Search results for: Absorption spectra
578 Excitonic Refractive Index Change in High Purity GaAs Modulator at Room Temperature for Optical Fiber Communication Network
Authors: Durga Prasad Sapkota, Madhu Sudan Kayastha, Koichi Wakita
In this paper, we have compared and analyzed the electroabsorption properties between with and without excitonic effect bulk in high purity GaAs spatial light modulator for optical fiber communication network. The eletroabsorption properties such as absorption spectra, change in absorption spectra, change in refractive index and extinction ration has been calculated. We have also compared the result of absorption spectra and change in absorption spectra with the experimental results and found close agreement with experimental results.
Keywords: Exciton, Refractive index change, Extinction ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1815
577 Absorption Spectra of Artificial Atoms in Presence of THz Fields
Authors: B. Dahiya, K.Batra, V.Prasad
Artificial atoms are growing fields of interest due to their physical and optoelectronicapplications. The absorption spectra of the proposed artificial atom inpresence of Tera-Hertz field is investigated theoretically. We use the non-perturbativeFloquet theory and finite difference method to study the electronic structure of ArtificialAtom. The effect of static electric field on the energy levels of artificial atom is studied.The effect of orientation of static electric field on energy levels and diploe matrix elementsis also highlighted.
Keywords: Absorption spectra, Artificial atom, Floquet Theory, THz fieldsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1578
576 Structural and Optical Characterizations of CIGST Solar Cell Materials
Authors: Abhay Kumar Singh
Abstract:Structural and UV/Visible optical properties can be useful to describe a material for the CIGS solar cell active layer, therefore, this work demonstrates the properties like surface morphology, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) bonding energy (EB) core level spectra, UV/Visible absorption spectra, refractive index (n), optical energy band (Eg), reflection spectra for the Cu25 (In16Ga9) Se40Te10 (CIGST-1) and Cu20 (In14Ga9) Se45Te12 (CIGST-2) chalcogenide compositions. Materials have been exhibited homogenous surface morphologies, broading /-or diffusion of bonding energy peaks relative elemental values and a high UV/Visible absorption tendency in the wave length range 400 nm- 850 nm range with the optical energy band gaps 1.37 and 1.42 respectively. Subsequently, UV/Visible reflectivity property in the wave length range 250 nm to 320 nm for these materials has also been discussed.
Keywords: Chalcogen, Optical energy band gap, UV/Visible spectra, XPS spectra.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1652
575 Computer Study of Cluster Mechanism of Anti-greenhouse Effect
Authors: A. Galashev
Abstract:Absorption spectra of infra-red (IR) radiation of the disperse water medium absorbing the most important greenhouse gases: CO2 , N2O , CH4 , C2H2 , C2H6 have been calculated by the molecular dynamics method. Loss of the absorbing ability at the formation of clusters due to a reduction of the number of centers interacting with IR radiation, results in an anti-greenhouse effect. Absorption of O3 molecules by the (H2O)50 cluster is investigated at its interaction with Cl- ions. The splitting of ozone molecule on atoms near to cluster surface was observed. Interaction of water cluster with Cl- ions causes the increase of integrated intensity of emission spectra of IR radiation, and also essential reduction of the similar characteristic of Raman spectrum. Relative integrated intensity of absorption of IR radiation for small water clusters was designed. Dependences of the quantity of weight on altitude for vapor of monomers, clusters, droplets, crystals and mass of all moisture were determined. The anti-greenhouse effect of clusters was defined as the difference of increases of average global temperature of the Earth, caused by absorption of IR radiation by free water molecules forming clusters, and absorption of clusters themselves. The greenhouse effect caused by clusters makes 0.53 K, and the antigreenhouse one is equal to 1.14 K. The increase of concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere does not always correlate with the amplification of greenhouse effect.
