Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31105
Density of Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Iko River Mangrove Ecosystem, Nigeria
Abstract:Sediment and mangrove root samples from Iko River Estuary, Nigeria were analyzed for microbial and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count ranged from 1.1x107 to 5.1 x107 cfu/g, total fungal (TF) count ranged from 1.0x106 to 2.7x106 cfu/g, total coliform (TC) count ranged from 2.0x104 to 8.0x104cfu/g while hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) count ranged from 1.0x 105 to 5.0 x 105cfu/g. There was a range of positive correlation (r = 0.72 to 0.93) between THB count and total HUB count, respectively. The organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Flavobacterium breve, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Erwinia amylovora, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sp, Desulfovibrio sp, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Chromobacterium violaceum, Micrococcus sedentarius, Corynebacterium sp, and Pseudomonas putrefaciens. The PAH were Naphthalene, 2-Methylnaphthalene, Acenapthylene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Benzo(g,h,l)perylene ,Indeno(1,2,3-d)pyrene with individual PAH concentrations that ranged from 0.20mg/kg to 1.02mg/kg, 0.20mg/kg to 1.07mg/kg and 0.2mg/kg to 4.43mg/kg in the benthic sediment, epipellic sediment and mangrove roots, respectively. Total PAH ranged from 6.30 to 9.93mg/kg, 6.30 to 9.13mg/kg and 9.66 to 16.68mg/kg in the benthic sediment, epipellic sediment and mangrove roots, respectively. The high concentrations in the mangrove roots are indicative of bioaccumulation of the pollutant in the plant tissue. The microorganisms are of ecological significance and the detectable quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon could be partitioned and accumulated in tissues of infaunal and epifaunal organisms in the study area.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1077645Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2430
 P. D. Boehm, "Petroleum in the marine environment: Physical and chemical methods," US National Res Council, 1981.
 B. T. Ashok, S. Saxena, K. P. Singh, and J. Mistral, "Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Mathura oil refinery,India, World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol.11, pp.691 - 692, 1995.
 L. Deschenes, P. Lafrance, J. P. Villenueve, and R. Samson, "Adding sodium dodecyl sulfate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants inhibits polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a weathered creosote-contaminated soil," Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 46, pp. 638-656, 1996.
 M. I. Lee, M. V. Novotny, and K. D. Bartle, "Analytical Chemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Academic Press New York, 1981, pp 472- 491.
 M. P. Shiaris, "Seasonal biotransformation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and benzo (a) pyrene in surficial estuarine sediments," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1391 - 1399, 1989.
 J. Ekwere, E. B. Akpan, and E. E. U. Ntekim, "Geochemical studies of sediments in Qua Iboe estuary and associated creek South Eastern Nigeria," Tropical Journal of Applied Sciences, vol.2, pp. 91 - 95, 1992.
 B. T. Ashok and S. Sexana, "Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - a review," Journal of Science and Industrial Research, vol. 54, pp. 443 - 451, 1995.
 I. R. Udotong, "Environmental monitoring and effect of petroleum production effluent on some biota of the lower Qua Iboe River estuary," PhD Thesis, River State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 2000.
 R. A. Kanaly, and S. Harayama, "Biodegradation of high-molecularweight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria, a minireview," Marine Biotechnology, vol.18, no.8, pp.2059 - 2067, 2000.
 Y. I. Sorokin, "Microheterotrophic organisms in marine ecosystems," in A. R. Longhort (ed) Analysis of Marine Ecosystems, Academic Press, London, 1981, pp. 293 - 342.
 E. A. S. Linley, and R. C. Newell, (1981) "Micro heterotrophic communities associated with the degradation of kelp debris," Kieler Meerestorsch, vol.5, pp. 345 - 355, 1981.
 P. Y. Lu, R. L. Metcalf, N. Plummer, and D. Mandel, "The environmental fate of three carcinogens: benzo-(a)-pyrene, benzidine, and vinyl chloride evaluated in laboratory model ecosystems," Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., vol.6, pp.129 - 142, 1977.
 W. H. Clement, J. T. Oris, and T. E. Wissing, "Accumulation and food chain transfer of flouranthene and benzo
[a]pyrene in Chironomus riparius and Lepomis macrochirus," Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., vol. 26, pp. 261-266, 1994.
 M. R. Twiss, L. Granier, P. Lafracne, and P. G. C. Campbell, "Bioaccumulation of 2,2-,5,5--tetrachlorobiphenyl and pyrene by picoplankmic acid concentrations and pH," Environ. Toxicol. Chem., Vol.18, pp.2063 - 2069, 1999.
 D. H. Philips, "Fifty years of benzo(a)pyrene," Nature, vol. 303, pp. 468 - 472, 1983.
 C. E. Cerniglia and M. A. Heitkamp, "Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment," pp. 41-68, in U. Varanasi (ed.), Metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., 1989.
 International Agency for Research on Cancer, "Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to human," vol. 1 - 49, 1972 - 1990.
