Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Mangrove

13 Seasonal Prevalence of Aedes aegypti and Ae.albopictus in Three Topographical Areas of Southern Thailand

Authors: W. Preechaporn, M. Jaroensutasinee, K. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

This study investigated the seasonal prevalence of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae in three topographical areas (i.e. mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas). Samples were collected from 300 households in both wet and dry seasons in nine districts in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in 21 out of 29 types of water containers in mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas. Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus laid eggs in different container types depending on season and topographical areas. Ae. aegypti larvae were found most in metal box in mangrove and mountainous areas in wet season. Ae. albopictus larvae were also found most in metal box in mangrove and mountainous areas in both wet and dry seasons. All Ae. albopictus larval indices were higher than Ae. aegypti larval indices in all three topographical areas and both seasons. HI and BI did not differ in three topographical areas but differed between Aedes sp. HI for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in all three topographical areas in both seasons were greater than 10 %, except Aedes aegypti in rice paddy area in wet season. This indicated high risks of DHF transmission in these areas.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Season, Topography.

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12 Density of Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Iko River Mangrove Ecosystem, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Samuel I. Eduok, Joseph P. Essien, Basil N. Ita

Abstract:

Sediment and mangrove root samples from Iko River Estuary, Nigeria were analyzed for microbial and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count ranged from 1.1x107 to 5.1 x107 cfu/g, total fungal (TF) count ranged from 1.0x106 to 2.7x106 cfu/g, total coliform (TC) count ranged from 2.0x104 to 8.0x104cfu/g while hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial (HUB) count ranged from 1.0x 105 to 5.0 x 105cfu/g. There was a range of positive correlation (r = 0.72 to 0.93) between THB count and total HUB count, respectively. The organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Flavobacterium breve, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Erwinia amylovora, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sp, Desulfovibrio sp, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Chromobacterium violaceum, Micrococcus sedentarius, Corynebacterium sp, and Pseudomonas putrefaciens. The PAH were Naphthalene, 2-Methylnaphthalene, Acenapthylene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Benzo(g,h,l)perylene ,Indeno(1,2,3-d)pyrene with individual PAH concentrations that ranged from 0.20mg/kg to 1.02mg/kg, 0.20mg/kg to 1.07mg/kg and 0.2mg/kg to 4.43mg/kg in the benthic sediment, epipellic sediment and mangrove roots, respectively. Total PAH ranged from 6.30 to 9.93mg/kg, 6.30 to 9.13mg/kg and 9.66 to 16.68mg/kg in the benthic sediment, epipellic sediment and mangrove roots, respectively. The high concentrations in the mangrove roots are indicative of bioaccumulation of the pollutant in the plant tissue. The microorganisms are of ecological significance and the detectable quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon could be partitioned and accumulated in tissues of infaunal and epifaunal organisms in the study area.

Keywords: Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, Iko River estuary, Mangrove, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

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11 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation

Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono

Abstract:

The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, equilibrium, kinetic, Pb2+, mangrove propagule.

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10 In Vitro and Experimental Screening of Mangrove Herbal Extract against Vibrio Alginolyticus in Marine Ornamental Fish

Authors: N. B. Dhayanithi, T. T. Ajith Kumar, T. Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Present study summarizes the control of Vibrio alginolyticus infection in hatchery reared Clownfish, Amphiprion sebae with the extract of the mangrove plant, Avicennia marina. Fishes with visible symptoms of hemorrhagic spots were chosen and the genomic DNA of the causative bacterium was isolated and sequenced based on 16S rDNA gene. The in vitro assay revealed that a fraction of A. marina leaf extract elucidated with ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4) showed a high activity (28 mm) at 125 μg/ml concentrations. About 4 % of the fraction fed along with live V. alginolyticus was significantly decreased the cumulative mortality (P<0.05) in the experimental groups than the control group. The responsible fraction was investigated by gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy and found the presence of active compounds. This is the first research in India to control vibriosis infection in marine ornamental fish with mangrove leaf extract.

Keywords: Amphiprion seabe, Avicennia marina, Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy, Vibrio alginolyticus

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9 The Innovation of English Materials to Communicate the Identity of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan Province, for Ecotourism

Authors: Kitda Praraththajariya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Bangpoo, Samu tPrakan province for ecotourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows:

  1. The identity of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan province. This establishment was near the Mouth of the Gulf of Thailand for normal people and tourists, consisting of rest accommodations. There are restaurants where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, Banpoo seaside resort and mangrove trees. Bangpoo seaside resort is characterized by muddy beacheswhere the greatest number of seagulls can be seen from March to May each year.
  2. The communication of the identity of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 3 items: 1) The history of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan province 2) The Learning center of Ecotourism: Seagulls and Mangrove forest 3) How to keep Banpoo, Samut Prakran province for ecotourism.