Keywords: Greenhouse gases, infrared absorption and Raman spectra, molecular dynamics method, water clusters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1377
574 Plasmonic Absorption Enhancement in Au/CdS Nanocomposite
Authors: K. Easawi, M. Nabil, T. Abdallah, S. Negm, H. Talaat
Abstract:Composite nanostructures of metal core/semiconductor shell (Au/CdS) configuration were prepared using organometalic method. UV-Vis spectra for the Au/CdS colloids show initially two well separated bands, corresponding to surface plasmon of the Au core, and the exciton of CdS shell. The absorption of CdS shell is enhanced, while the Au plasmon band is suppressed as the shell thickness increases. The shell sizes were estimated from the optical spectra using the effective mass approximation model (EMA), and compared to the sizes of the Au core and CdS shell measured by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The changes in the absorption features are discussed in terms of gradual increase in the coupling strength of the Au core surface plasmon and the exciton in the CdS. leading to charge transfer and modification of electron oscillation in Au core.
Keywords: Nanocomposites, Plasmonics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2295
573 Effects of Allelochemical Gramine on Photosynthetic Pigments of Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa
Authors: Y. Hong, H. Y. Hu, A. Sakoda, M. Sagehashi
Abstract:Toxic and bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was exposed to antialgal allelochemical gramine (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg·L-1), The effects of gramine on photosynthetic pigments (lipid soluble: chlorophyll a and β-carotene; water soluble: phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, phycoerythrin, and total phycobilins) and absorption spectra were studied in order to identify the most sensitive pigment probe implicating the crucial suppression site on photosynthetic apparatus. The results obtained indicated that all pigment parameters were decreased with gramine concentration increasing and exposure time extending. The above serious bleaching of pigments was also reflected on the scanning results of absorption spectra. Phycoerytherin exhibited the highest sensitivity to gramine added, following by the largest relative decrease. It was concluded that gramine seriously influenced algal photosynthetic activity by destroying photosynthetic pigments and phycoerythrin most sensitive to gramine might be contributed to its placing the outside of phycobilins.
Keywords: Absorption spectra, allelochemical, gramine, Microcystis aeruginosa, photosynthetic pigments.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1603
572 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Size Prepared by Photoreduction Method on Optical Absorption Spectra of TiO2/Ag/N719 Dye Composite Films
Authors: C. Photiphitak, P. Rakkwamsuk, P. Muthitamongkol, C. Sae-Kung, C. Thanachayanont
Abstract:TiO2/Ag composite films were prepared by incorporating Ag in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a photoreduction method. The Ag nanoparticle sizes were in a range of 3.66-38.56 nm. The TiO2/Ag composite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscropy (TEM). The TiO2 films and TiO2/Ag composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution and characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The TiO2/Ag/N719 composite film showed that an optimal size of Ag nanoparticles was 19.12 nm and, hence, gave the maximum optical absorption spectra. The improved absorption was due to surface plasmon resonance induced by the Ag nanoparticles to enhance the absorption coefficient of the dye.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticle, TiO2/Ag composite films, Optical properties, surface plasmon resonanceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2471
571 Experimental Study on Temperature Dependence of Absorption and Emission Properties of Yb:YAG Crystal as a Disk Laser Medium
Authors: M. Esmaeilzadeh, H. Roohbakhsh, A. Ghaedzadeh
Abstract:In this paper, the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG)(25 at%) crystal as a disk laser medium are measured at high temperature (300-450K). The absorption and emission cross sections of Yb:YAG crystal are determined using Reciprocity method. Temperature dependence of 941nm absorption cross section and 1031nm emission cross section is extracted in the range of 300-450K. According to our experimental results, an exponential temperature dependence between 300K and 450K is acquired for the 1031nm peak emission cross section and also for 941nm peak absorption cross section of Yb:YAG crystal. These results could be used for simulation and design of high power highly doped Yb:YAG thin disk lasers.
Keywords: Yb:YAG crystal, Emission cross section, Absorption coefficient, Temperature dependence, Reciprocity method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3033
570 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid
Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah
This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.
