Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 564

Search results for: Biogas production

564 Enhancement of Biogas Production from Bakery Waste by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: S. Potivichayanon, T. Sungmon, W. Chaikongmao, S. Kamvanin

Abstract:

Production of biogas from bakery waste was enhanced by additional bacterial cell. This study was divided into 2 steps. First step, grease waste from bakery industry-s grease trap was initially degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The concentration of byproduct, especially glycerol, was determined and found that glycerol concentration increased from 12.83% to 48.10%. Secondary step, 3 biodigesters were set up in 3 different substrates: non-degraded waste as substrate in first biodigester, degraded waste as substrate in secondary biodigester, and degraded waste mixed with swine manure in ratio 1:1 as substrate in third biodigester. The highest concentration of biogas was found in third biodigester that was 44.33% of methane and 63.71% of carbon dioxide. The lower concentration at 24.90% of methane and 18.98% of carbon dioxide was exhibited in secondary biodigester whereas the lowest was found in non-degraded waste biodigester. It was demonstrated that the biogas production was greatly increased with the initial grease waste degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: Biogas production, carbon dioxide, methane, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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563 Risk Assessment Results in Biogas Production from Agriculture Biomass

Authors: Sandija Zeverte-Rivza, Irina Pilvere, Baiba Rivza

Abstract:

The use of renewable energy sources incl. biogas has become topical in accordance with the increasing demand for energy, decrease of fossil energy resources and the efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as to increase energy independence from the territories where fossil energy resources are available.

As the technologies of biogas production from agricultural biomass develop, risk assessment and risk management become necessary for farms producing such a renewable energy. The need for risk assessments has become particularly topical when discussions on changing the biogas policy in the EU take place, which may influence the development of the sector in the future, as well as the operation of existing biogas facilities and their income level.

The current article describes results of the risk assessment for farms producing biomass from agriculture biomass in Latvia, the risk assessment system included 24 risks, that affect the whole biogas production process and the obtained results showed the high significance of political and production risks.

Keywords: Biogas production, risks, risk assessment.

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562 Biogas Yield Potential Research of Tithonia diversifolia in Mesophilic Anaerobic Fermentation in China

Authors: Duan Huanyun, Xu Rui, Li Jianchang, Yuan Yage, Wang Qiuxia, Nomana Intekhab Hadi

Abstract:

BioEnergy is an archetypal appropriate technology and alternate source of energy in rural areas of China, and can meet the basic need for cooking fuel in rural areas. The paper introduces with an alternate mean of research that can accelerate the biogas energy production. Tithonia diversifolia or the Tree marigold can be hailed as mesophillic anaerobic digestion to increase the production of more Bioenergy. Tithonia diversifolia is very native to Mexico and Central America, which can be served as ornamental plants- green manure and can prevent soil erosion. Tithonia diversifolia is widely grown and known to Asia, Africa, America and Australia as well. Nowadays, Considering China’s geographical condition it is found that Tithonia diversifolia is widely growing plant in the many tropical and subtropical regions of southern Yunnan- which can have great usage in accelerating and increasing the Bioenergy production technology. The paper discussed aiming at proving possibility that Tithonia diversifolia can be applied in biogas fermentation and its biogas production potential, the research carried experiment on Tithonia diversifolia biogas fermentation under the mesophilic condition (35 Celsius Degree). The result revealed that Tithonia diversifolia can be used as biogas fermentative material, and 6% concentration can get the best biogas production, with the TS biogas production rate 656mL/g and VS biogas production rate 801mL/g. It is well addressed that Tithonia diversifolia grows wildly in 53 Counties and 9 cities of Yunnan Province, which mainly grows in form of the road side plants, the edge of the field, countryside, forest edge, open space; of which demersum-natures can form dense monospecific beds -causing serious harm to agricultural production landforms threatening the ecological system as a potentially harmful exotic plant. There are also found the three types of invasive daisy alien plants -Eupatorium adenophorum, Eupatorium Odorata and Tithonia diversifolia in Yunnan Province of China-among them the Tithonia diversifolia is responsible for causing serious harm to agricultural production. In this paper we have designed the experimental explanation of Biogas energy production that requires anaerobic environment and some microbes; Tithonia diversifolia plant has been taken into consideration while carrying experiments and with successful resulting of generating more BioEnergy emphasizing on the practical applications of Tithonia diversifolia. This paper aims at- to find a new mechanism to provide a more scientific basis for the development of this plant herbicides in Biogas energy and to improve the utilization throughout the world as well.