Keywords: Foreigner tourists, signified, semiotics, ecotourism.

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8 The Design of English Materials to Communicate the Identity of Mueang District, Samut Songkram for Ecotourism

Authors: Kitda Praraththajariya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Mueang district, SamutSongkram province for ecotourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows: 1. The identity of Amphur (District) Mueang, SamutSongkram province. This establishment was near the Mouth of Maekong River for normal people and tourists, consisting of rest accommodations. There are restaurants where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) and mangrove trees. Don Hoy Lod, is characterized by muddy beaches, is a coastal wetland for Ramsar Site. It is at 1099th ranging where the greatest number of Hoy Lod (Razor Clam) can be seen from March to May each year. 2. The communication of the identity of AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 4 items: 1) The history of AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province 2) WatPhetSamutWorrawihan 3) The Learning source of Ecotourism: Don Hoy Lod and Mangrove forest 4) How to keep AmphurMueang, SamutSongkram province for ecotourism.

Keywords: Foreigner tourists, signified, semiotics, ecotourism.

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7 Geochemical Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Mangrove Sediments along Mumbai Coast, India

Authors: Lina Fernandes, G. N. Nayak, D. Ilangovan

Abstract:

Two short sediment cores collected from mangrove areas of Manori and Thane creeks along Mumbai coast were analysed for sediment composition and metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, Zn, Cr and V). The statistical analysis of Pearson correlation matrix proved that there is a significant relationship between metal concentration and finer grain size in Manori creek while poor correlation was observed in Thane creek. Based on the enrichment factor, the present metal to background metal ratios clearly reflected maximum enrichment of Cu and Pb in Manori creek and Mn in Thane creek. Geoaccumulation index calculated indicate that the study area is unpolluted with respect to Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn and Cr in both the cores while moderately polluted with Cu and Pb in Manori creek. Based on contamination degree, both the core sediments were found to be considerably contaminated with metals.

Keywords: Creek, Igeo, Mumbai, trace metals

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6 Effect of Oxygen on Biochar Yield and Properties

Authors: Ramlan Zailani, Halim Ghafar, Mohamad Sofian So'aib

Abstract:

Air infiltration in mass scale industrial applications of bio char production is inevitable. The presence of oxygen during the carbonization process is detrimental to the production of biochar yield and properties. The experiment was carried out on several wood species in a fixed-bed pyrolyser under various fractions of oxygen ranging from 0% to 11% by varying nitrogen and oxygen composition in the pyrolysing gas mixtures at desired compositions. The bed temperature and holding time were also varied. Process optimization was carried out by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by employing Central Composite Design (CCD) using Design Expert 6.0 Software. The effect of oxygen ratio and holding time on biochar yield within the range studied were statistically significant. From the analysis result, optimum condition of 15.2% biochar yield of mangrove wood was predicted at pyrolysis temperature of 403 oC, oxygen percentage of 2.3% and holding time of two hours. This prediction agreed well with the experiment finding of 15.1% biochar yield.

Keywords: Mangrove wood, slow pyrolysis, oxygen infiltration.

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5 Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast

Authors: Sher Muhammad, Mirza Muhammad Waqar

Abstract:

It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.790 to 24.850 in latitude and 66.910 to 66.970 in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image pre processing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end member extraction. Well distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (White Mangroves) and Avicennia germinans (Black Mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.

Keywords: Mangrove, Hyperspectral, SAM, SFF, SID.

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4 Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta Nigeria: An Act of Inhumanity to Man and His Environment

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

Abstract:

The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is home to about 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups. The region has an area of seventy thousand square kilometers (70,000 KM2) of wetlands, formed primarily by sediments deposition and makes up 7.5 percent of Nigeria's total landmass. The notable ecological zones in this region includes: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; fresh water swamps; and lowland rainforests. This incredibly naturally-endowed ecosystem region, which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to supporting abundant flora and fauna, is threatened by the inhuman act known as gas flaring. Gas flaring is the combustion of natural gas that is associated with crude oil when it is pumped up from the ground. In petroleum-producing areas such as the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where insufficient investment was made in infrastructure to utilize natural gas, flaring is employed to dispose of this associated gas. This practice has impoverished the communities where it is practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health challenges. This paper discusses the adverse environmental and health implication associated with the practice, the role of Government, Policy makers, Oil companies and the Local communities aimed at bring this inhuman practice to a prompt end.