Keywords: Methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 698
569 Theoretical Investigation of Carbazole-Based D-D-π-A Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
Authors: S. Jungsuttiwong, R. Tarsang, S. Pansay, T. Yakhantip, V. Promarak, T. Sudyoadsuk, T. Kaewin, S. Saengsuwan, S. Namuangrak
Abstract:In this paper, four carbazole-based D-D-π-A organic dyes code as CCT2A, CCT3A, CCT1PA and CCT2PA were reported. A series of these organic dyes containing identical donor and acceptor group but different π-system. The effect of replacing of thiophene by phenyl thiophene as π-system on the physical properties has been focused. The structural, energetic properties and absorption spectra were theoretically investigated by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). The results show that nonplanar conformation due to steric hindrance in donor part (cabazolecarbazole unit) of dye molecule can prevent unfavorable dye aggregation. By means of the TD-DFT method, the absorption spectra were calculated by B3LYP and BHandHLYP to study the affect of hybrid functional on the excitation energy (Eg). The results revealed the increasing of thiophene units not only resulted in decreasing of Eg, but also found the shifting of absorption spectra to higher wavelength. TD-DFT/BHandHLYP calculated results are more strongly agreed with the experimental data than B3LYP functions. Furthermore, the adsorptions of CCT2A and CCT3A on the TiO2 anatase (101) surface were carried out by mean of the chemical periodic calculation. The result exhibit the strong adsorption energy. The calculated results provide our new organic dyes can be effectively used as dye for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC).
Keywords: Dye-Sensitized Solar cell, Carbarzole, TD-DFT, D-D-π-A organic dyeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5046
568 Nonlinear Absorption and Scattering in Wide Band Gap Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles Colloid and Their Effects on the Optical Limiting
Authors: Hoda Aleali, Nastaran Mansour, Maryam Mirzaie
Abstract:In this paper, we study the optical nonlinearities of Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanostructures dispersed in the Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under exposure to 532 nm, 15 nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser irradiation. Ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the obtained nanocrystal samples. The band gap energy of colloid is determined by analyzing the UV–Vis absorption spectra of the Ag2S NPs using the band theory of semiconductors. Z-scan technique is used to characterize the optical nonlinear properties of the Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs). Large enhancement of two photon absorption effect is observed with increase in concentration of the Ag2S nanoparticles using open Zscan measurements in the ns laser regime. The values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients are determined based on the local nonlinear responses including two photon absorption. The observed aperture dependence of the Ag2S NP limiting performance indicates that the nonlinear scattering plays an important role in the limiting action of the sample. The concentration dependence of the optical liming is also investigated. Our results demonstrate that the optical limiting threshold decreases with increasing the silver sulfide NPs in DMSO.
Keywords: Nanoscale materials, Silver sulfide nanoparticles, Nonlinear absorption, Nonlinear scattering, Optical limiting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1640
567 The Concentration Effects for the Adsorption Behavior of Heptyl Viologen Cation Radicals on Indium-Tin-Oxide Electrode Surfaces
Authors: Yusuke Ayato, Takashi Itahashi, Akiko Takatsu, Kenji Kato, Naoki Matsuda
Abstract:In situ observation of absorption spectral change of heptil viologen cation radical (HV+.) was performed by slab optical waveguide (SOWG) spectroscopy utilizing indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Synchronizing with electrochemical techniques, we observed the adsorption process of HV+.on the ITO electrode. In this study, we carried out the ITO-SOWG observations using KBr aqueous solution containing different concentration of HV to investigate the concentration dependent spectral change. A few specific absorption bands, which indicated HV+.existed as both monomer and dimer on ITO electrode surface with a monolayer or a few layers deposition, were observed in UV-visible region. The change in the peak position of the absorption spectra from adsorption species of HV+. were correlated with the concentration of HV as well as the electrode potential.