Keywords: Biogas Energy Production, Tithonia diversifolia, Energy Development, Ecological Agriculture, Eupatorium adenophorum, Eupatorium odorata, Anaerobic Fermentation, Biogas Production Potential, Mesopilic Fermentation.

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561 Biogas Control: Methane Production Monitoring Using Arduino

Authors: W. Ait Ahmed, M. Aggour, M. Naciri

Abstract:

Extracting energy from biomass is an important alternative to produce different types of energy (heat, electricity, or both) assuring low pollution and better efficiency. It is a new yet reliable approach to reduce green gas emission by extracting methane from industry effluents and use it to power machinery. We focused in our project on using paper and mill effluents, treated in a UASB reactor. The methane produced is used in the factory’s power supply. The aim of this work is to develop an electronic system using Arduino platform connected to a gas sensor, to measure and display the curve of daily methane production on processing. The sensor will send the gas values in ppm to the Arduino board so that the later sends the RS232 hardware protocol. The code developed with processing will transform the values into a curve and display it on the computer screen.

Keywords: Biogas, Arduino, processing, code, methane, gas sensor, program.

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560 Application of Biogas Technology in Turkey

Authors: B. Demirel, T.T. Onay, O. Yenigün

Abstract:

The potential, opportunities and drawbacks of biogas technology use in Turkey are evaluated in this paper. Turkey is dependent on foreign sources of energy. Therefore, use of biogas technology would provide a safe way of waste disposal and recovery of renewable energy, particularly from a sustainable domestic source, which is less unlikely to be influenced by international price or political fluctuations. Use of biogas technology would especially meet the cooking, heating and electricity demand in rural areas and protect the environment, additionally creating new job opportunities and improving social-economical conditions.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, agricultural biogas plant, biogas, biomass, methane, waste

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559 Biogas Production from Waste using Biofilm Reactor: Factor Analysis in Two Stages System

Authors: N. Zainol, J. Salihon, R. Abdul-Rahman

Abstract:

Factor analysis was applied to two stages biogas production from banana stem waste allowing a screening of the experimental variables second stage temperature (T), organic loading rates (OLR) and hydraulic retention times (HRT). Biogas production was found to be strongly influenced by all the above experimental variables. Results from factorial analysis have shown that all variables which were HRT, OLR and T have significant effect to biogas production. Increased in HRT and OLR could increased the biogas yield. The performance was tested under the conditions of various T (35oC-60oC), OLR (0.3 g TS/l.d–1.9 gTS/l.d), and HRT (3 d–15 d). Conditions for temperature, OLR and HRT in this study were based on the best range obtained from literature review.

Keywords: Biogas, factor analysis, banana stem waste

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558 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting Biogas Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste via Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: Sajeena Beevi. B, Jose P. P., G. Madhu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using response surface methodology (RSM). The parameters studied were initial pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon (TOC). The experimental results showed that the linear model terms of initial pH and substrate concentration and the quadratic model terms of the substrate concentration and TOC had significant individual effect (p < 0.05) on biogas yield. However, there was no interactive effect between these variables (p > 0.05). The highest level of biogas produced was 53.4 L/Kg VS at optimum pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon of 6.5, 99gTS/L and 20.32 g/L respectively.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Biogas, Optimization, Response Surface Methodology.

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557 Pilot-scale Study of Horizontal Anaerobic Digester for Biogas Production using Food Waste

Authors: Yongsei Lee, Hyunsu Park, Youngseob Yu, Heechan Yoo, Sungin Yoo

Abstract:

A horizontal anaerobic digester was developed and tested in pilot scale for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal digester. A mixer of the horizontal digester was designed to easily remove the sediment in the bottom and scum layers on surface in the digester. Experimental result for 120 days of operation of the pilot plant showed a high removal efficiency of 81.2% for organic substance and high stability during the whole operation period were acquired. Also food waste was treated at high organic loading rates over 4 kg•VS/m3∙day and a methane gas production rate of 0.62 m3/kg•VSremoved was accomplished. The biological desulfurization equipment inside the horizontal digester was proven to be an economic and effective method to reduce the biogas desulfurization cost by removing hydrogen sulfide more than 90% without external desulfurization equipments.