Keywords: Combustion, Emission, Environment, Flaring, Gas, Health, Niger Delta.

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3 An Evaluation of Digital Elevation Models to Short-Term Monitoring of a High Energy Barrier Island, Northeast Brazil

Authors: Venerando E. Amaro, Francisco Gabriel F. de Lima, Marcelo S.T. Santos

Abstract:

The morphological short-term evolution of Ponta do Tubarão Island (PTI) was investigated through high accurate surveys based on post-processed kinematic (PPK) relative positioning on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). PTI is part of a barrier island system on a high energy northeast Brazilian coastal environment and also an area of high environmental sensitivity. Surveys were carried out quarterly over a two years period from May 2010 to May 2012. This paper assesses statically the performance of digital elevation models (DEM) derived from different interpolation methods to represent morphologic features and to quantify volumetric changes and TIN models shown the best results to that purposes. The MDE allowed quantifying surfaces and volumes in detail as well as identifying the most vulnerable segments of the PTI to erosion and/or accumulation of sediments and relate the alterations to climate conditions. The coastal setting and geometry of PTI protects a significant mangrove ecosystem and some oil and gas facilities installed in the vicinities from damaging effects of strong oceanwaves and currents. Thus, the maintenance of PTI is extremely required but the prediction of its longevity is uncertain because results indicate an irregularity of sedimentary balance and a substantial decline in sediment supply to this coastal area.

Keywords: DEM, GNSS, short-term monitoring, Brazil.

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2 Using Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) to Assess and Manage Environmental Risks of Pipelines in GIS Environment: A Case Study ofa Near Coastline and Fragile Ecosystem Located Pipeline

Authors: Jahangir Jafari, Nematollah Khorasani, Afshin Danehkar

Abstract:

Having a very many number of pipelines all over the country, Iran is one of the countries consists of various ecosystems with variable degrees of fragility and robusticity as well as geographical conditions. This study presents a state-of-the-art method to estimate environmental risks of pipelines by recommending rational equations including FES, URAS, SRS, RRS, DRS, LURS and IRS as well as FRS to calculate the risks. This study was carried out by a relative semi-quantitative approach based on land uses and HVAs (High-Value Areas). GIS as a tool was used to create proper maps regarding the environmental risks, land uses and distances. The main logic for using the formulas was the distance-based approaches and ESI as well as intersections. Summarizing the results of the study, a risk geographical map based on the ESIs and final risk score (FRS) was created. The study results showed that the most sensitive and so of high risk area would be an area comprising of mangrove forests located in the pipeline neighborhood. Also, salty lands were the most robust land use units in the case of pipeline failure circumstances. Besides, using a state-of-the-art method, it showed that mapping the risks of pipelines out with the applied method is of more reliability and convenience as well as relative comprehensiveness in comparison to present non-holistic methods for assessing the environmental risks of pipelines. The focus of the present study is “assessment" than that of “management". It is suggested that new policies are to be implemented to reduce the negative effects of the pipeline that has not yet been constructed completely

Keywords: ERM, ESI, ERA, Pipeline, Assalouyeh

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1 The Design of English Materials to communication the Identity of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: K. Praraththajariya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Amphawa district, Samut Songkram province for sustainable tourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows: 1. The identity of the Amphawa District, Samut Songkram province is the area controlled by Amphawa sub district (submunicipality). The working unit which runs and looks after Amphawa sub district administration is known as the Amphawa mayor. This establishment was built to be a resort for normal people and tourists visiting the Amphawa district near the Maekong River consisting of rest accommodations. Along the river there is a restaurant where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, a learning center, fireflies and cork trees. The Amphawa district was built to honor and commemorate King Rama II and is where the greatest number of fireflies and cork trees can be seen in Thailand from May to October each year. 2. The communication of the identity of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 5 items: 1) The history of the Amphawa District, Samut Songkram province 2) The history of King Rama II Memorial Park 3) The identity of Amphawa Floating Market 4) The Learning center of Ecosystem: Fireflies and Cork Trees 5) How to keep Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province for sustainable tourism.

Keywords: Foreigner tourists, signified, semiotics, sustainable tourism.

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