Keywords: absorption phenomena, heptil viologen, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode, in situ, slab optical waveguide(SOWG) spectroscopy,Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1391
566 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Amine-Based Hybrid Solvent Absorption
Authors: Supitcha Rinprasertmeechai, Sumaeth Chavadej, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja
Abstract:This study was to investigate the performance of hybrid solvents blended between primary, secondary, or tertiary amines and piperazine (PZ) for CO2 removal from flue gas in terms of CO2 absorption capacity and regeneration efficiency at 90 oC. Alkanolamines used in this work were monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA). The CO2 absorption was experimentally examined under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The results show that MEA blend with PZ provided the maximum CO2 absorption capacity of 0.50 mol CO2/mol amine while TEA provided the minimum CO2 absorption capacity of 0.30 mol CO2/mol amine. TEA was easier to regenerate for both first cycle and second cycle with less loss of absorption capacity. The regeneration efficiency of TEA was 95.09 and 92.89 %, for the first and second generation cycles, respectively.
Keywords: CO2 absorption capacity, regeneration efficiency, CO2 removal, flue gasProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3402
565 Site-Specific Approach for Seismic Design Spectra in Iran, Based On Recent Major Strong Ground Motions
Authors: Danesh Nourzadeh, Majid Ebad-Sichani, Shiro Takada
Widespread use of response spectra in seismic design and evaluation of different types of structures makes them one of the most important seismic inputs. This importance urges the local design codes to adapt precise data based on updated information about the recent major earthquakes happened and also localized geotechnical data. In this regard, this paper derives the response spectra with a geotechnical approach for various scenarios coming from the recent major earthquakes happened in Iran for different types of hard soils, and compares the results to the corresponding spectra from the current seismic code. This comparison implies the need for adapting new design spectra for seismic design, because of major differences in the frequency domains and amplifications.
Keywords: Earthquake engineering, response spectra, seismic design, site response.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2276
564 The Upconversion of co-doped Nd3+/Er3+Tellurite Glass
Authors: Azman, K., Sahar, M.R., Rohani, M.S.
Abstract:Series of tellurite glass of the system 78TeO2-10PbO- 10Li2O-(2-x)Nd2O3-xEr2O3, where x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 was successfully been made. A study of upconversion luminescence of the Nd3+/Er3+ co-doped tellurite glass has been carried out. From Judd-Ofelt analysis, the experimental lifetime, exp. τ of the glass serie are found higher in the visible region as they varies from 65.17ms to 114.63ms, whereas in the near infrared region (NIR) the lifetime are varies from 2.133ms to 2.270ms. Meanwhile, the emission cross section,σ results are found varies from 0.004 x 1020 cm2 to 1.007 x 1020 cm2 with respect to composition. The emission spectra of the glass are found been contributed from Nd3+ and Er3+ ions by which nine significant transition peaks are observed. The upconversion mechanism of the co-doped tellurite glass has been shown in the schematic energy diagrams. In this works, it is found that the excited state-absorption (ESA) is still dominant in the upconversion excitation process as the upconversion excitation mechanism of the Nd3+ excited-state levels is accomplished through a stepwise multiphonon process. An efficient excitation energy transfer (ET) has been observed between Nd3+ as a donor and Er3+ as the acceptor. As a result, respective emission spectra had been observed.
Keywords: Tellurite glass, co-dopant, upconvertionluminescence spectra.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1694
563 Characterization of Lactose Consumption during the Biogas Production from Acid Whey by FT-IR Spectroscopy
Authors: K. Rugele, M. Gavare, M. Grube, K. Tihomirova, E. Skripsts, S. Larsson, J. Rubulis
Abstract:The consumption of lactose in acid cheese whey anaerobic fermentation process under fed-batch conditions was studied. During fermentation for 100 hours the biogas production (CO2 and CH4) was analyzed online. Among the standard analyses FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the consumption of lactose by bacteria. The absorption bands at 990, 894 and 787 cm-1 in the 2nd derivative spectra were shown to be characteristic for lactose and were used to follow the lactose conversion. It was shown that acid cheese whey lactose was converted by bacteria in first 7 hours. In the spectra of 17, 18 and 95 hour fermentation samples lactose was not identified and these results correlated with the HPLC data.