Keywords: Biogas, Biological desulfurization, Horizontal anaerobic digester, Korean food waste

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556 Characterization of Lactose Consumption during the Biogas Production from Acid Whey by FT-IR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Rugele, M. Gavare, M. Grube, K. Tihomirova, E. Skripsts, S. Larsson, J. Rubulis

Abstract:

The consumption of lactose in acid cheese whey anaerobic fermentation process under fed-batch conditions was studied. During fermentation for 100 hours the biogas production (CO2 and CH4) was analyzed online. Among the standard analyses FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the consumption of lactose by bacteria. The absorption bands at 990, 894 and 787 cm-1 in the 2nd derivative spectra were shown to be characteristic for lactose and were used to follow the lactose conversion. It was shown that acid cheese whey lactose was converted by bacteria in first 7 hours. In the spectra of 17, 18 and 95 hour fermentation samples lactose was not identified and these results correlated with the HPLC data.

Keywords: Acid whey, anaerobic digestion, biogas, FT-IR spectroscopy, lactose consumption.

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555 Use of NMMO Pretreatment for Biogas Production from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

Authors: Ria Millati, Fiametta A. Purwandari, Adhitya P. Sanjaya, Muhammad N. Cahyanto, I. Sarvari Horvath, Claes Niklasson, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

Abstract:

Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance biogas production was investigated. The pretreatments were performed at 90 and 120ºC for 1, 3, and 5 h using three different concentrations of NMMO of 73%, 79%, and 85%. The pretreated OPEFB was subsequently anaerobically digested to produce biogas. After pretreatment, there were no significant changes of the main composition of OPEFB and the maximum total solid recovery was 92%. The amorphous phase was increased up to 78% at pretreatment condition using 85% NMMO solution for 3 h at 120oC. In general, higher concentration of NMMO and higher temperature resulted in increased amorphous form and higher biogas production. The best results of biogas production reached enhancement of methane yield of 148% compared to the untreated OPEFB and increased in digestion of 94% compared to starch as reference.

Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch, pretreatment, NMMO, biogas.

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554 Family-size Biogas Plant Using Manure and Urine Mixture at Ambient Temperature in Semi-arid Regions of Northwestern China

Authors: Wenguang Ding, Yang Wu, Xia Wang, Yayu Gao

Abstract:

Biogas, a clean renewable energy, is attracting a growing concern of researchers and professionals in many fields. Based on the natural and climatic conditions in semi-arid regions of northwestern China, the present study introduces a specifically-designed family-size biogas plant (with a digester of 10m3) with manure and urine of animals and humanity as raw materials. The biogas plant is applicable to areas with altitudes of more than 2000 meters in northwestern China. In addition to the installation cost, a little operational expenditure, structure, characteristics, benefits of this small-scale biogas plant, this article introduces a wide range of specific popularization methods such as training, financial support, guided tour to the biogas plant, community-based group study and delivery of operational manuals. The feasibility of the biogas plant is explored on the basis of the availability of the raw materials. Simple operations contained in the current work increase the possibility of the wide use of this small-scale biogas plant in similar regions of the world.

Keywords: biogas, family-size biogas plant, northwestern China, popularization

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553 Influence of Hydraulic Retention Time on Biogas Production from Frozen Seafood Wastewater using Decanter Cake as Anaerobic Co-digestion Material

Authors: Thaniya Kaosol, Narumol Sohgrathok

Abstract:

In this research, an anaerobic co-digestion using decanter cake from palm oil mill industry to improve the biogas production from frozen seafood wastewater is studied using Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) process. The experiments were conducted in laboratory-scale. The suitable Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) was observed in CSTR experiments with 24 hours of mixing time using the mechanical mixer. The HRT of CSTR process impacts on the efficiency of biogas production. The best performance for biogas production using CSTR process was the anaerobic codigestion for 20 days of HRT with the maximum methane production rate of 1.86 l/d and the average maximum methane production of 64.6%. The result can be concluded that the decanter cake can improve biogas productivity of frozen seafood wastewater.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, frozen seafood wastewater, decanter cake, biogas, hydraulic retention time