 U. J. Ekpe, U. Ekanem, and E. R. Akpan, "Temporal changes in some water quality parameters in Iko and Uta Ewa River, South Eastern Nigeria," Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, vol.1, pp. 63 - 68, 1995.
 R. P. King, (1991) "Some aspect of the reproductive strategy of Illisha africana in Qua Iboe estuary, Nigeria," Cybium, vol. 15, no.3, pp. 239 - 257
 I. E. Ukpong, "An ordination study of Mangrove Swamp Communities in West Africa," Vegetatio, vol.116, pp. 147-159, 1995.
 W. F. Harrigan, and M. E. McCance, "Laboratory methods in food and diary microbiology," Academic Press, London, 1990.
 APHA, "Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water," 20th ed. American Public Health Association, 1998.
 L. Kinkle, M. Wilson, and S. E. Lindow, "Effects of scale on the assessment of epiphytic bacteria population. Microbial Ecology, vol. 29, pp.283-297, 1995.
 E.N. Amadi and S.A. Braide, "Distribution of Petroleum hydrocarbon degraders around petroleum- related facilities in a mangrove swamp of the Niger Delta," Journal of Nigerian Environmental Society, vol. 1, no 2, pp. 187 - 192, 2003.
 J. G. Holt, N. R. Krieg, P. H. A. Sneath, J. J. Staley, and S. T. William, "Bergey-s manual of determinative bacteriology," 9th ed. William and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1994.
 G. J. Barrow and R. L. A. Feltham, "Cowan and Steel-s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria," 5th edition, Cambridge University Press, Leicester, pp. 330, 1992.
 M. Radojevic and V. N. Bashkin, " Practical environmental analysis," Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999, pp. 465
 FEPA, "National Guidelines for Spilled Oil Fingerprinting," Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Government Press, Abuja, 2001.
 J. P. Essien, S. P. Antai, and N. U. Benson, "Microalgae biodiversity and biomass status in Qua Iboe estuary mangrove swamp, Nigeria," Aquatic Ecology, vol. 42, pp. 71 - 81, 2008.
 D. E. Hinkle, W. Wiersma, and S. G. Jars, "Applied statistics for the behaviourial sciences" 3rd ed. Houghton Miffin Company, Boston 1994, pp 507 - 510.
 J. C. Fetzer, "The chemistry and analysis of the large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon," John Wiley, New York, 2000, pp 231-237.
 D. Trzesieka - Mlynarz and O. P. Ward, "Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a mixed culture and its component pure culture obtained from PAH - contaminated soil," Can. Journal of Microbiology, vol. 41, pp. 470 - 476, 1995.
 W. Aprill and R. C. Sims, "Evaluation of the use of prairie grasses for stimulating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon treatment in soil, "Chemosphere, vol. 20, pp. 253 - 265, 1990.
 K. A. Reilley, M. K. Banks, and A. P. Schwab, "Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the rhizosphere," J. Environ. Qual., vol. 25, pp. 212 - 219, 1996.
 A. M. Ferro, R. C. Sims, and B. Bugbee, "Hycrest crested wheatgrass accelerates the degradation of pentachlorophenol in soil," J. Environ. Qual., vol. 23, pp. 272 - 279, 1994a.
 M. Mastaller, "Destruction of mangrove wetlands-causes and consequences" Natural Resources and Development, vol.43-44,pp. 37 - 57, 1996.
 C. E. Proffitt, D. J. Delvin, and M. Lindsey, "Effects of oil on mangrove seedlings grown under different environmental conditions," Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.30, no.12, pp. 788 -793, 1995.
 C. C. Lamparelli, F. O. Rodrigues, and D. O. de Moura, "A long-term assessment of an oil spill in a mangrove forest in Sao Paulo, Brazil," in Mangrove Ecosystem Studies in Latin America and Africa. B. Kjerfve, L.D. Lacerda and S. Diop, eds, pp 191-203. UNESCO, Paris, 1997.
 S. Cannicci, S. Ritossa, R. K. Ruwa, and M. Vannini, "Tree fidelity and hole fidelity in the tree crab Sesarma leptosoma (Decapoda: Grapsidae)," Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology," vol.196, no.1-2, pp. 299 - 311, 1996a.
 A. Luch, "The carcinogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Imperial College Press, London, 2005.
 U. J. J. Ijah, and L. I. Ukpe, "Biodegradation of crude oil by Bacillus strains 28A and 61B isolated from oil spilled soil," Waste Management, vol.12, pp. 55 - 60, 1992.
 A. Y. Itah, "Biodegradation of Qua Iboe light crude oil by coastal marine yeast strains isolated from oil spilled site at Iko, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria," Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 412 - 427, 1999.
 A. Y. Itah and J. P. Essien, "Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capabilities and growth profile of bacteria from crude oil polluted ultisol and brackish water," Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, vol.1, pp. 507 - 512, 2001.
 J. P. Essien, A Y. Itah, and S. I. Eduok, "Influence of electrical conductivity on microorganisms and rate of crude oil mineralization in Niger Delta ultisol," Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, vol.9, pp.199 - 203, 2003.