Keywords: Acid whey, anaerobic digestion, biogas, FT-IR spectroscopy, lactose consumption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2384
562 Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of Cab Frame with FEM
Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty, Zefry Darmawan, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Ken Kaminishi
Cab’s frame strength is considered as an important factor in excavator’s operator safety, especially during roll-over. In this study, we use a model of cab frame with different thicknesses and perform elastoplastic numerical analysis by using Finite Element Method (FEM). Deformation mode and energy absorption's of cab’s frame part are investigated on two conditions, with wrinkle and without wrinkle. The occurrence of wrinkle when deforming cab frame can reduce energy absorption, and among 4 parts with wrinkle, the energy absorption significantly decreases in part C. Residual stress that generated upon the bending process of part C is analyzed to confirm it possibility in increasing the energy absorption.
Keywords: ROPS, FEM, hydraulic excavator, cab frame, energy absorption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1436
561 Quantitative and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis of Saponins from Three Kenyan Ruellia Species: Ruellia prostrata, Ruellia lineari-bracteolata and Ruellia bignoniiflora
Authors: Christine O. Wangia, Jennifer A. Orwa, Francis W. Muregi, Patrick G. Kareru, Kipyegon Cheruiyot, Eric Guantai
Abstract:Ruellia (syn. Dipteracanthus) species are wild perennial creepers belonging to the Acanthaceae family. These species are reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, gastroprotective, anticancer, and immuno-stimulant properties. Phytochemical screening of both aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruellia species revealed the presence of saponins. Saponins have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immuno-stimulant, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, and antiulcerogenic activities. The objective of this study was to quantify and analyze the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of saponins in crude extracts of three Kenyan Ruellia species namely Ruellia prostrata (RPM), Ruellia lineari-bracteolata (RLB) and Ruellia bignoniiflora (RBK). Sequential organic extraction of the ground whole plant material was done using petroleum ether (PE), chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and absolute methanol by cold maceration, while aqueous extraction was by hot maceration. The plant powders and extracts were mixed with spectroscopic grade KBr and compressed into a pellet. The infrared spectra were recorded using a Shimadzu FTIR spectrophotometer of 8000 series in the range of 3500 cm-1 - 500 cm-1. Quantitative determination of the saponins was done using standard procedures. Quantitative analysis of saponins showed that RPM had the highest quantity of crude saponins (2.05% ± 0.03), followed by RLB (1.4% ± 0.15) and RBK (1.25% ± 0.11), respectively. FTIR spectra revealed the spectral peaks characteristic for saponins in RPM, RLB, and RBK plant powders, aqueous and methanol extracts; O-H absorption (3265 - 3393 cm-1), C-H absorption ranging from 2851 to 2924 cm-1, C=C absorbance (1628 - 1655 cm-1), oligosaccharide linkage (C-O-C) absorption due to sapogenins (1036 - 1042 cm-1). The crude saponins from RPM, RLB and RBK showed similar peaks to their respective extracts. The presence of the saponins in extracts of RPM, RLB and RBK may be responsible for some of the biological activities reported in the Ruellia species.1
Keywords: Ruellia bignoniiflora, Ruellia lineari-bracteolata, Ruellia prostrata, Saponins.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 911
560 The Influence of Doping of Fullerene Derivative (PCBM) on the Optical Properties of Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc)
Authors: Fakhra Aziz, K. Sulaiman, Kh. S. Karimov, M. Hassan Sayyad
Abstract:This paper presents a spectroscopic study on doping of Vanadyl pathalocyanine (VOPc) by [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The films are characterized by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. A drastic increase in the absorption coefficient has been observed with increasing dopant concentration. Optical properties of VOPc:PCBM films deposited by spin coating technique were studied in detail. Optical band gap decreased with the PCBM incorporation in the VOPc film. Optical band gap calculated from the absorption spectra decreased from 3.32 eV to 3.26 eV with a variation of 0–75 % of PCBM concentration in the VOPC films.