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552 Studying the Environmental Effects of using Biogas Energy in Iran

Authors: Kambiz Tahvildari, Shakila ila Motamedi

Abstract:

Presently and in line with the United Nations (EPA), human thinking system has shifted towards clean fuels so as to maintain a cleaner environment and to save our planet earth. One of the most successful studies in order to achieve new energies includes the use of animal wastes and their organic residues, and the result of these researches has been represented in the form of very simple and cheap methods called biogas technology. Biogas technology has developed a lot in the recent decades; its reason is the high cost of fossil fuels and the greater attention of countries to the environmental pollutions due to the consumption of this kind of fuels. IRAN is ready for the optimized application of renewable energies, having much enriched resources of this kind of energies; so a special place could be considered for it when making programs. The purpose of biogas technology is the recovery of energy and finally the protection of the environment, which is much appropriate for the third world farmers with respect to their technical abilities and economic potentials. Studies show that the production and consumption of biogas is appropriate and economic in IRAN, because of the high amount of waste in the agriculture sector, the significant amount of animal and human excrement production, the great volume of garbage produced and the most important the specific social, climatic and agricultural conditions in IRAN, in order to proceed towards the reduction of pollution due to the use of fossil fuels.

Keywords: Agriculture, Biogas, Energy, Environment.

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551 The Necessity of Biomass Application for Developing Combined Heat and Power (CHP)with Biogas Fuel: Case Study

Authors: F. Amin Salehi, L. Sharp, M. A. Abdoli, D.E.Cotton, K.Rezapour

Abstract:

The daily increase of organic waste materials resulting from different activities in the country is one of the main factors for the pollution of environment. Today, with regard to the low level of the output of using traditional methods, the high cost of disposal waste materials and environmental pollutions, the use of modern methods such as anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas has been prevailing. The collected biogas from the process of anaerobic digestion, as a renewable energy source similar to natural gas but with a less methane and heating value is usable. Today, with the help of technologies of filtration and proper preparation, access to biogas with features fully similar to natural gas has become possible. At present biogas is one of the main sources of supplying electrical and thermal energy and also an appropriate option to be used in four stroke engine, diesel engine, sterling engine, gas turbine, gas micro turbine and fuel cell to produce electricity. The use of biogas for different reasons which returns to socio-economic and environmental advantages has been noticed in CHP for the production of energy in the world. The production of biogas from the technology of anaerobic digestion and its application in CHP power plants in Iran can not only supply part of the energy demands in the country, but it can materialize moving in line with the sustainable development. In this article, the necessity of the development of CHP plants with biogas fuels in the country will be dealt based on studies performed from the economic, environmental and social aspects. Also to prove the importance of the establishment of these kinds of power plants from the economic point of view, necessary calculations has been done as a case study for a CHP power plant with a biogas fuel.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Biogas, CHP, Organic Wastes

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550 The Kinetic of Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure in Batch Mode

Authors: Budiyono, I N. Widiasa, S. Johari, Sunarso

Abstract:

In this study, the kinetic of biogas production was studied by performing a series laboratory experiment using rumen fluid of animal ruminant as inoculums. Cattle manure as substrate was inoculated by rumen fluid to the anaerobic biodigester. Laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid by manure : rumen weight ratio of 1:1 (MR11). The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature and 38.5 oC. The cumulative volume of biogas produced was used to measure the biodigester performance. The research showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester gave significant effect to biogas production (P<0.05). Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase two to three times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid. With the rumen fluid inoculums, gave the kinetic parameters of biogas production i.e biogas production rate constants (U), maximum biogas production (A), and minimum time to produce biogas (λ) are 3.89 ml/(gVS.day); 172.51 (ml/gVS); dan 7.25 days, respectively. While the substrate without rumen fluid gave the kinetic parameters U, A, and λ are 1.74 ml/(gVS.day); 73.81 (ml/gVS); dan 14.75 days, respectively. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system.

Keywords: rumen fluid, inoculums, anaerobic digestion, biogasproduction.

