross, "Polyphenolic allelochemicals from the aquatic angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum inhibit photosystem II," Plant Physiol., vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 2011-2018, 2002.
[12] A. Pollio, G. Pinto, R. Ligrone, and G. Aliotta, "Effects of the potential allelochemical ╬▒-asarone on growth, physiology and ultrastructure of two unicellular green algae," J. Appl. Phycol., vol. 5, pp. 395-403, 1993.
[13] E. M. Gross, H. Meyer, and G. Schilling, "Release and ecological impact of algicidal hydrolysable polyphenols in Myriophyllum spicatum," Phytochemistry, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 133-138. 1996.
[14] C. Wu, X. X. Chang, H. J. Dong, D. F. Li, and J. Y. Liu, "Allelopathic inhibitory effect of Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. On Microcystis aeruginosa and its physiological mechanism," Acta Ecol. Sin., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 2595-2603, Jun. 2008.
[15] Y. Hong, J. J. Huang, and H. Y. Hu, "Effects of a novel allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on the ultrastructure and pigment composition of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa," Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 502-508, Oct. 2009.
[16] F. M. Li, and H. Y. Hu, "Allelopathic effects of different macrophytes on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa," Allelopathy J., vol. 15, pp. 145-151, 2005.
[17] D. I. Arnon, "Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris," Plant Physiol., vol. 24, pp. 1-15, 1949.
[18] C. W. Grobe, and T. M. Murphy, "Solar ultraviolet-B radiation effects on growth and pigment composition of the intertidal alga Ulva expansa (Setch.) S.&G. (Chlorophyta)," J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., vol. 225, pp. 39-51, 1998.
[19] J. N. Abelson, and M. I. Simon, "Phycobiliproteins in cyanobacteria," in Method in enzymology, P. Lester, and N. G. Alexander, Eds. London: Academic Press, 1988, p. 167.
[20] M. P. Padgett, and D. W. Krogmann, "Large scale preparation of pure phycobiliproteins," Photosynth. Res., vol. 11, pp. 225-235, 1987.
[21] P. Eullaffroy, and G. Vernet, "The F684/F735 chlorophyll fluorescence ratio: a potential tool for rapid detection and determination of herbicide phytotoxicity in algae," Water Res., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1983-1990, 2003.
[22] G. C. Papageorgiou. "The photosynthesis of cyanobacteria (blue bacteria) from the perspective of signal analysis of chlorophyll alpha fluorescence," J. Sci. Ind. Res. India, vol. 55, no. 8-9, pp. 596-617, 1996.
[23] D. A. Bryant, The molecular biology of cyanobacteria. Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic publishers, 1996, pp. 559-579.
[24] Y. Hong, H. Y. Hu, A. Sakoda, and M. Sagehashi, "Effects of allelochemical gramine on metabolic activity and ultrastructure of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa," 2010 Int. Conf. Environ. Sci. Eng., submitted for publication.
[25] F. Montechiaro, and M. Giordano, "Effect of prolonged dark incubation on pigments and photosynthesis of the cave-dwelling cyanobacterium Phormidium autumnale (Oscillatoriales, Cyanobacteria)," Phycologia, vol. 45, pp. 704-710, 2006.
[26] L. M. Gerasimenko, M. A. Pusheva, and S. V. Goryunova, "Developmental cycle of and ultrastructure of Cyanidium caldarium," Microbiol., vol. 41, pp. 324-326, 1972.