Keywords: Optical properties, spin-coating, optical properties, optical energy gapProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2043
559 Structural and Optical Properties of Pr3+ Doped ZnO and PVA:Zn98Pr2O Nanocomposite Free Standing Film
Authors: Pandiyarajan Thangaraj, Mangalaraja Ramalinga Viswanathan, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Héctor D. Mansilla, José Ruiz, David Contreras
In this work, we report, a systematic study on the structural and optical properties of Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures and PVA:Zn98Pr2O polymer matrix nanocomposites free standing films. These particles are synthesized through simple wet chemical route and solution casting technique at room temperature, respectively. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirm that the prepared pure ZnO and Pr doped ZnO nanostructures are in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the microstrain is increased upon doping. TEM analysis reveals that the prepared materials are in sheet like nature. Absorption spectra show free excitonic absorption band at 370 nm and red shift for the Pr doped ZnO nanostructures. The PVA:Zn98Pr2O composite film exhibits both free excitonic and PVA absorption bands at 282 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectral studies confirm the presence of A1 (TO) and E1 (TO) modes of Zn-O bond vibration and the formation of polymer composite materials.
Keywords: Pr doped ZnO, polymer nanocomposites, optical properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1975
558 Automated Algorithm for Removing Continuous Flame Spectrum Based On Sampled Linear Bases
Authors: Luis Arias, Jorge E. Pezoa, Daniel Sbárbaro
In this paper, an automated algorithm to estimate and remove the continuous baseline from measured spectra containing both continuous and discontinuous bands is proposed. The algorithm uses previous information contained in a Continuous Database Spectra (CDBS) to obtain a linear basis, with minimum number of sampled vectors, capable of representing a continuous baseline. The proposed algorithm was tested by using a CDBS of flame spectra where Principal Components Analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization were used to obtain linear bases. Thus, the radical emissions of natural gas, oil and bio-oil flames spectra at different combustion conditions were obtained. In order to validate the performance in the baseline estimation process, the Goodness-of-fit Coefficient and the Root Mean-squared Error quality metrics were evaluated between the estimated and the real spectra in absence of discontinuous emission. The achieved results make the proposed method a key element in the development of automatic monitoring processes strategies involving discontinuous spectral bands.
Keywords: Flame spectra, removing baseline, recovering spectrum.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1584
557 Comparison and Analysis of Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers Using Plastic Heat Transfer Tubes and Traditional Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers
Authors: Xue-dong Zhang
Abstract:There are extensive applications of lithium bromide-water absorption chillers in industry, but the heat exchangers corrosion and refrigerating capacity loss are very difficult to be solved. In this paper, an experiment was conducted by using plastic heat transfer tubes instead of copper tubes. As an example, for a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller of refrigerating capacity of 35kW, the correlative performance of the lithium bromide-water absorption chiller using plastic heat transfer tubes was compared with the traditional lithium bromide-water absorption chiller. And then the following three aspects, i.e., heat transfer area, pipe resistance, and safety strength, are analyzed. The results show that plastic heat transfer tubes can be used on lithium bromide-water absorption chillers, and its prospect is very optimistic.