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549 The Necessity of Biomass Application for Developing Combined Heat and Power(CHP) with Biogas Fuel: Case Study

Authors: Farnaz Amin Salehi, David Edward.Cotton, Mohammad Ali Abdoli, Kambiz Rezapour

Abstract:

The daily increase of organic waste materials resulting from different activities in the country is one of the main factors for the pollution of environment. Today, with regard to the low level of the output of using traditional methods, the high cost of disposal waste materials and environmental pollutions, the use of modern methods such as anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas has been prevailing. The collected biogas from the process of anaerobic digestion, as a renewable energy source similar to natural gas but with a less methane and heating value is usable. Today, with the help of technologies of filtration and proper preparation, access to biogas with features fully similar to natural gas has become possible. At present biogas is one of the main sources of supplying electrical and thermal energy and also an appropriate option to be used in four stroke engine, diesel engine, sterling engine, gas turbine, gas micro turbine and fuel cell to produce electricity. The use of biogas for different reasons which returns to socio-economic and environmental advantages has been noticed in CHP for the production of energy in the world. The production of biogas from the technology of anaerobic digestion and its application in CHP power plants in Iran can not only supply part of the energy demands in the country, but it can materialize moving in line with the sustainable development. In this article, the necessity of the development of CHP plants with biogas fuels in the country will be dealt based on studies performed from the economic, environmental and social aspects. Also to prove the importance of the establishment of these kinds of power plants from the economic point of view, necessary calculations has been done as a case study for a CHP power plant with a biogas fuel.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Biogas, CHP, Organic Wastes

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548 Identification of Anaerobic Microorganisms for Converting Kitchen Waste to Biogas

Authors: A. Malakahmad, S.M. Zain, N.E. Ahmad Basri, S. R. Mohamed Kutty, M. H. Isa

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion process is one of the alternative methods to convert organic waste into methane gas which is a fuel and energy source. Activities of various kinds of microorganisms are the main factor for anaerobic digestion which produces methane gas. Therefore, in this study a modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with working volume of 50 liters was designed to identify the microorganisms through biogas production. The mixture of 75% kitchen waste and 25% sewage sludge was used as substrate. Observations on microorganisms in the ABR showed that there exists a small amount of protozoa (5%) and fungi (2%) in the system, but almost 93% of the microorganism population consists of bacteria. It is definitely clear that bacteria are responsible for anaerobic biodegradation of kitchen waste. Results show that in the acidification zone of the ABR (front compartments of reactor) fast growing bacteria capable of growth at high substrate levels and reduced pH was dominant. A shift to slower growing scavenging bacteria that grow better at higher pH was occurring towards the end of the reactor. Due to the ability of activity in acetate environment the percentages of Methanococcus, Methanosarcina and Methanotrix were higher than other kinds of methane former in the system.

Keywords: Anaerobic microorganism identification, Kitchenwaste, Biogas.

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547 The Evaluation of Costs and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Using Technologies for Energy from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Futoshi Kakuta, Takashi Ishida

Abstract:

Sewage sludge is a biomass resource that can create a solid fuel and electricity. Utilizing sewage sludge as a renewable energy can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases. In Japan, the "National Plan for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization" and the “Priority Plan for Social Infrastructure Development" were approved at cabinet meetings in December 2010 and August 2012, respectively, to promote the energy utilization of sewage sludge. This study investigated costs and greenhouse gas emission in different sewage sludge treatments with technologies for energy from sewage sludge. Expenses were estimated based on capital costs and O&M costs including energy consumption of solid fuel plants and biogas power generation plants for sewage sludge. Results showed that the cost of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was 8% lower than landfill disposal. The greenhouse gas emission of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was also 6,390t as CO2 smaller than landfill disposal. Biogas power generation reduced the electricity of a wastewater treatment plant by 30% and the cost by 5%.

Keywords: Global warming counter measure, energy technology, solid fuel production, biogas.

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546 Utilization of Kitchen Waste inside Green House Chamber: A Community Level Biogas Programme

Authors: Ravi P. Agrahari

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating kitchen waste as an alternative organic material for biogas production in community level biogas plant. The field study was carried out for one month (January 19, 2012– February 17, 2012) at Centre for Energy Studies, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India.

This study involves the uses of greenhouse canopy to increase the temperature for the production of biogas in winter period. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one month with the retention time of 30 days under batch system. The gas generated from the biogas plant was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant can be efficiently adopted in colder region or in winter season because temperature plays a major role in biogas production. 

Keywords: Biogas, Green house chamber, organic material, solar intensity.

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545 The Effect of Porous Alkali Activated Material Composition on Buffer Capacity in Bioreactors

Authors: G. Bumanis, D. Bajare

Abstract:

With demand for primary energy continuously growing, search for renewable and efficient energy sources has been high on agenda of our society. One of the most promising energy sources is biogas technology. Residues coming from dairy industry and milk processing could be used in biogas production; however, low efficiency and high cost impede wide application of such technology. One of the main problems is management and conversion of organic residues through the anaerobic digestion process which is characterized by acidic environment due to the low whey pH (<6) whereas additional pH control system is required. Low buffering capacity of whey is responsible for the rapid acidification in biological treatments; therefore alkali activated material is a promising solution of this problem. Alkali activated material is formed using SiO2 and Al2O3 rich materials under highly alkaline solution. After material structure forming process is completed, free alkalis remain in the structure of materials which are available for leaching and could provide buffer capacity potential. In this research porous alkali activated material was investigated. Highly porous material structure ensures gradual leaching of alkalis during time which is important in biogas digestion process. Research of mixture composition and SiO2/Na2O and SiO2/Al2O ratio was studied to test the buffer capacity potential of alkali activated material. This research has proved that by changing molar ratio of components it is possible to obtain a material with different buffer capacity, and this novel material was seen to have considerable potential for using it in processes where buffer capacity and pH control is vitally important.

Keywords: Alkaline material, buffer capacity, biogas production.

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544 Biogas from Cover Crops and Field Residues: Effects on Soil, Water, Climate and Ecological Footprint

Authors: Manfred Szerencsits, Christine Weinberger, Maximilian Kuderna, Franz Feichtinger, Eva Erhart, Stephan Maier

Abstract:

Cover or catch crops have beneficial effects for soil, water, erosion, etc. If harvested, they also provide feedstock for biogas without competition for arable land in regions, where only one main crop can be produced per year. On average gross energy yields of approx. 1300 m³ methane (CH4) ha-1 can be expected from 4.5 tonnes (t) of cover crop dry matter (DM) in Austria. Considering the total energy invested from cultivation to compression for biofuel use a net energy yield of about 1000 m³ CH4 ha-1 is remaining. With the straw of grain maize or Corn Cob Mix (CCM) similar energy yields can be achieved. In comparison to catch crops remaining on the field as green manure or to complete fallow between main crops the effects on soil, water and climate can be improved if cover crops are harvested without soil compaction and digestate is returned to the field in an amount equivalent to cover crop removal. In this way, the risk of nitrate leaching can be reduced approx. by 25% in comparison to full fallow. The risk of nitrous oxide emissions may be reduced up to 50% by contrast with cover crops serving as green manure. The effects on humus content and erosion are similar or better than those of cover crops used as green manure when the same amount of biomass was produced. With higher biomass production the positive effects increase even if cover crops are harvested and the only digestate is brought back to the fields. The ecological footprint of arable farming can be reduced by approx. 50% considering the substitution of natural gas with CH4 produced from cover crops.

Keywords: Biogas, cover crops, catch crops, land use competition, sustainable agriculture.

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543 Formation and Evaluation of Lahar/HDPE Hybrid Composite as a Structural Material for Household Biogas Digester

Authors: Lady Marianne E. Polinga, Candy C. Mercado, Camilo A. Polinga

Abstract:

This study was an investigation on the suitability of Lahar/HDPE composite as a primary material for low-cost smallscale biogas digesters. While sources of raw materials for biogas are abundant in the Philippines, cost of the technology has made the widespread utilization of this resource an indefinite proposition. Aside from capital economics, another problem arises with space requirements of current digester designs. These problems may be simultaneously addressed by fabricating digesters on a smaller, household scale to reach a wider market, and to use materials that may accommodate optimization of overall design and fabrication cost without sacrificing operational efficiency. This study involved actual fabrication of the Lahar/HDPE composite at varying composition and geometry, subsequent mechanical and thermal characterization, and implementation of Statistical Analysis to find intrinsic relationships between variables. From the results, Lahar/HDPE composite was found to be feasible for use as digester material from both mechanical and economic standpoints. 