Keywords: Absorption chillers, Comparison and analysis, Corrosion, Lithium bromide, Plastic heat exchangers.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2707
556 Absorption of CO2 in EAF Reducing Slag from Stainless Steel Making Process by Wet Grinding
Authors: B.M.N. Nik Hisyamudin, S. Yokoyama, M. Umemoto
Abstract:In the current study, we have conducted an experimental investigation on the utilization of electronic arc furnace (EAF) reducing slag for the absorption of CO2 via wet grinding method. It was carried out by various grinding conditions. The slag was ground in the vibrating ball mill in the presence of CO2 and pure water under ambient temperature. The reaction behavior was monitored with constant pressure method, and the changes of experimental systems volume as a function of grinding time were measured. It was found that the CO2 absorption occurred as soon as the grinding started. The CO2 absorption was significantly increased in the case of wet grinding compare to the dry grinding. Generally, the amount of CO2 absorption increased as the amount of water, weight of slag and initial pressure increased. However, it was decreased when the amount of water exceeds 200ml and when smaller balls were used. The absorption of CO2 occurred simultaneously with the start of the grinding and it stopped when the grinding was stopped. According to this research, the CO2 reacted with the CaO inside the slag, forming CaCO3.
Keywords: CO2 absorption, EAF reducing slag, vibration ball mill, wet grinding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1645
555 Reactive Absorption of Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous Ferric Sulfate Solution
Authors: Z. Gholami, M. Torabi Angaji, F. Gholami, S. A. Razavi Alavi
Abstract:Many commercial processes are available for the removal of H2S from gaseous streams. The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous ferric sulfate solution as washing liquor is studied. Apart from sulfur, only H2O is generated in the process, and consequently, no waste treatment facilities are required. A distinct advantage of the process is that the reaction of H2S with is so rapid and complete that there remains no danger of discharging toxic waste gas. In this study, the reactive absorption of hydrogen sulfide into aqueous ferric sulfate solution has been studied and design calculations for equipments have been done and effective operation parameters on this process considered. Results show that high temperature and low pressure are suitable for absorption reaction. Variation of hydrogen sulfide concentration and Fe3+ concentration with time in absorption reaction shown that the reaction of ferric sulfate and hydrogen sulfide is first order with respect to the both reactant. At low Fe2(SO4)3 concentration the absorption rate of H2S increase with increasing the Fe2(SO4)3 concentration. At higher concentration a decrease in the absorption rate was found. At higher concentration of Fe2(SO4)3, the ionic strength and viscosity of solution increase remarkably resulting in a decrease of solubility, diffusivity and hence absorption rate.
Keywords: Absorption, Fe2(SO4)3, H2S, Reactive Absorption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3831
554 Experimental Study of CO2 Absorption in Different Blend Solutions as Solvent for CO2 Capture
Authors: Rouzbeh Ramezani, Renzo Di Felice
Nowadays, removal of CO2 as one of the major contributors to global warming using alternative solvents with high CO2 absorption efficiency, is an important industrial operation. In this study, three amines, including 2-methylpiperazine, potassium sarcosinate and potassium lysinate as potential additives, were added to the potassium carbonate solution as a base solvent for CO2 capture. In order to study the absorption performance of CO2 in terms of loading capacity of CO2 and absorption rate, the absorption experiments in a blend of additives with potassium carbonate were carried out using the vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus at a temperature of 313.15 K, CO2 partial pressures ranging from 0 to 50 kPa and at mole fractions 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Furthermore, the performance of CO2 absorption in these blend solutions was compared with pure monoethanolamine and with pure potassium carbonate. Finally, a correlation with good accuracy was developed using the nonlinear regression analysis in order to predict CO2 loading capacity.
Keywords: Absorption rate, carbon dioxide, CO2 capture, global warming, loading capacity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1166
553 Independent Component Analysis to Mass Spectra of Aluminium Sulphate
Authors: M. Heikkinen, A. Sarpola, H. Hellman, J. Rämö, Y. Hiltunen
Independent component analysis (ICA) is a computational method for finding underlying signals or components from multivariate statistical data. The ICA method has been successfully applied in many fields, e.g. in vision research, brain imaging, geological signals and telecommunications. In this paper, we apply the ICA method to an analysis of mass spectra of oligomeric species emerged from aluminium sulphate. Mass spectra are typically complex, because they are linear combinations of spectra from different types of oligomeric species. The results show that ICA can decomposite the spectral components for useful information. This information is essential in developing coagulation phases of water treatment processes.