Keywords: Biogas digester, Composite, High density polyethylene, Lahar.

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542 System Identification and Performance Improvement to a Micro Gas Turbine Applying Biogas

Authors: Chun Hsiang Yang, Cheng Chia Lee, Chiun Hsun Chen

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of biogas fuels on the performance of an annular micro gas turbine (MGT) were assessed experimentally and numerically. In the experiments, the proposed MGT system was operated successfully under each test condition; minimum composition to the fuel with the biogas was roughly 50% CH4 with 50% CO2. The power output was around 170W at 85,000 RPM as 90% CH4 with 10% CO2 was used and 70W at 65,000 RPM as 70% CH4 with 30% CO2 was used. When a critical limit of 60% CH4 was reached, the power output was extremely low. Furthermore, the theoretical Brayton cycle efficiency and electric efficiency of the MGT were calculated as 23% and 10%, respectively. Following the experiments, the measured data helped us identify the parameters of dynamic model in numerical simulation. Additionally, a numerical analysis of re-designed combustion chamber showed that the performance of MGT could be improved by raising the temperature at turbine inlet. This study presents a novel distributed power supply system that can utilize renewable biogas. The completed micro biogas power supply system is small, low cost, easy to maintain and suited to household use.

Keywords: Micro Gas Turbine, Biogas; System Identification, Distributed power supply system

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541 Effects of Microwave Heating on Biogas Production, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Volatile Solids Solubilization of Food Residues

Authors: Ackmez Mudhoo, Pravish Rye Moorateeah, Romeela Mohee

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the preliminary investigation of microwave (MW) irradiation pretreatments on the anaerobic digestion of food residues using biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Low solids systems with a total solids (TS) content ranging from 5.0-10.0% were analyzed. The inoculum to bulk mass of substrates to water ratio was 1:2:2 (mass basis). The experimental conditions for pretreatments were as follows: a control (no MW irradiation), two runs with MW irradiation for 15 and 30 minutes at 320 W, and another two runs with MW irradiation at 528 W for 30 and 60 minutes. The cumulative biogas production were 6.3 L and 8.7 L for 15min/320 W and 30min/320 W MW irradiation conditions, respectively, and 10.5 L and 11.4 L biogas for 30min/528 W and 60min/528 W, respectively, as compared to the control giving 5.8 L biogas. Both an increase in exposure time of irradiation and power of MW had increased the rate and yield of biogas. Singlefactor ANOVA tests (p<0.05) indicated that the variations in VS, TS, COD and cumulative biogas generation were significantly different for the pretreatment conditions. Results from this study indicated that MW irradiation had enhanced the biogas production and degradation of total solids with a significant improvement in VS and COD solubilization.

Keywords: microwave irradiation, pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, food residues.

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540 Methane Production from Biomedical Waste (Blood)

Authors: Fatima M. Kabbashi, Abdalla M. Abdalla, Hussam K. Hamad, Elias S. Hassan

Abstract:

This study investigates the production of renewable energy (biogas) from biomedical hazard waste (blood) and eco-friendly disposal. Biogas is produced by the bacterial anaerobic digestion of biomaterial (blood). During digestion process bacterial feeding result in breaking down chemical bonds of the biomaterial and changing its features, by the end of the digestion (biogas production) the remains become manure as known. That has led to the economic and eco-friendly disposal of hazard biomedical waste (blood). The samples (Whole blood, Red blood cells 'RBCs', Blood platelet and Fresh Frozen Plasma ‘FFP’) are collected and measured in terms of carbon to nitrogen C/N ratio and total solid, then filled in connected flasks (three flasks) using water displacement method. The results of trails showed that the platelet and FFP failed to produce flammable gas, but via a gas analyzer, it showed the presence of the following gases: CO, HC, CO₂, and NOX. Otherwise, the blood and RBCs produced flammable gases: Methane-nitrous CH₃NO (99.45%), which has a blue color flame and carbon dioxide CO₂ (0.55%), which has red/yellow color flame. Methane-nitrous is sometimes used as fuel for rockets, some aircraft and racing cars.

Keywords: Renewable energy, biogas, biomedical waste, blood, anaerobic digestion, eco-friendly disposal.

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539 Energy Production Potential from Co-Digestion between Frozen Seafood Wastewater and Decanter Cake in Thailand

Authors: Thaniya Kaosol, Narumol Sohgrathok

Abstract:

In this paper, a Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test provides a measure of the energy production potential from codigestion between the frozen seafood wastewater and the decanter cake. The experiments were conducted in laboratory-scale. The suitable ratio of the frozen seafood wastewater and the decanter cake was observed in the BMP test. The ratio of the co-digestion between the frozen seafood wastewater and the decanter cake has impacts on the biogas production and energy production potential. The best performance for energy production potential using BMP test observed from the 180 ml of the frozen seafood wastewater and 10 g of the decanter cake ratio. This ratio provided the maximum methane production at 0.351 l CH4/g TCODremoval. The removal efficiencies are 76.18%, 83.55%, 43.16% and 56.76% at TCOD, SCOD, TS and VS, respectively. The result can be concluded that the decanter cake can improve the energy production potential of the frozen seafood wastewater. The energy provides from co-digestion between frozen seafood wastewater and decanter cake approximately 19x109 MJ/year in Thailand.

Keywords: Frozen seafood wastewater, decanter cake, biogas, methane, BMP test.

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538 Optimal Measures in Production Developing an Universal Decision Supporter for Evaluating Measures in a Production

Authors: Michael Grigutsch, Marco Kennemann, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

Due to the recovering global economy, enterprises are increasingly focusing on logistics. Investing in logistic measures for a production generates a large potential for achieving a good starting point within a competitive field. Unlike during the global economic crisis, enterprises are now challenged with investing available capital to maximize profits. In order to be able to create an informed and quantifiably comprehensible basis for a decision, enterprises need an adequate model for logistically and monetarily evaluating measures in production. The Collaborate Research Centre 489 (SFB 489) at the Institute for Production Systems (IFA) developed a Logistic Information System which provides support in making decisions and is designed specifically for the forging industry. The aim of a project that has been applied for is to now transfer this process in order to develop a universal approach to logistically and monetarily evaluate measures in production.

Keywords: Measures in Production, Logistic Operating Curves, Transfer Functions, Production Logistics

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537 Standardization and Adaption Requirements in Production System Transplants

Authors: G. Schuh, T. Potente, D. Kupke, S. Ivanescu

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As German companies roll out their standardized production systems to offshore manufacturing plants, they face the challenge of implementing them in different cultural environments. Studies show that the local adaptation is one of the key factors for a successful implementation. Thus the question arises of where the line between standardization and adaptation can be drawn. To answer this question the influence of culture on production systems is analysed in this paper. The culturally contingent components of production systems are identified. Also the contingency factors are classified according to their impact on the necessary adaptation changes and implementation effort. Culturally specific decision making, coordination, communication and motivation patterns require one-time changes in organizational and process design. The attitude towards rules requires more intense coaching and controlling. Lastly a framework is developed to depict standardization and adaption needs when transplanting production systems into different cultural environments.

Keywords: Culture, influence of national culture on production systems, lean production, production systems.

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536 Production Planning and Measuring Method for Non Patterned Production System Using Stock Cutting Model

Authors: S. Homrossukon, D. Aromstain

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The simple methods used to plan and measure non patterned production system are developed from the basic definition of working efficiency. Processing time is assigned as the variable and used to write the equation of production efficiency. Consequently, such equation is extensively used to develop the planning method for production of interest using one-dimensional stock cutting problem. The application of the developed method shows that production efficiency and production planning can be determined effectively.

Keywords: Production Planning, Parallel Machine, Production Measurement, Cutting and Packing.

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535 Capacity Flexibility within Production

Authors: Johannes Nywlt, Julian Becker, Sebastian Bertsch

Abstract:

Due to high dynamics in current markets the expectations regarding logistics increase steadily. However, the complexity and variety of products and production make it difficult to understand the interdependencies between logistical objectives and their determining factors. Therefore specific models are needed to meet this challenge. The Logistic Operating Curves Theory is such a model. With its aid the basic correlations between the logistic objectives can be described. Within this model the capacity flexibility represents an important parameter. However, a proper mathematical description for this parameter is still missing. Within this paper such a description will be developed in order to make the Logistic Operating Curves Theory more accurate.

Keywords: Capacity flexibility, Production controlling, Production logistics, Production management.

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