Keywords: Independent component analysis, massspectroscopy, water treatment, aluminium sulphate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2256
552 Effects of Solar Absorption Coefficient of External Wall on Building Energy Consumption
Authors: Jian Yao, Chengwen Yan
Abstract:The principle concern of this paper is to determine the impact of solar absorption coefficient of external wall on building energy consumption. Simulations were carried out on a typical residential building by using the simulation Toolkit DeST-h. Results show that reducing solar absorption coefficient leads to a great reduction in building energy consumption and thus light-colored materials are suitable.
Keywords: Solar absorption coefficient, External wall, Buildingenergy consumption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4276
551 Radiation Stability of Pigment ZnO Modified by Nanopowder
Authors: Chundong Li, V. V. Neshchimenko, M. M. Mikhailov
The effect of the modification of ZnO powders by ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles with a concentration of 1-30 wt % is investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra within the wavelength range 200 to 2500 nm before and after 100 keV proton and electron irradiation. It has been established that the introduction of nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3 enhances the optical stability of the pigments under proton irradiation, but reduces it under electron irradiation. Modifying with TiO2, SiO2, CeO2, Y2O3 nanopowders leads to decrease radiation stability in both types of irradiation. Samples modified by 5 wt. % of ZrO2 nanoparticles have the highest stability of optical properties after proton exposure. The degradation of optical properties under electron irradiation is not high for this concentration of nanoparticles. A decrease in the absorption of pigments modified with nanoparticles proton exposure is determined by a decrease in the intensity of bands located in the UV and visible regions. After electron exposure the absorption bands have in the whole spectrum range.
Keywords: Irradiation, nanopowders, radiation stability, zinc oxide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2093
550 Sound Absorption of Arenga Pinnata Natural Fiber
Authors: Lindawati Ismail, Mohd. Imran Ghazali, Shahruddin Mahzan, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi
Arenga pinnata is an abundantly natural fiber that can be used for sound proof material. However, the scientific data of acoustics properties of Arenga pinnata was not available yet. In this study the sound absorption of pure arenga pinnata was measured. The thickness of Arenga pinnata was varied in 10 mm, 20 mm, 30mm, and 40mm. This work was carried out to investigate the potential of using Arenga pinnata fiber as raw material for sound absorbing material. Impedance Tube Method was used to measure sound absorption coefficient (α). The Measurements was done in accordance with ASTM E1050-98, that is the standard test method for impedance and absorption of acoustical materials using a tube, two microphones and a digital frequency analysis system . The results showed that sound absorption coefficients of Arenga pinnata were good from 2000 Hz to 5000 Hz within the range of 0.75 – 0.90. The optimum sound absorption coefficient was obtained from the thickness of 40 mm. These results indicated that Arenga pinnata fiber is promising to be used as raw material of sound absorbing material with low cost, light, and biodegradable.
Keywords: Sound absorption, Arenga pinnata, raw material.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3459
549 Implementation of ALD in Product Development: Study of ROPS to Improve Energy Absorption Performance Using Absorption Part
Authors: Zefry Darmawan, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi
Product development is a big issue in the industrial competition and takes a serious part in development of technology. Product development process could adapt high changes of market needs and transform into engineering concept in order to produce high-quality product. One of the latest methods in product development is Analysis-Led-Design (ALD). It utilizes digital engineering design tools with finite analysis to perform product robust analysis and valuable for product reliability assurance. Heavy machinery which operates under severe condition should maintain safety to the customer when faced with potential hazard. Cab frame should able to absorb the energy while collision. Through ALD, a series of improvement of cab frame to increase energy absorption was made and analyzed. Improvement was made by modifying shapes of frame and-or install absorption device in certain areas. Simulation result showed that install absorption device could increase absorption energy than modifying shape.
Keywords: ALD, ROPS, energy absorption, cab frame.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 669